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Full text of "The BrickBuilder (1900)"

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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

INDEX, VOL. IX. JANUARY- DECEMBER, 1900. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS. — HALF TONE. 

Architect. Building and Location. 

Ackerman & Ross Library, Atlanta, Ga 

Brite & Bacon Library, Atlanta, Ga 

Brite & Bacon Library, Madison, Conn 

Carrere & Hastings House, Cold Springs Harbor, Long Island, N. Y 

Carrere & Hastings Gymnasium. Hamilton Fish Park, New York City 

Carrere & Hastings Ballantine Gateway, Newark, N.J 

Clinton & Russell Astor Houses, New York City 

Cope & Stewardson Law School, University of Pennsylvania 

Cope & Stewardson Memorial Gateway, University of Pennsylvania 

Cope & Stewardson i 

Frank Miles Day & Bro. |- Associated.. . .Museum of Science and Art, University of Pennsylvania. 

Wilson Eyre, Jr. ) 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson Library, Atlanta, Ga 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson " Richmond Court " Apartment, Boston, Mass 

Day, Frank Miles & Bro Horticultural Hall, Philadelphia, Pa 

Dow, J. W House, Wyoming, N. J 

Eames & Young House, St. Louis, Mo 

Eames & Young House, St. Louis, Mo 

Elzner & Anderson Union Railway Station, Dayton, ( )hio •. 

Flagg, Ernest House, New York City 

Flagg & Chambers Downtown Headquarters, New York Fire Department. . 

Flagg & Chambers Library, Pepperell, Mass 

Granger, Alfred Hoyt House, Cleveland, Ohio 

Granger & Mead House, Cleveland, Ohio 

Green & Wicks First Universalist Church, Buffalo, N. Y 

Hazelhurst & Huckel Bath House for City of Philadelphia 

Heins & La Farge Reptile House, Bronx Park, New York City 

Heins & La Farge Bird House, Bronx Park, New York City 

Holabird & Roche House, Chicago, 111 

Holabird & Roche House, Lake Forest, 111 

Howard & Cauldwell House, New York City 

Hunt, R. H Church, Biltmore, N. C 

Kennedy & Kelsey Marquise and Doorway, Philadelphia, Pa 

Lewis, Edwin J Apartment House, Ashmont, Mass 

McKim, Mead & White Hall of Languages, University of the City of New York. 

McKim, Mead & White House, East Milton, Mass 

McKim, Mead & White Dormitory, University of the City of New York 

McKim, Mead & White House, Washington, D. C 

McKim, Mead & White Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass 

McKim, Mead & White Cornell University, Medical College, New York City. . . . 

Mullgardt, Louis House, St. Louis, Mo 

Piatt, Charles A House, Montpelier, Vt 

Pond & Pond House, Chicago, 111 

Price, Bruce House, Tuxedo Park, N. J 

Price, Bruce " Georgian Court," Lakewood, N. J., House 

Price, Bruce " Georgian Court," Lakewood, N. J., Stable 

Price, Bruce " Georgian Court," Lakewood, N. J., Interiors 

Rutan & Russell House, New Castle, Pa 

Rutan & Russell House, New Castle, Pa., Interiors 

Shepley , Rutan & Coolidge Library, Atlanta, Ga " 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge Pumping Station, Spot Pond, Mass 

| Administration Building, Bathing Establishment, Re- ) ' 

' ( vere Beach, Mass \ 

Stickney, Austin & Chamberlin Home for Aged People, Cambridge, Mass 

Sturgis, R. Clipston House, Tuxedo Park, N. Y 

Wheelwright & Haven Building for Horticultural Society. Boston 

Winslow & Bigelow House, Hamilton, Mass 

Winslow & Bigelow House, Hamilton, Mass., Interiors 



Stickney & Austin 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS. — LINE. 

Architect. Building and Location. 

Ackerman & Ross Library, Atlanta, Ga., Elevation and Plan 

) Sunday School Building, Franklin, Pa., Elevations. I)e- / 
Beezer Bros j tails Plans \ 

Billquist, T. E Allegheny Observatory, Allegheny, Pa., Elevations, Plans. 

Brite & Bacon Library, Atlanta, Ga., Elevation and Plan 

S House, Cold Springs Harbor, Long Island, N. Y., I)e- / 

Carrere & Hastings . . j tail of Elevation and Plan \ 

\ Museum of Science and Art, University of Pennsyl- 

| vania, Elevations and Details \ 

) Museum of Science and Art, University of Pennsyl- j 
) vania, Elevations, Plans, and Details { 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. . . . .Library, Atlanta, Ga., Elevation and Plan 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson " Richmond Court " Apartment, Boston, Plan 

Eames & Young House, St. Louis, Mo., Elevations and Plans 

Eames & Young House, St. Louis, Mo., Elevations and Plans 



Cope & Stewardson 
Frank Miles Day & Bro. 
Wilson Eyre, Jr. 



► Associated.. 





Month of Issue 


i Plate 


April 


i Plate 


April 


i Plate 


September 


2 Plates 


August 


i Plate 


August 


i Plate 


August 


i Plate 


July 


i Plate 


April 


i Plate 


November 


5 Plates 


February, Mar 


i Plate 


April 


2 Plates 


May 


i Plate 


September 


i Plate 


May 


i Plate 


lannarv 


i Plate 


January 


i Plate 


October 


i Plate 


August 


i Plate 


April 


i Plate 


December 


i Plate 


February 


i Plate 


February 


i Plate 


November 


i Plate 


|ulv 


i Plate 


July 


i Plate 


July 


i Plate 


March 


2 Plates 


May 


i Plate 


August 


i Plate 


December 


i Plate 


October 


i Plate 


September 


i Plate 


January 


i Plate 


January 


i Plate 


March 


i Plate 


July 


3 Plates 


September 


i Plate 


October 


i Plate 


Februarv 


i Plate 


December 


i Plate 


August 


i Plate 


May 


i Plate 


June 


i Plate 


June 


5 Plates 


June 


i Plate 


( Ictober 


2 Plates 


< Ictober 


i Plate 


April 


i Plate 


November 


i Plate 


March 


2 Plates 


January 


3 Plates 


I leeember 


i Plate 


March 


2 Plates 


November 


i Plate 


November 



Plate No. 
28, 29 

65, 66, 71 

41,48 

25- 32 
60, 6 1 

11, 12, 13. 14 

iy, 22. 23 

26, 31 
40 

7.8 



Month. 
April 

September 

June 
April 

August 
February 

March 

April 

May 

January 

January 



THE BRICKBUILDER. — INDKX. 



Vol. IX. Jan. — Dec, 1900. 



Architect. 



Elzner & Anderson 



Eyre, Wilson. Jr. 



Frost & Granger. 



Building and Location. 

\ Baldwin Piano Factory, Cincinnati. Ohio, Elevations, / 
j Details, Plans j 

Elzner & Anderson Union Railway Station, Dayton, Ohio, Elevations and Plans. 

\ Memorial Hospital and Sanitorium, Montague City, / 
) Mass.. Elevations and Plans \ 

Fox, John A Engine House. Boston. Mass., Elevations and Plans 

j Railway Station, Clybourn Junction, 111., Elevations 1 
I and Ground Plan ( 

Frost & Granger Railway Station, Beloit, Wis.. Elevations and Plans 

Frost & Granger Railway Station. Highland Park, 111., Elevations and Plans. 

< Granger, Alfred Hoyt House. Cleveland, Ohio, Elevations and Plans 

Hale, Herbert D Savings Bank. No. Attleboro, Mass.. Elevation and Plans. 

Hazel hurst & Huekel Bath House for City of Philadelphia, Plan and Detail. . . . 

.. . . , ,. j Reptile House, Bronx Park, New York City, Detail and ) 

Hems & La F arge j ' pi . m 

1 lei ns & La Farge Bird 1 louse. Bronx Park, New York City, Detail and Plan, 

Holabird & Roche House, Chicago, 111., Elevations and Plans 

Holabird & Roche House, Lake Forest, 111.. Elevations and Plans 

Kendall. Taylor & Stevens Burbank Hospital, Fitchburg, Mass., Perspective and Plans 

Lewis. Edwin, Jr Apartment. Ashmont, Mass., Plans 

Lord. I [ewlett & Hull House. Butte, Mont.. Elevations and Plans 

Lord, 1 1 ewlett & Hull House. New York City, Elevations and Plans 

,, , ,,.,-, j Hall of Languages, University of the City of New York, ) 
Mead & * hlte / Elevations and Plans.. ' } 

McKim, Mead & White House, East Milton, Mass., Elevations and Plans 

,. ... ,. . . .... .. * Dormitory, University of the City of New York. Ele- / 

McKim, Mead & U hite | v&t \ ons ;md p]ans - | 

McKim, Mead & White Cornell Medical College. Xew York City, Details 

Mullgardt, Louis House. St. Louis, Mo.. Elevation and Plans 

Noland & Baskervill Church. Manchester, Va., Perspective and Plan 

Pond & Pond House. Chicago, 111., Elevations and Plans 

Price. Bruce House, Tuxedo Park, X. Y., Elevations and Plans 

„ , . . .. ., v House and Office for Physician, Harrisburg, Pa.. Ele- / 
Rankin & Kellogg | vati(>n and p]ans • j 

Rutan cV- Russell House, Xew Castle, Pa., Plans 

Schweinfurth, J. A Wilder Hall, Wellesley College, Elevation and Plans 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge Library, Atlanta, Ga., Elevation and Plan 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge Library, Sedalia. Mo., Elevations and Plans 

_, , ,, .,-,-, I Pumping Station, Spot Pond, Mass., Elevation, Details, ) 

Shepley. Rutan & Coolidge j F a £ d ,, lan ' * 

Sturgis, R. Clipston House, Tuxedo Park, X. Y ., Ground Plan 

Wheelwright & Haven Horticultural Hall, Boston. Elevations and Plans 

Winslow & Bigelow Library. Canton. Mass., Elevations and Plans 

\ Xew England Building, Yassar College, Elevations and / 



McKim. 



York & Sawyer. 



' 



Plans 
MEASURED DRAWINGS. 



C. II. A 1 den, Jr.. Del Chase House. Annapolis. Md. 

Will S. Aldrich, Del Detail of Italian Brickwork . . 

Will S. Aldrich, 1 >el Detail of Italian Brickwork . . 



Plate No. 


Month. 


58 


• 


August 


75 


78.79 


October 


43. 44 


45. 46 


June 




67, 70 


September 




52. 53 


July 




5' 

54 
.0. 15 

49 
56 


July 

July 

February 

July ' 
July 




5°. 55 


July 


Si. 


5C 55 
17. ^4 
34- 39 
84, 85 

72 

83, 86 

90. 95 


July 

March 

May 

Xovember 

September 

Xovember 

mber 




1. 2 


January 




3. 4 


January 


iS 


20, 2 1 


March 


35- 36 


76. 77 
9, 16 

96 
59- ''- 
37- 38 


1 Ictober 

February 
1 December 

August 
May 




88 


Xovember 




80 

74 

27. 30 

68. 69 


< ictober 

< ktober 
April 

September 




82. 87 


November 




89 
42. 47 
92, 93 


December 

June 
1 mber 




91. 94 


December 




33 

57 
73 


May 
August 
( >ctober 



FRONTISPIECES. — FULL-PAGE HALF-TONE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Month. 

House of Petrarch at Arqua, near Padua. Italy February 

Interior of Choir, Church of San Pietro, Perugia March 

Town of Pozzuoli, near Xaples, Italy April 

The Castello Degli Este, Ferrara, Italy May 

Entrance Gates, " Georgian Court " June 

Interior of the Church at Assisi, Italy July 

View of the Road from Salerno to Amalli. Italy August 

The Palazzo Del Popolo, Orvieto, Italy '. September 

The Church of San Ambrogio, Milan, Italy ( >ctober 

The Hill of Posilipo, near Xaples, Italy. . .' November 

Cloister of the Seven Churches of San Stefano, Bologna, Italy December 



ription. 



69 
90 

'34 

.78 

200 

2 2 2 

244 



MISCELLANEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS. 

This list does not include illustrations made in connection with articles, nor those of terra-cotta details. 
Title and Location. Architect. Page. 

ALBIOX Building, Minneapolis, Minn.. E. Kennedy 109 

Apartment Building. Xew York City Jas. E. Ware & Sons, and H. S. S. Harde 216 

BATHING Establishment, Revere Beach, Mass Stickney >.V- Austin 61 

Battery Park Building, Xew York City Clinton & Russell 87 

Brick Cornices, Siena lames P. Jamieson, Del 28 

Brown Building, St. Louis, Mo II. E. Roach & Son 108 

Baldwin Hospital, Columbus, Ohio : Richards. McCarty & Bulford 108 

Botanical Museum. Bronx Park. Xew York City R- W. Gibson '3° 

Broadway Chambers. Xew York City Cass Gilbert '5' 

CRAIG Colon v for Epileptics Carrere & Hastings '7 

City Hall, East St. Louis, 111 E. C. Janssen 86 

Cornice Patterns by Students, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 218 

Church, Philadelphia, Pa Edwin F. Durang 219 

Church, Philadelphia, Pa Edwin F. I Mining 239 

Carleton Building. St. Louis. Mo T. C. Link 262 

DETAIL, Andrus Building, Minneapolis. Minn Long & Long 64 



Vol. IX. Jan.— Dec, 1900. THE BRICKBUILDER. — INDEX. 3 

Title and Location. Architects. Page. 

Detail, Nasby Building, Toledo, Ohio , s 

Detail, Office Building, Indianapolis, Ind Vonnegut & Bonn! .' .' 210 

ENTRANCE, House, Hamilton, Mass Winslow & Bisrelow 2™ 

GATEWAY, Charleston, S. C 8 .".'.'.".."..""'. '.'.'.ill 

Gateway, Charleston, S. C " A 

HOUSE Overbrook, Pa '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'.". Lawrence V.'and David K. Boyd' .".'.'.' .'.'.'.'.'.' '.'.'.'. 2 l 

House, Cleveland, Ohio Granger & Mead ". 18 

House, Cleveland, Ohio Granger & Mead 38 

House, Cleveland, Ohio Alfred Hoyt Granger 38 

House, Germantown, Pa Lawrence V. and David K. Boyd 39 

House, Germantown, Pa Lawrence V. and I )avid K. Boyd 30 

House, Brookline, Mass gi. 

House, New York City IlaydeKV She par d '.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'... '.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'. 83 

House, Baltimore, Md William M. Ellicott 88 

House, Buffalo, N. Y McKim, Mead & White 88 

House, Washington, D. C L. Norris 1 1 o 

House, Troy, N. Y H . L. Warren. ............................... 1 10 

House, Germantown, Pa _ Lawrence V. Boyd 120 

House, Spokane, Wash * Cutter & Malengren. . '. .' .' .' '. .' .' ." '. ! .' .' '. .' .' .' '. '. '. . '. '. . \ 1 94 

Holyoke Dam, Holyoke, Mass . ..106 

House, Louisville, Ky Mason Maury ............ .197 

House, St. Louis, Mo Deitering & Klipstein 216 

House, Louisville, Ky Mason Maury 217 

House, Washington, D. C C. B. Keferstein 238 

House, Washington, D. C Harvey Page 238 

Hotel Lorraine, New York City Jeremiah O'Rourke 240 

House, New York City Lord, Hewlett & Hull 256 

House, Montpelier, Vt Charles A. Piatt 259 

INTERIOR, House, East Milton, Mass McKim, Mead & White 19 

Interior, House, Cleveland, Ohio Alfred Hoyt Granger 41 

Interior, Massachusetts Historical Society Building, Boston Wheelwright & Haven 63 

Interior, Dome of High School, East Boston, Mass John Lyman Faxon 65 

Interior, House, Tenafly, N. J Renwick, Aspinwall & < )wen 85 

Interior, Prudential Building, Newark, N.J Geo. B. Post 173 

Interior, Massachusetts General Hospital Building (addition) Wheelwright & Haven [95 

Interior, Union .Station, Dayton, Ohio Elzner & Anderson 213 

Interior, Free Public Library, Newark, N. J Rankin & Kellogg 217 

Interior, St. Paul's Church, Chicago, 111 H.J. Schlacks 236 

Interior, House, Tuxedo Park, N. Y R. Clipston Sturgis 257 

MERCANTILE Building, Brooklyn, N. Y Francis H. Kimball 132 

Mooney-Brisbane Building, Buffalo, N. Y M. E. Beebe & Son 1 53 

NUNUPTON Court, Herfordshire, England 39 

Nurses' Home, Cambridge Hospital, Cambridge, Mass Stickney, Austin & Chamberlin 65 

North American Trust Company Building, New York City Bruce Price 152 

OFFICE for Physician and an Architect, Burlington, Vt W. R. B. Willcox 6i 

Office Building, St. Louis, Mo Isaac Taylor 86 

Office Building, Boston, Mass Wheelwright & Haven 153 

Office Building, New York City Robert Maynicke 1 74 

PLAN, House, Wyoming, N. J J. W. Dow 1 07 

Pennsylvania Institute for the Blind, Overbrook, Pa Cope & Stewardson 109 

Pergola, Kansas City, Mo John Van Brunt 172 

SECURITY Building, St. Louis, Mo Peabody & Stearns 151 

.St. Paul's Church, Chicago, 111 H.J. Schlacks 173, 237 

St. John's Hospital, St. Louis, Mo Barnett, Haynes & Barnett 214 

" Sunnyside," Alterations and Additions William H. Mersereau 215 

Stables, Belle Isle Park, Detroit, Mich Mason & Rice 237 

TRIBUNE Building, Minneapolis, Minn Frederick Kees 131 

UPTON Court, Herfordshire, England 39 

L T nion Trust and Savings Bank Building, Cincinnati, Ohio D. H. Burnham & Co 195 

VESTIBULE, Church, Newton Centre, Mass W. H. McGinty 258 

WINDOW, Town Residence ■ Wilson Eyre, Jr 153 

Wilder Hall, Wellesley College J. A. Schweinfurth 214 



SERIALS. 



A PUBLIC LIBRARY, COST $100,000. 

(Continued from Vol. VIII.) 

Page. 

Paper II by Arthur G. Everett 4 

Paper III by J. F. Harder 6 

Paper IV by J. A. Schweinfurth 29 

A VILLAGE CHURCH, COST $50,000. 

(Continued from Vol. VIII.) 

Paper V by Ralph Adams Cram 12 

CHURCH ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

(Continued from Vol. VIII.) 

BY THOMAS CUSACK. 

Paper V 77 

Paper VI 2 °7 



THE MINOR BRICK CI I AT FAUX OF FRANCE. 
(Continued from Vol, VIII.) 

BY WILLI \M 1 . P VRTRIDGE. 

Page. 

Paper II. Early Renaissance 9 

Paper III Late Renaissance 32 

BRICKWORK IX THE ROYAL CHATEAUX OF 
FRANCE. 

BV WILLI \M I . PAR I RIDGE. 

Paper I. y ^ 

Paper II 1 57 

THE MINOR BRICKWORK OF THE APENNINES, 

i:\ w \l. I IK II. KILHAM. 

Paper I. Siena 25 

Paper II I'mbria 4 X 



THE BRICKBLTLDER.— INDEX. 



Vol. IX. Jan. Dec, 1900. 



THE DESIGNING AND PLANNING OF S.MALI. RAIL 
WAV STATIONS. 



Paper 1. 

Paper 1 1. 



Paper I. 
Paper II. 



l:\ All RKO IhiN T GRANGER. 



THE • VILLAGE INN" SERIES. 
(Continued in Vol. X.» 



Page. 

. 142 
. . 201 



. by William A. Bates .229 

.by Wilson Eyre, Jr 245 



THE " VILLAGE BANK " SERIES. 
(Continued in Vol. X.) 



Paper I. 
Paper II. 



Paper I. 



.by Claude Fayette Bragd >n 204 

. by Louis Mullgardt 227 



BYZANT I X E BRICK BUIL DIN( L 

1 Continued in Vol. X.i 
\\\ II. B. PENNELL. 



••THE BRICKBITLDER" COMPETITIONS. 

Page. 

I. An Entrance Gateway and Lodge for a Large Estate. Program 3 

Criticism and Award by Cass < rilbert 102 

II. Cozy Corner and Fireplace in the Library. Program 69 

Criticism and Award by George I). Mason 145 

III. A Farmhouse. Pro- ram 134 

Criticism and Award by R. Clipston Sturgis 

IV. A Crematory. Program 156 

Criticism and Award by John W. Case 231 

V. A Village Lank. Program 200 

Criticism and Award. 1 See Vol. 'X.) 

VI. An Entrance t<> an Art Museum. Program 244 

Criticism and Award. (See Vol. X.) 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 

A Use f< ir Bad Color Bricks 204 

American Architecture as opposed to Architecture in America by Ernest Flagg 1 19 

American Farmhouses by Robert C. Spencer, Jr 1 79 

An Architect's Intinerary by II. B. Penned 1 135 

Architectural Education by Alexander Buel Trowbridge 123 

Architectural Routes in Europe by C. H. Llackall 46 

Building on Stilts 163 

Enameled Brick Treatment of Subway Construction J. Francis Booraem 262 

Harvard Brick 261 

Heating and Ventilating of Schoolhouses R. C. Carpenter 52 

Heating and Ventilating of Schoolhouses. Correction R. C. Carpenter So 

Hospital Construction from a Medical Standpoint Henry M. Hurd. M. 1 ) 248 

Indigenous and Inventive Architecture for America Elmer Cray 121 

[nferi< >T lenient in the American Market 211 

Municipal Building Laws 34 

Permanence in Building 31 

Progress before Precedent George R. Dean 91 

Progress before Precedent. A Discussion by Twenty-five Architects 92 

Second Annual Convention of the Architectural League of America. Report 112 

The Architect Frank Lloyd Wright 1 24 

The Brickwork of Southern France Walter H. Kilham 70 

The T Square Club Traveling Scholarship Competition 163 

The Use of Enameled Brick for Exteriors 42 

The Warehouses at Cupples Station. St. Louis. Mo 251 

The Young Man in Architecture Louis Sullivan 115 



EIRE-PROOFING DEPARTMENT 

A New Fire-proof Construction 

An Unscientific Enquiry into Fire-proof Building. . . . 
Mixtures of Clay and Sawdust. Their Weight and 

Ultimate Resistance 

Practical Fire Tests 

Practical Rule for obtaining Maximum Spans for 

Hollow Tile Flat Arches' 

Some Inconsistencies in Modern Fire-proof Design... 
The Fire-proofing of the Government Printing Office 

at Washington 

The Lorraine Hotel Fire 

The McCormick St. .res at Chicago 

The Xew York Fire Insurance Exchange Schedule.. 
The Second Fire in the Home Department Store, 

Pittsburgh. Pa 

The Theatre Francais Fire 

Townsend Building Fire 

EDITORIALS. 

A Competition at Atlanta. Ga 

Address of Robert S. Peabody, President A. I. A 

American Farmhouses 

Architectural Training 

Brick Architecture in the East 

Change of Methods in Modern Construction 



Page. 

59 
So 



■5 
192, 210 

16 

149. 170 

234 

81 

36 

2 55 

97 
60 

37 



90 

243 
177 

23 
1 

67 



I >eath of John Ruskin 

1 teath of the Duke of Westminster 

I >eath of Paul Sedille 

English and American Portland Cements 

Explosion at the United States Capitol 

Fire Loss 

Good Mechanics 

Law relating to the Building of Chimney Flues 

Looking into the Future 

Non-Fire-proof Tenements 

Price of Steel 

Responsibility of the Architect 

Size of Common Brick 

Smoke Nuisance 

Some Phases of Recent American Architecture 

Steel in Small Buildings 

Tenement House Construction 

The Convention of the Architectural League of 

America 

The Executive Mansion at Washington 

The Man in the Street 

Thirty-fourth Annual Convention of the A. 1. A.... 

Trouble in the Granite Market 

Unsolved Problems 

Us"e of Steel in Buildings 

What is an Architect ? 



Page. 

-4 

24 

24 

1 55 



'33 
68 



-43 
•33 

199 

'55 

221 

2 

[99 
178 

90 

1 1 1 
23 



23 

67 

4" 

178 



CALIFOPNI* "T*.TF LIBRARY 



2<1^G0 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

II III.ISHEI) MONTHLY H\ 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1S93, BV THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada $5.00 per year 

Single numbers .......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ....... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions r\\ vble in advance. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Prick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



HAPPY NEW YEAR. 

THE BRICKBUILDER with this number presents 
to its readers a new leaf in its history, and one 
which we believe will prove satisfactory to those who 
have supported us in the past. It has been our aim to 
make of The Brick.buii.dkr an architectural journal, 
which, while considering to the fullest extent the practi- 
cal sides of the particular form of construction which we 
specially represent, shall bring out the artistic possibilities 
of the material which is so abundantly at the hand of 
man for building operations. 

( )f the changes made, they best speak for themselves, 
and we can only hope that in them may be recognized a 
desire on our part to send forth an architectural publica- 
tion which shall be second to none. 



THE MAN IN THE STREET. 

IT is often assumed that if architects' work were to be 
judged by architects, or at least by those who have 
had some training in the subject, there would be more 
incentive to study design, and the conditions would tend 
to better work. The judgment of the casual passer-by, 
who views the results of architecture from the stand- 
point of the street, is something which is very often 
looked upon with scorn by the average architect; and 
vet, after all, the influence of the uneducated is un- 
doubtedly quite often a very potent restraining factor 
in architectural design. If we could all do things in 



just the way that seemed to us best, and our judg- 
ment were not subjected to revision by the unsenti- 
mental and usually sternly unsympathetic casual ob- 
server, it is really a question whether the results would 
not be as unsatisfactory to ourselves as they are some- 
times now when we suffer from the manifestly unjust 
criticism of those who really know nothing about archi- 
tecture. As a matter of fact, the architect is very seldom 
able to push himself much ahead of the average of his 
generation and his surroundings, and it is doubtful 
whether the kind of work which did not have some ele- 
ment in it appealing to the average man would not he 
very likely to be carried to an extreme beyond good 
taste. Some one has defined a great art work as one 
which appeals to the greatest variety and number of 
people. In this sense, a facade which pleases only the 
educated and highly cultivated few, but is not to the 
liking of the mass, might be open to serious question as 
to whether it possessed the elements of real greatness. 
It is certainly possible to so design a building that it 
shall appeal both to the educated and to the highly devel- 
oped. A structure which fully serves its purpose, which 
awakens a responsive chord in the mind of the trained 
architect and also engages the attention, develops the 
thought of the honest mechanic, is surely of the kind 
which we should all be glad to produce, and it stands to 
reason that it presents a combination that is quite possi- 
ble of realization. 



BRICK ARCHITECTURE IX THE EAST. 

A NUMBER of years ago there appeared in some of 
the architectural journals illustrations of a series 
of college buildings which were being erected in one of 
the lesser East Indian States, from the design of a well- 
known English architect, in which brick and terra-cotta 
were used in a highly successful manner to carry out the 
motives and forms of the native architecture. The at- 
tempt to make architecture indigenous rather than im- 
ported is altogether praiseworthy, and such an example 
might with benefit be followed in our own possessions in 
the far East. If we may judge by the designs which 
were published in Harper's Weekly lor a cold storage 
warehouse it is proposed to erect at Manila by the United 
States Government, the possibilities of Philippine archi 
tecture have not yet been very much considered. The 
temptation to build an Ecole des Beaux Arts Palace on 
the shores of the Passig River was too great to be 

resisted. We hope the time will never come when the 
whole world will use the same style of architecture. 

That would imply the inevitable death of true art, lor it 
would mean the quenching of individuality, the stilling 



THE HRIL'KJU'ILDKR 



of attempts to observe local necessities and express the 
same in design, and the absence of individual initiative. 
The design for the storage warehouse is an excellent one 
of its kind, and if it were located in Kansas City or on 
the banks of the Seine we should feel like rejoicing with 
the happy architect who received the commission, but 
though architecture in Manila is undoubtedly a very 
shadowy substance, it is possible for a man with the 
right architectural endowment to create a building which 
shall not be merely a transplanted structure, but shall at 
least seem to be a part of the new development which we 
hope has begun in the far East. 



THE poet tells us that life is real, life is earnest, and 
things arc not what they seem. The latter part 
of this couplet is especially true as relates to architecture, 
which is essentially an exponent of the unreal and the 
conventional, above all, as exemplified by our modern 
methods of construction. In our buildings we have 
rightly Or wrongly abandoned the ponderosity of con- 
struction, which in all past ages has been an essential 
feature of large architectural creations, and we carry up 
a wall 125 or even 350 ft. high with a thickness of 12 to 
16 ins., crowning the whole with a massive, widely pro- 
jecting, deeply-cut cornice, composed of small bits of 
terra-COtta balanced on the ends of the steel construction. 
This is right or wrong, depending, of course, upon the 
point of view. We will not undertake to question the 
wisdom of the new construction, but there is one feature 
about it which must be borne in mind if a successful 
design is to be produced. If things are not what they 
seem, we must look to it that they seem to be what we 
mean they shall seem to be, and that if we are to produce 
the effect of a heavy cornice, even though it be made of 
small members and in its essence is steel skeleton, we 
must make it seem to be really massive, and our high 
buildings must have all the appearance of solidity. This 
is not falsity, though at variance with the theories which 
Ruskin used to point a moral, but is entirely a matter of 
pure design. It is the failure to recognize this necessity 
that makes so many of our tall buildings look attenuated, 
weak, and hastily thrown together, even though the 
structures may really be thoroughly well built. The 
appearance of strength, stability, of endurance, is an essen- 
tial element of good architecture, and this appearance 
must be considered even when, as has been done in a 
very few cases, we build the exterior with walls con- 
structed with expanded metal and one or two inches of 
concrete. 



FIRE LOSS. 



THIS country has just passed through an incipient 
boom. Perhaps its effects have not been felt by all 
of our readers; nevertheless, for a brief period prosperity 
was enjoyed, and but for the sudden and unnecessary ad- 
vance in the price of steel more architects would un- 
doubtedly have profited thereby. This partial prosperity 
has been felt by many different classes of people, but, if 
we may judge from what has been told us, it is not shared 
by the insurance companies. It is a curious reflection 
upon human nature that good times means a vastly in- 



creased amount of fire loss. During 1X99, destruction by 
lire was ten million dollars greater than for the ten months 
of 1898, and over nineteen million dollars more than during 

the same period in 1897, and this notwithstanding the 
constantly increasing number of structures which are 
erected in such manner as to be at least an effectual bar- 
rier to the spread of fire. Furthermore, we are told by 
one of the most prominent insurance adjusters that the 
connection between cause and effect is perfectly under- 
stood by many of the companies, and that it is a tact that 
as soon as prosperity begins to strike the country the 
number of incendiaries who cannot be convicted vastly 
increases. There never was a time in the world's history 
when buildings were erected so thoroughly, with so much 
regard for the resistance of fire, and, conversely, never 
was there a period when the chances of total loss by fire 
were so great. We cannot undertake to reconcile these 
statements; they are simply facts. 



Till': SMOKE NUISANCE. 

Tl 1 E many efforts which have been made by New 
England manufacturers to secure such repeal of 
import duties as shall allow them to draw soft coal from 
Nova Scotia to replace the anthracite, which is now so 
generally consumed in Boston, are commendable from 
every practicable standpoint, except the score of the re- 
sults which seem to inevitably follow extended use of 
soft coal in a city. Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and Chicago 
illustrate the effects of soft coal smoke on building- 
material. While brick and terra-cotta suffer the least 
from the smoke nuisance, and are the materials on the 
whole best adapted to resist such influences, there is no 
material which is proof against it. and none which are 
not often hopelessly ruined by the combined action of the 
coal smoke and of' the dam]), foggy atmosphere which 
seems to come with it. We have always taken a great 
deal of pride in the clear atmosphere prevailing in Boston, 
and, while we heartily sympathize with everything which 
tends to increase business facilities and add material 
wealth to the country, we hope that should soft coal ever 
threaten to become paramount here, it will be possible to 
devise some more effective form of smoke-eonsuming de- 
vice than has existence now in the market. 



THE RECENT EXPLOSION AT THE UNITED 

STATES CAPITOL. 

r T"*HROUGH the courtesy of Mr. Glenn brown, archi- 

J. tect, of Washington, we have received the report 
of the architect of the United States Capitol for the year 
ending June ,}g, 1899. In this is incorporated the report 
made by Mr Brown on the effects of an explosion in the 
Capitol, Nov. 6, [898, which occurred in what was before 
the erection of the present Senate Chamber the Senate 
wing of the old Capitol building, now the section of the 
building occupied by the Supreme Court. This part of 
the structure was built in 1 ;<).',. was partially destroyed 
by the British in [814, and was repaired by Cat robe be- 
tween [815 and 1X20. The description of the damage 
caused and the series of forty odd half-tones made from 
photographs of the damaged structure are extremely in- 



Til E BRI C K 15 V I L I) E 1< . 



terestintj in many respects. Without going greatly into 
detail in the matter, the report sums up the conditions 
very fairly by stating that there could have been no better 
practicable construction to resist the explosion and fire 
than the construction which existed in the portions of 
the Capitol where the explosion took place. The simple 
brick vaulting and brick walls and piers, being the heavi- 
est forms of construction, give the greatest weight to re- 
sist explosive action and the best material to resist fire. 
It was only by the modern innovation of the elevator that 
the fire reached the principal story. The recommenda- 
tion is made that all damaged vaulting should lie taken 
down and relaid as vaulting, as this is more permanent 
than iron beams and brick arches. 



THE work of the student is always interesting, and 
if the general average of the work of the archi- 
tectural department at Cornell is to be measured by the 
illustrations in the "Annual," which has just been pub- 
lished, the college is certainly deserving of the highest 
praise. This little brochure forms the best kind of an- 
nouncement of what Cornell has been doing in architecture. 
There is only one criticism we would offer, and that is 
not fairly a matter of the "Annual " itself, but rather of 
the course of architecture which it illustrates. It seems 
a mistake to in any wise encourage the so-called spe- 
cial courses, in which a smattering of architecture is, 
perforce, plastered over the student's mind. Archi- 
tecture is not acquired in any such way, and it is to be 
regretted that our architectural schools cannot generally 
follow the lead of Columbia and the Institute of Tech- 
nology in discouraging any curtailment of the amount of 
time to be given in preparation. Of the work of the 
Cornell department as a whole we would, however, say 
nothing but good. The selection of the programs and 
the manner in which they are treated, as shown by the 
illustrations, are in the highest degree commendable. 



SERIES OF AMERICAN ARCHITECTS. 

IT is our intention to begin very shortly a series which 
we believe will be of a great deal of interest to all 
of our readers, appealing both to the practising archi- 
tects who have won their positions and to the younger 
men who are still in the incipient state. "We are 
often in receipt of inquiries from students as to what 
is the best procedure to properly equip themselves for 
their life work as architects, and this series is intended 
to illustrate the path by which successful architects 
have risen to their positions. We propose to make a 
selection of a number of the best-known architects 
throughout the country, presenting in a brief, compre- 
hensive manner a statement of the course of study pur- 
sued by them as students, the path which they have fol- 
lowed in their architectural development, and the methods 
of study which they have adopted, together with a pres- 
entation of the work which they have accomplished. In 
making this selection we shall endeavor to present typi- 
cal examples rather than necessarily a complete re'sumd 
of the profession as it now is, and our idea is to epitomize 
the methods of architectural education which have been 
followed by our successful architects, making our choice 



not necessarily from the architects who have had the 
largest commissions, but rather from those who are 
known for the excellence of their work, and varying the 
list, so that we will show the different kinds of prepara- 
tion which a young man should consider in fitting him- 
self for architectural work. The standard of the profes- 
sion has risen enormously within the last generation, and 
it is no longer possible for a young man to compete seri- 
ously for public approval unless he has undergone a long 
and severe course of study. And while it is not possible 
to lay out any course which would lit all eases, we can 
judge from results what methods have been successful, 
and we are sure that a series such as we propose will af- 
ford a record of the best in our American practise. 



BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION. I. 

AX ENTRANCE GATEWAY AND LODGE FOR A 
LARGE ESTATE. 

PROGRAM. 

IT is assumed that a gateway is to be built at the 
entrance to the grounds of a large private estate. A 
wall separates the grounds from the highway, extending 
in a northerly direction ; the entrance is recessed from 
the line of the street, cither in a rectangle or semicircle 
as preferred, and provision is to be made for a driving 
gate in the center, 9 ft. wide in the clear, and a foot pas- 
sage each side, 4 ft. wide, though these dimensions need 
not be followed exactly in the design. On the left of the 
gateway, looking from the road, there is to be a gar- 
dener's lodge, containinga small living room, so placed that 
the main highway and the road inside the grounds can 
be visible from its windows, this room being about 1(1 by 
18 ft. There is to be also a kitchen, 10 by 1 1 ft., a dining 
room, 1 1 by 14 ft., and a small entrance hall large enough 
to afford space for a desk and key rack. In the upper 
Story there are to be two small chambers, with bath room, 
etc. The lodge may form, if desired, a part of the en- 
closing wall of the estate. The gateways are to be closed 
with iron grilles. The ground is supposed to he level. 
All of the construction is to he such as is adapted to 
materials in burnt clay. 

REQUIRED: A perspective sketch taken from the 
side of the highway diagonally opposite the lodge, also a 
sketch plan of first floor only at scale of 1 i<> of an inch 
to the foot, both drawings being in black ink with no 
wash work, upon a sheet measuring 1 5 ' _■ ins. wick' by 10 
ins. high. Each drawing is to he signed by a uom <ic 
plume or device, and accompanying the same is to he a 
sealed envelope with the uom de plume on the exterior 

and containing the true name and address of the con- 
testant. 

The drawings are to be delivered, flat, at the office of 
The Brk kbuii der, 85 Water Street, Boston, on or before 
March 15, 1900. For the three designs placed first, Tin 
Brickbuildef offers prizes of twenty-five, fifteen, and ten 
dollars, respectively. All premiated drawings are to be 
come the property of Tiih. Brickhi m der, and the right is 
reserved to publish any and all drawings submitted. Mr. 
Cass Gilbert has kindly consented to judge and criticize 
this competition. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



A Public Library, Cost One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars. 



BY ARTHUR G. EVERE I I . 



A SMALL town among the New England hills offers 
an interesting little problem in planning a library. 
interesting because of the peculiarities of the site and 
because of the attractiveness of the location of the town 



buildings stand quite by themselves, and are in little or 
no danger from fire from without: and at very slight ex- 
pense the building may be made sufficiently safe to give 
reasonable assurance that no damage will result from a 
fire within. Certainly the gain in attractiveness in the 
arrangement of the building would fully compensate for 
the slight care and expense involved by the open stack 
system. In this instance the closed stack is to be used, 
and the only books in evidence upon entering the build- 






r* q iff fi 







iM Gl 



€f Rf/ly 



I •"' 



f fi .Mt pi n ff jjpsBj 

''iP-jMto^ 






itself, with its outlook across the valley at the foot of the 
hill upon which it is built. The size of the lot and the 
general dimensions of the building being determined, there- 
are but two conditions imposed which affect the treat- 
ment of the building. One is for the use of "burnt-clay 
products" for the exterior, and the other, following old 
precedents, is for a "closed stack." Otherwise one is 
left fairly free to do as one pleases. 

When books are so easily replaced as in these days, 
it seems unnecessary to continue in use a system devised 
simply to avoid the confusion 
and injur)- resulting from pro- 
miscuous handling. A little- 
care and trouble on the part of 
the attendants in a library, with 
the addition of a few simple 
rules for the guidance of the 
readers, would obviate all diffi- 
culties, and make the collection 
of much more value to the 
public. An opportunity to go 
among the books, take them 
from the shelves and look them 
through at will, would be a 
great stimulant to interest in 
them and result in a better ac- 
quaintance with their contents. 
Nor does the danger from fire- 
seem to be of such importance 
as to make it necessary to keep 
all the books behind closed 
doors, accessible to officials 
only. Most of our town library 




ing will lie those placed in the general reading room for 
reference. The closed stack determines in great measure 
the arrangement of the plan, for it must be beyond the 
public parts of the building, and is naturally placed oppo- 
site the entrance, on the axis of the building. The two 
principal rooms are placed, almost as a matter of course, 
on each side of the entrance hall, and as observation in 
several libraries leads to the belief that the newspaper 
and periodical room should be made quite as large as the 
general reading room, being fully as much in use, the 

suggestion that less area will 
be sufficient for this room is 
disregarded, and the two rooms 
are made of equal dimensions. 
With this much determined, it 
only remains to place the trus- 
tees' room and the room for the 
exhibition of photographs and 
paintings where they may be 
readily reached from the de- 
livery room, to complete the 
arrangement of the first floor. 
One thing is added, however. 
to the first-floor plan, in def- 
erence to the outlook from the 
rear of the building, and this is 
the covered walk leading from 
the delivery room on each side 
and surrounding the stack. As 
the building stands upon the 
spot from which the best view 
of the surrounding country is 
to be had, it seems as if advan- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



tage should be taken of this opportunity to make a place 
which may be used as an out-of-door reading room in 
warm weather. 

As partial compensation for the closed stack, there 
is to be a reading room in the second story, over the 
covered walk, where students and readers upon special 
subjects may have access to the books upon the shelves at 
this level. The librarian's room and the cataloguing 
room are to be placed upon the second floor, to give 
greater seclusion, and also to give the needed control of 
the special reading room. Both these rooms can be easily 
reached from the first floor by the public staircase, or by 
the private staircase leading from behind 
the delivery desk. 

The basement, owing to the slope of 
the land, affords ample space for dry, 
well-lighted work rooms, beside the space 



when some restriction is placed upon the selection, either 
by a reasonable preference of the client, or through diffi- 
culty in getting other than those at hand and belonging 
to the region. The very limitations of the material 
itself encourage the endeavor to do the best thing possible 
with it, and interest grows as its possibilities are dis- 
covered and turned to account. 

The first and perhaps the only important limitation of 
burnt clay is in the size of units. Small pieces only 
can be had. Therefore a due respect for the material, 
which spurns the surreptitious use of iron, will arch all 
wall openings and limit projections to suitable dimen- 
sions. The principal matter to be con- 
sidered is the color, tone, and texture 
of the wall surfaces, and bricks, in 
which the size, shape, and color is al- 
most endless, give ample opportunity 




required for the heating apparatus, storage of fuel, and 
janitor's room. This slope of the land also gives a high, 
dry, well-lighted space in the lower part of the stack, 
which will be sufficient to accommodate the growth of the 
library for many years to come, without adding to the 
building. 

The wish to have the exterior built entirely of burnt- 
clay products is reasonable; for the materials are pro- 
duced in the neighborhood, and many of the townspeo- 
ple are interested in their manufacture. The ease with 
which a great variety of materials can be had is often an 
embarrassment rather than a help to the designer, or it 
would seem to be so if conclusions may be drawn from 
the varied assortment often found in one building, and 
it should be considered rather a blessing than otherwise 



for a selection in harmony with the surroundings. Bricks 
also lend themselves to arrangements quite sufficient for 
any accentuations and ornamentation that is desirable. 
Terra-cotta, emancipated from its cheap masquerade as 
stone and treated honestly, is a material that one may find 
pleasure in using in connection with brick where larger 
pieces or peculiar shapes are needed. The wish oi the 
townspeople can be carried out to the very last detail, for 
beside the use of tiles lor the root's, tile arches may be 
used for the vaulting over the covered walk, for its floor, 
and for the pavement of the terrace. It is not necessary 
to consider too fully the treatment in detail, as in a pre- 
liminary sketch a suggestion merely is aimed at: the ulti- 
mate form of the building and its treatment both being 
matters for more serious consideration. 



T II E B RICKBUIL D E R 



A Public Library, Cost One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars. 

r.\ i. i . II IRDER. 

HERE is a program which appeals to the imagination, 
at least, being free from hampering conditions. 
It does not inspire the tear which usually accompanies 
the suggestion of a competition, and consequently is free 
from the continual suggestion of the probability of dire 
defeat. On the contrary, being free from these, an 
incentive is furnished in the way of re-creation to amuse 



picturesqueness is out of the question. Stateliness. how- 
ever, must not he carried too far. as its chill may become 
repellent, tor of all public buildings a library must wear 
an air of invitation, -race, and comfortability, ■- a certain 
subtk' something which makes the visitor feel at home 
anil holds out an inducement for repeated visits. If 
public libraries are to be productive of any good in the 
community they must be used by the people to the limit 
of their capacity. Anything which helps to establish a 
democracy between books and men is the first function 
of a public library, small or large. There exist public 
institutions which are so sacred in their profundity of 




)CAL£ . _ |MT(ftCOL 



I RON I KM \ \ I lo\. 



one's self in a playful way as to what should be done 
with some one else's § 100,000, value received in the way 
of a suburban library building. This looks easy, but a 
little investigation and experience in handling other peo- 
ple's money soon convinces that it is not so easy. < me 
soon prefers to spend his own money foolishly than an- 
other's wisely, and arrives at the conclusion that tin- 
process of acquiring .Sioo.ooo is perhaps more free from 
perplexities than to expend 
it to good purpose. In other 
words, it causes more hesita- 
tion deliberately to assume 
the responsibility of expend- 
ing another's money than his 
own, and the acme of disa- 
greeable things would ap- 
pear to be to expend a client's 
money to his satisfaction or, 
indeed, to the approval of 
the irrepressible critic. 

As the thought of a pub- 
lie library at once presents 
the idea of formality and 
dignity, this sentiment must 
at once be reflected in the 
arrangement of the build- 
ing and in its architecture. 
Regularity and symmetry 
are therefore fundamental at 
the beginning. Certainly 




SKETCH OF READING ROOM, 



architectural effect that one hesitates to profane them In- 
ordinary usage. 

In this particular case the building is to be built for 
the use of the readers of a New England town of twenty- 
five thousand inhabitants. Therefore, the structure will 
not be large or particularly monumental, and the quality 
of comfortableness may even be stretched to the degree 
of co/.iness in some parts. Many matters of arrangement 

and design are therefore 
permissible which in a larger 
and more complex plan could 
not be entertained. Of 
course, as time goes on the 
town will grow, with some 
exceptions it is a way <>t 
New England towns, and 
with it will grow the de- 
mands upon the library. A 
provision to meet this an- 
ticipated increase by three 
times the capacity demanded 
in the book-stack room by 
present needs seems reason- 
able and provides all that 
your conservative New Eng- 
ender cares anything about. 
This building being a 
memorial, it is built for all 
time. At the same time it 
is a Storage place of volumes 



Til E BRICKIH'IIJ) ER. 



7 



of great value and of works of art. Aside from these two 
very pertinent reasons the science, methods, and economy 
of good fire-proof construction is now so far advanced that 
the employment of only the simplest and safest methods 
of fire-proof construction and of incombustible materials, 
to the exclusion of woodwork to the last degree, not only 
in the constructive parts but also in the finish and 
fittings, is a pre-requisite under the circumstances. It is 
astonishing, too, to what limit thorough non-inflamma- 
bility may be carried when this object is earnestly pur 
sued in its applicability to any given case. In this field 
terra-cotta, brick, tile, and the modern products of burnt- 
clay manufacture play many diversified parts and cover a 
wide scope. Not only do they possess the highest quality 
of resistance to fire and heat both from within and with- 



bate and the steps are of warm-colored New England 

granite, fine cut. Above this, the work is entirely of 
brick and terra-cotta. The brick are of Pompeiian red 
and the terra-cotta is half-glazed and van-colored. Lighl 
gray prevails; blue, green, and yellow appearing in the 
panels, and in the relief ornament. The roof is made of 
half-round glazed Italian tile, matching with the red oi 
the plain brick walls. The flat surfaces of the terra-cotta 
are finely corrugated vertically. The gates and railings 
are of bronze of bright green color. 

As we enter the building through the portico we stop 
in the vestibule a moment for a glance at the busts of two 
ancient writers of poetry and prose which occupy the 
niches to the right and left. Continuing to the rotunda, 
the eye takes in a half-dozen examples of antique pottery, 




P O R 1" 1 G O 



a 



Plan of /V\ain pLOOR 

• SCALE • 



1 



out, but the perfect plasticity of the material lends itself 
to the widest range of expression in color and form, satis- 
fying at once in its manifold applicability all the demands 
of the architect, sculptor, and painter. 

The exterior presents a long low building covered 
with a simple shed roof of medium pitch unbroken by 
dormers. While the elevation presents something of 
flatness and monotony in perspective, this is relieved by 
the animation which the repeated forward projections, in 
plan, of the central bay and the porticos afford. Around 
on the back the semicircular book-stack building con- 
tinues to the height of the second story sill course, and is 
covered with a simple conical roof. The rusticated stylo- 



reminding us that good books and good pottery have en- 
dured longest in the affections of mankind and most 
unchangeably withstood the ravages of' lime. In the 
center of the rotunda stands the memorial vase. As the 
building is a memorial built as a monument to the name 
and fame of that village hero whose good fortune it was 

to be able to contribute materially t<> progress, the object 

which specifically enshrines his memory here takes the 
form of a memorial vase. It stands upon a low pedestal 
and is 7 ft. in height, made oi pottery clay glazed and in 
colors. Upon its surface appears in relief the pictorial 
presentment of our hero's life, while tin- record of essen- 
tial facts and dates is fittingly set forth by lettering. 



8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Now comes a slight change of level. Upon an ascent 
of four steps is the delivery or distribution room. This 
is a domed hall lighted from above. Beyond it extends 
the book-stack room in the form of a semicircle. This 
room is repeated both above and below this level. This cir- 
cumstance, in connection with the semicircular form of 
the book-stack building, brings the volumes upon the 
shelves within maximum accessibility from the delivery 
desk. Again, the semicircular form appears to present 
peculiar advantages in reference to economy of Boor 
space, of corridor length, and for sufficient lighting. 

The outer wall length affords space for windows of 
much greater width than can be attained under the con- 



ing, the other in relief modeling. The further sections 
of the reading rooms extend through the whole height of 
the building to underneath the roof. Their ceilings are 
barrel vaulted crosswise, so that semicircular lunettes are 
formed over the mantels and entrances. The intermediate 
reading rooms give access to the side porticos, which in 
summer are thrown open to the public in connection with 
the reading alcoves behind them. 

Packing and work rooms, storage room, toilets, etc., 
are in the basement. In the upper story are further 
rooms for research and outdoor balconies for summer 
use. 

As the plan is divided into compartments each entirely 




^ 


\\& 








m 


ill 


II 








Plan or Upper Ploor 



ditions of the usual rectilinear stack-room plan. The 
fronts of the stacks in the radial plan become set at a 
slight inclination toward the windows which is of im- 
mense advantage for reading the stacks. 

As the land slopes down towards the rear the lower 
stack story will be wholly above the ground with a base- 
ment beneath. 

As one story of the stacks will suffice for present 
library necessities, the stories above and below the middle 
level remain in the rough for future finishing and fit- 
ting. 

Returning to the rotunda, the reading rooms extend to 
the right and left from it. The view upon the line of the 
cross-axes terminates not in a window, which would have 
the effect of throwing everything between it and the eye 
into silhouette, but in a great illuminated mantel at each 
end. Both are done in colors, one in undcr-glaze paint- 



surrounded by masonry walls forming Boor spans of 
moderate length, the vaulted Spanish method of Boor 
and roof construction, made with overlapping thin slab 
tile, will be feasible, economical, and appropriate. In 
most places this is laid in patterns and forms the finished 
ceiling at once. In the cases of the barrel vaults of the 
reading rooms and the domes over the rotunda and 
delivery hall, however, the joints are left unstruck to form 
a key for a final finish of tile mosaic. 

The finish of floors and wall surfaces, including the 
architraves and trim around door and window openings. 
are also made of terra-cotta. The blocks are hollow and 
closely hand-fitted by cutting and grinding on the site. 

In the case of the exterior walls, the blocks are laid 
against a coat of water-proofing applied to the inside face 
of the outer masonry before the inner lining of finishing 
terra-cotta is set against it. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



Minor Brick Chateaux in France. 
II. Early Renaissance. 

BY WILLIAM T. PARTRIDGE. 

DURING the whole of the sixteenth century society 
in France was in so unsettled a state that the 
builders of the many small chateaux which are scattered 
throughout Normandy could not venture to neglect any 
of the known means of defense. An enclosing wall and 
moat with drawbridge and entrance lodge and machico- 
lated towers, — all the features, indeed, of the chateaux 
forts, — were included in their design. Several of these 
entrances of the time of Francis I. are still in good pres- 
ervation, and through the veil of Renaissance ornament 




CHATEAU ST. AGIL. 

that overspreads them one can easily discern the miniature 
fortress. 

One of the most interesting of these entrances is at 
St. Agil. It is built of brick, but the means of defense 
are easily discernible. The influence of the Renaissance 
has altered hardly a feature, the mullioned windows 
yielding easily to a classic treatment, and the quaint 
little pilasters added on either side bringing them clearly 
within the new style. 

The brickwork is ornamented with a diaper pattern 
in a darker brick laid with a thin joint. Yet at Moulins, 
a Gothic chateau not far from here, the thickness of the 
joint is nearly equal to the width of the brick. The bond 
stones are carried deeply into the brickwork. 

On closely examining the composition one rinds the 
small door, now blocked up, forces the axis of the main 



■ . 
\%1 



&« 







CHATEAU OK ST. GERMAIN DE LIVET. 

doorway off the center of the building, and that this 
inequality is carried right up through the cornice to the 
dormer. Though this is easily discovered by counting 
the corbels in the machicolated cornice, the eye can 
scarcely detect it. 

The little pavilion of the Ferme ( ailletot, near Bolbec, 
is less martial in character. It also is of brick and is 
much the same in mass, but it is decorated by horizontal 
bands of stone, which continue through the wall of the 
adjoining building. A small portion of the wall surface 
is covered with a diaper formed by Hints and small 
blocks of stone set edgewise. The stone dormer is very 
interesting and is in perfect preservation. 

The picturesque chateau of St. Germain de Livet is 
later than these two, but is similar to them in composi- 
tion. It is built in brick and stone laid like a checker- 
board. But the long vertical joints which result from 




PAVILION 01 



THE FERME i VILLETOI 



IO 



THE BRICK BU I L I) E R. 




CHATEAU 1) AGUESSE \l. 

this disposition obviously impair the Strength of the wall, 
and the stones are accordingly made to overlap one 
another. The contrast in the color of the 
briek and stone is here so great as to destroy 
much of the charm of this most attractive 
group of buildings. 

The Manor House, at Bainvilliers, is quite 
different in character from the preceding ex- 
amples and is a simple residence with not a 
trace of the fortress. In composition it is a 
rectangular mass roofed with a high, steeped 
roof, broken by dormers which crown the 
group of windows on the facade. Several 
string courses are carried through and pilas- 
ters mark the position of the internal walls. 
The facade is not symmetrical. The entrance, 
a double one, is placed quite to the left, and 
was originally under a vaulted porch. 

The central feature is a large double win- 
dow terminating in a double dormer under a 
single gable. Single dormers on either side 
make a nearly symmetrical composition. The walls are 
of red brick laid in headers; a diaper pattern is formed 



by darker brick. Below the cornice the wall is ornamented 
with a half diaper pattern, which by its form and position 
recalls the peculiar pendent tracery under the cornices of 
I'.lois and Chateaudun. The chimneys are of molded brick. 

The workmanship of this little building is most care- 
ful. All the stones bond exactly into the brickwork, and 
the moldings on the stone String courses are well studied 
and carefully cut. There is no better precedent for a 
modern dwelling. 

Another building of this same period of the Renais- 
sance is the hStel de ville of Lorris. It is a Renaissance 
solution not of the chateau but of the city house, a build- 
ing between two party walls. The illustration taken from 
a measured drawing shows a nearly symmetrical facade, 
with a small central doorway. On either side the win- 
dows arc massed, a double and a single Opening being 
combined, and are crowned by a dormer on the axis of 
the double window. The stone string courses return 
upon themselves without projecting over the party line. 





CHATEAU or CRIQUEVILLE. 



CHATEAU !» AGUESSEAU. 

The wall surfaces of this building are decorated by 
large diaper patterns in a different colored brick. 

In the Chat can de Boisset-le-Chdtel, near 
Rouen, built in the sixteenth century, both the 
design of the brickwork and the general com- 
position are of exceptional interest. In plan 
it is the typical small chateau like Martain- 
ville, but in its architectural features it jjoes 
a step beyond the work of the so-called 
Francis I. period. A hall runs through the 
center terminating at the rear in a staircase, 
which is carried up in a tower. On either 
side of this hall the rooms are placed with 
their Ion-. axes at right angles to that of the 
hall. This makes the length of the facade 
greater than at Martainville. Circular corner 
towers of small size flank this facade, while 
on the rear the line of wall is broken by the 
high staircase tower already mentioned. 

The central pavilion on the facade, though 
apparently preparing for a y-reat central 
dormer, suddenly terminates in a low pedi- 
ment. The pediment is jointed with the 
corjiice so neatly that it is difficult to deter- 
mine whether it is of the same period or not. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



1 1 




CHATEAU OF BOISSET-I.E-CH ATEL. 

The central window is assuredly of later date. There is 
an interesting variation in the second story windows. 
The difference in width between them and those of the 
story below is placed on the outside of the group, the width 
of the pier being thereby kept the same in both stories. 

The dormer is on the axis of the central window, small 
bullseyes coming over the windows of the first and 
ground floor. Above the dormers is another bullseye, 
which forms part of the gable of the dormer. Between 
these the tower of the staircase can be seen in the illus- 
tration rising above the roof. 

The brickwork is laid in a " herringbone" pattern in 
the first story and in the upper portion of the tower. In 
the second story it is laid so as to form a lozenge-shaped 
pattern. The bricks that make the pattern are light in 
color, originally white, but now discolored, while the color 
of the body of the building is a dark reddish-brown. 

The features in this chateau so much resemble those 
of the style of Henri II. that were it not for the dormers, 
one could place it among the later chateaux of that reign. 
Whether the corner towers become unserviceable or the 
difficulty of laying a circular wall induced a change is not 
readily determined. But whatever the cause, the change 
in the plan of the corner tower from round to square is 
characteristic of the work of the early Renaissance. The 



old traditions are still held strongly both in mass and 
plan. But the central feature changes, and in one type it 
is so exaggerated that in order to give it the greater em- 
phasis the main ridge of the roof of the building is 
divided, separate hipped roofs being formed over each of 
the adjoining wings. The other variation followed an 
opposite course, the central feature being almost oblit- 
erated and marked only by a low gable or pediment. 
while the towers on the corners became small square tur- 
rets or dropping in height to low flanking wings. These 
extremes are illustrated in the chateaux of Criqueville 
and d' Agiiesseau, both in the department of Calvados. 
Criqueville, with the high central staircase, is built in 
alternate masses of brick and stone, the blocks of stone 













DIAPER PATTERNS FROM MOULINS. 



MANOR HOUSE AT BAINVILLIERS. 

slightly overlapping each other. The bonding of the 
brickwork is quite irregular. The Chdteau (TAguesseau, 
near Trouville, is a low, symmetrical little building with 
a high roof, the eaves of which are brought down quite to 
the second story, so as to give all 
^T^ZS^SSiZSSSZ- the expanse of roof possible. The 

jpfi|HH||§|=Scf|f~£K3 cornice is broken through by the 
HHHf^i^V;;r£^|§§j5 windows and the small turrets are 

r"; 7-J7',r7yF',r : '^HT,"; lowered, thus allowing the same 
]7rJF,) : 7rJrry7-^>r7-i cornice to be carried around them. 
'r'r7~J7\r'7~'j7';7'~Jr~.'' The cornice being so low makes 

lrjdr r J ':'7~jr : . ■"'7rdr"':7 m z the dormers rather high. The skill 
^vr^rvT^r ^/-^-r;; and study shown in the grouping 
^^Hf^iifv'i^irr,'' 7~i of the windows and in the treat- 
ment of the pilasters force one's 
- ; 3v£ ■ .'■•■^r ■";•'. isSzLl admiration. There arc traces of a 
_-ii-" "Hh_ -^r"" "■: lozenge-shaped pattern, but the 
y'^{^-'7 , zi£7,'~'.'jz.'r, color has so faded out that it is 
^zrI:V:''^Q77-^. .'■.'.'". - difficult to trace it, though a lew 
'± : 7r2£v\r'JrJ.r7-Zrjr'", faint lines show it to be correct in 

v|!J£prTij^;"/j£jrv , tj: scale. This chateau is a dclight- 

■2SHS!HHHHKililHs ful composition, whether viewed 

v£HHHliHH"Ehi-'liliJ from the front or from the rear, 

ifsSsSaSasSSMM where the ground falling rapidly 
away permits another story. 



12 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



A Village Church, Cost Fifty Thousand 
Dollars. 

HV R \l I'H \1> WIS CRAM. 

NO subject offers itself to the architect that has such 
infinite possibilities as ;i church. We are only just 
beginning to find this out here in this land and genera- 
tion. There was a time in the early days when churches. 
or rather meeting-houses, as they nearly all were at that 
time, were quite as good, indeed a great deal better, than 
the domestic work, and such public work as the poverty 
of a new country made possible. Later there was a time 
when churches were quite as bad as, even worse than, the 
rest of the architecture of which we were guilty. When 
art began to assume something of its just position as a 
profession, emerging from its former status as a trade, 
church building lagged far behind all other branches, 
and we went through the successive periods of Victorian 
Gothic, (Jueen Anne, and Romanesque, unconscious for 
the time that these episodical styles were showing their 
weakness more clearly in our ecclesiastical work than in 
any other. There seemed to be a general idea that any 
one could build a church, and the results only proved 
that " any one " tried to. 

This condition has passed; some years ago ecclesiasti- 
cal architecture in England began to acquire a vitality 
that did not manifest itself elsewhere. With the last 
Gothic as a basis, the Gothic that had been wiped out to- 
gether with all other art during the reign of Henry VIII., 
the architects who understood the meaning and the nature 
of the rejuvenated Church besjan to take up the essentially 
Christian style where its life was brought to an end by 
untimely and untoward events, and to develop it on sane 
and sympathetic lines. Beyond all question, church 
architecture in England to-day is at its best the most 





spontaneous and really national architecture that can he 
found anywhere. Its influence is now making itself felt 
in America, and little by little architects are beginning 
to realize that in spite of the French school ecclesiastical 
architecture is one of the greatest of the fields open to them. 
For in a church we are at once raised above the limita- 
tions of commercialism and the mechanical qualities so 
salient in contemporary life. We have to express, not 
some outgrowth, some manifestation of to-day with all 
its indifference, indeed all its antagonism, to artistic forms; 
instead, we have a vast and dominant power lasting over, 
changeless and unchangeable, from those times when art 
was instinctive and was indeed the very creation of this 
power. Hut it is the unchangeable Church existing in a 
new environment, under different circumstances, and 
among a new people, therefore both ideas are to be ex- 
pressed : the idea of the immutable Church and the idea 
of the new environment. 

What is the basis of this work"' Not some new and 
purely secular style like the fashionable Parisian Renais- 
sance, not some archaeological memory sought out of the 
distant and historic past, not a style created by men of 
one nationality and one epoch to express their own par- 
ticular ideas, but rather the style of the Church as it was 
developed through century after century down to the 
time when it ceased; and ceased, not because of its own 
decay, not because of inherent weaknesses, but for the 
reason that certain events took place which brought it to 
an untimely end. 

And what have we to express through this style, 
this order of architecture, which it is for us to continue 
and develop? Surely all that was in the middle ages. 
An enormous and dominant agency that appeals to every 
one of the highest instincts in men, and demands for its 
expression every form of art raised to its highest point. 
The architect who believes in the Church and understands 
her is hampered in no respect when he is called into her 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



13 



service. I say is hampered in no respect; this is not 
strictly true, for there is one mitigating circumstance that 
arises now which was little considered five hundred years 
ago: that is the question of cost. We have not yet 
reached the point when we can realize that the building 
of a church demands a certain amount of self sacrifice ; 
when we feel certain that nothing can be too good where 
the building of a church is concerned, but that every- 
thing, even the best, must be in a measure inadequate, 
and that, therefore, no false economy, no sham, and no 
cheapness is for an instant permissible. 
As we in America gradually emerge 
from the frontier way of looking at 
things, — legacy of the truly frontier 
period of the past, persistent long after 
the material conditions have disap- 
peared, — we begin to realize that our 
temporary, "sufficient unto the day" 
fashion of building is no longer either 
reasonable or, in the case of churches, 
reverent. We remember the enduring 
monuments of the middle ages, and, 
ambitious not to fall behind, desire to 
emulate them. The day of the wooden 
church is gone, but when it comes to a 
question of building of masonry, the 



of round, angular, or otherwise impossible units, and 
relay it in an unstable wall, dubbing it "picturesque " to 
gloss its structural shortcomings; we split crude slabs 
out of sandstone quarries and lay them up as they conic, 
guiltless of chisel, vicious in surface, and unsatisfactory 
in mass. These things we do because we are unwilling 
to spend a little more money for the sake of obtaining an 
homogeneous wall with a fair and self-respecting surface. 
Grant for the moment that we really can't afford 
dressed stone and the locality does not furnish flat-faced 




only alternative, we are confronted by the matter of cost, 
for, as I have said above, we have not yet returned alto- 
gether to the medieval spirit that thought a church was a 
matter worthy of some sacrifice. Stone we have in plenty 
and of great variety, no nation ever boasted more, but to 
use it as it was used in the past means the expenditure 
of much money. Yet stone we must have, or think so at 
any rate, so we compromise and use it in rough and 
unjustifiable ways. We annex the primitive stone wall 



field stones or granite with smooth cleavages: in this ease 
it is much better to use brick, if it is used as it should be. 
In itself it is a most admirable building material, even 
for ecclesiastical work, which requires the best of every- 
thing. Rich in color, excellent in surface and texture, it 
is easy to handle, universally available, and comparatively 

cheap. Of course its durability is unparalleled and it is 

perfectly honest. Nevertheless, it is not popular for 
good church work, and tor two reasons: first, because 



14 



THE HRK'K BUILDKR 



it has been used vilely by the builders of Roman Catholic 
churches and in this connection is uniformly hideous; 
second, because all sorts of fancy bricks with tierce colors 
and shiny surfaces have been poured on the market, and 
few of these can be used in church work without disaster. 
They have been used, however, and the bad results have 
been attributed to the material, not to the variety. 

Now, brick of the right kind can be tised properly, 
and when this is done it is a perfectly satisfactory mate- 
rial for church building. By "used properly" I mean 
laid up in Flemish or English bond with wide joints of 
gray mortar, broad surfaces, concentrated ornaments, 
and plenty of stone or terra-cotta of proper color for 
trimming and optical strengthening, worked well into 
the brick. 

This is the way brick is used in England, and there it 
is one of the most characteristic features of the new 
school of restored Gothic. We have just as good brick 
in this country and we ought to have intelligence to use 
it equally well. Generally we don't, and the shocking 
spectacle of a church built of bright red "face" brick 
with trimmings of white granite is of course enough to 
disgust the unfamiliar with the material forever. 

Nor is brick inconsistent with Gothic; it is precisely as 
appropriate as stone. Indeed, some of the brick and stone 
churches of Bodley, Sedding, and others in England are 
so altogether delightful that one would not have them 
stone, if this were possible. The richness and variety of 
color that one can obtain are peculiarly consonant with 
the I rothic spirit. ( )f course it would be absurd to design 
a church for stone and then build of brick: the two mate- 
rials need different treatment, but as a material brick is 




perfectly 'proper ; indeed, the architect who loves Gothic 

must delight in it and accept it with enthusiasm. 

The church under consideration is for an Episcopalian 
society: assuming that it is to be built in the temperate, 
not the subtropical, portion of the United States, it must 
lie Gothic in style, for this belongs to the Church by crea- 
tion, association, genius, history, everything. It is to be 
a modern church, however, in a modern State; it is for 
the devotional uses of a power immutable in essentials, 
though infinitely mobile in its adaptability. For these 
reasons the Gothic cannot be archaeological: it must be 
mobile and vital, willing to borrow from any source so 
long as the material can be assimilated. Gothic is less a 
style than a motive; it is the architecture of imagination, 
poetry, personality, healthy, all-around living. It is not 
a system of vaults, arches, and buttresses, but an ideal. 

Certain ways of obtaining definite ends must be ad- 
hered to simply because they have proved themselves the 
best, and because they give the optical note of historic 
continuity. For example, the high, long, narrow nave 
with aisles separated by piers and arches. This is one 
of the architectural notes of Catholicity, and not only 
gives the best effects of light and shadow, mystery and 
awe, but the best acoustics as well. A church is a preach- 
ing place only in its secondary aspect, and therefore no 
essentially religious quality can be sacrificed to it. 

Again, the exterior culminates in a big, lofty tower 
rising above all its surroundings. This is at the west 
end, where it belongs, for the church is not large enough 
for a central tower and transepts. 

The plan hardly needs any explanation, for the nature 
of the material does not affect it in the least. With 

the exterior the case is dif- 
ferent. Where brick is 
used it seems to be neces- 
sary that the masses should 
< be simpler, the projections 
less, the surfaces plainer 
than in the case of stone. 
Thin, deep buttresses jus- 
tify themselves in the latter 
instance, but in the former, 
broad, shallow piers seem 
better: this is probably due 
to the fact that the units of 
construction are so small 
that they require space to 
give them apparent stabil- 
ity and dignity. Stone re- 
quires delicacy of treat- 
in e n t a n d elaboration of 
parts for its highest effects: 
brick demands simplicity, 
bigness, breadth of hand- 
ling. 

For the exterior the 
materials are good, hard- 
burned brick, laid up in 
Flemish bond with quarter 
inch joints of white mortar; 
the trimmings are of warm 
gray terra-cotta. For the 
interior the materials are 







THE BRICK BU] LI) ER . 

Fire-proofing. 



'5 



gray terra-cotta, and brick of the same color, irregular in 
form and rough of surface, if such is to be obtained. 
Brick could be used for inside work far more often if only 
the manufacturers would not make it so uniformly clean, 
smooth, and faultless. A warm gray brick as rough as 
the common red would be a boon if only it were on the 
market. The woodwork is of black oak, the floor of gray 
terra-cotta tiles. 

Such a church as this could be built for the sum speci- 
fied ; in stone it would cost half as much again. With 
good materials and carefully studied design it could be 
made thoroughly ecclesiastical and permanently durable. 
Brick of fancy colors would spoil it at once, and the 
same would be true if the terra-cotta were white, red, or 
yellow. Gray it must be, and as dull in surface as pos- 
sible. 

There is a great future for brick as an ecclesiastical 
building material in this country if only its limitations 
and conditions arc recognized. Brick it is and brick it 
must remain. It is not to be used like stone, but for 
what it is. In certain ways style is the result of material 
and must develop from it. As I have said before, Gothic 
is less a Style than an idea, and it is an idea that can ex- 
press itself in one material as well as in another. Tin 
manner only will be different, the motive remains always 
the same. 



MIXTURES OF CLAY AM) SAWDUST. 

THEIR WEIGHTS \\l> 1 I riMATE RESIS I \\< ES. 

TO obtain some accurate data regarding the weights 
after burning of various mixtures by volume of 
clay and sawdust, the following specimens were carefully 
made and burned, which gave sonic interesting results. 
The clay used was from the Raritan Hollow and Porous 
Brick Company, and represented fairly well the average 
clay used for fire-proofing in thai vicinity. No analysis 
was made, however. Starting with pure clay and water, 
the following mixtures were made: — 

BY Vol I ME. 



No. of specimen. 


Per cent, sawdust. 


Per cent. clay. 


O 


O 


IOO 


1 


IO 


90 


2 


20 


<So 


3 


30 


7o 


4 


40 


fto 


5 


5° 


5° 


ft 


60 


40 


7 


70 


3° 


8 


So 


20 



Six cylindrical shaped blocks of each mixture were 
then made by means of a small hand press, and com- 
pressed with about 200 lbs. per square inch. The No. <s 
mixture had the greatest amount of sawdust that could 
be held together. After being thoroughly dried in an 
oven, they were then "burned " in a gas blast furnace, 
the temperature therein being maintained as near as 
possible at 2000 degs. F. (about the melting point of 
copper). Specimens Nos. o, 1, 2, 3, which were in a 
slightly hotter part of the furnace, were removed after 
four hours and fifteen minutes, parts of their surface 
being slightly vitrified. Specimens 4, 5, ft, 7 were re- 
moved fifteen minutes later, and were also near the point 
of vitrifaction on the surface. Specimens of No. 8 did 
not hold together, and were broken when removed from 
the furnace. It would appear as though the difference in 
time of burning lor different mixtures in blocks of equal 
size was nil; however, on a large scale conditions arc so 
different that the time of burning may vary, Neverthe 
less, it would seem that if blocks can lie burned on a small 
scale in four and one-half hours, that kilns that require 
from ten to forty hours could be improved. 

The specimens after burning were carefully weighed, 

and their respective volumes ascertained by displacement 
(fine sand being used), from which the following weights 
per cubic inch were obtained : 



No. "1 spei imen. 


Weight 


Dl r , nl.,, in, li 111 

U.S.,. 


ibii fool 


In, lbs.| 


O 

1 




.0845 

. 0.S0S 


1 1 '>. 1 

1 ,m.ft2 




2 




071 | 


1 23.20 




3 




.oft.15 


1 1 1.45 




4 




,0596 


I0 2.()N 




5 




.0474 


8 1 . 90 




6 




•°37 ' 


64, 1 




7 




.0244 


I • III 





i6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



/o 










\ 


k 
































\ 


K 
































s 


s 
















So 
















\ 




































































































































\ 


































































s 
































1 


\ 
































\ 
































\ 


\ 

































\ 



to Zo 3o 4o So 
PIG. 



o 7o So <fo /«o 110 1Z0 /3a 'fo 'So 











~ — 


"---.. 


Is 


% 




\ 


A 


\ 


"1 


h . : :" „ : " t 



,'n 
































it 
































































































































t« 




















































































V N 
































s 


































s 
































s 


s 
































\ 



































































I I] i;i RN 1 
MIXTURE. 



/ooo Zooo 3ooo 4ooo Sooo 

Hi. 2. ULTIMATE RESISTANCE rO COMPRESSION 
IN POI NDS PER SQUARE INI II. 



/oo Zoo 3oo 4oo 5, 
FIG. 3 



6.0 ?•» *»■•> 7»= /«• 



//«> /i»» /.J.. /V„ /.f.„ 



ULTIMATE RESISTANI I TO SHEARINl 
POUNDS PER SQI IRE INCH. 



Fig. i shows graphically the relation between the per- 
centage of sawdust in the mixture and the weight per 
cubic foot of the material when burned. 

The ultimate compressive resistances graphically 
given in Fig. 2 and the ultimate resistance to shearing in 
Fig. 3 were obtained from a great number of tests made 
by I. M. Woolsen, E. M., of Columbia University. 



PRACTICAL RULE FOR OBTAINING MAXIMUM 
SPANS FOR HOLLOW TILE FLAT ARCHES. 

THE following is an extract from the "Laws Relat- 
ing to Buildings in the City of New York," and, as 
will be readily understood, defines the maximum Span of 
any depth terra-cotta arch in terms of its depth, and only 
its depth. The cross-sectional area, the density of the 
material, the type arch, vibration, setting, etc., which are 
of vital importance, do not figure in the law or rule. 

"All brick or stone arches placed between iron or 
steel door beams shall be at least 4 ins. thick and have a 
rise of at least 1 % ins. to each foot of span between the 
beams. Arches of over 5 ft. span shall be properly in- 
creased in thickness, as required by the Superintendent 
of Buildings. 

"Or the space between the beams may be filled in 
with sectional hollow brick of hard-burnt clay, porous 
terra-cotta, or some equally good fire-proof material, hav- 
ing a depth of not less than 1 ' 4 ins. to each foot of span 
(changed now to 4 ins.), a variable distance being 
allowed of not over 6 ins. in the span between the 
beams. " 

Let us consider a 6 in. end-construction flat arch of as 
small a cross-sectional area as is practical to make, viz., 
22 sq. ins. ; it is just a shell without any webs. Apply the 
law and we get a maximum span of 5 ft. 3 '- ins. Now 
if the arch is constructed of heavy blocks, say 62 sq. ins. 
per foot of arch, — this is about as heavy as can be made, 

we have the same span as before, 5 ft. 3 ' - ' ns - ' l 
would certainly appear as though the rule was not appli- 
cable. The following empirical formula, which takes into 
account the various factors entering into the case as men- 
tioned above, gives good practical results. 



1 C^AXD = S 

In which A = Cross-sectional area of an arch 
1 ft. wide (in square inches). 
D = Total depth of arch (in inches). 
C = Constant. 
S = Span (in feet ). 



The constant, C, is an assumed quantity and de- 
pends in a general way upon the material used, whether 
end or side construction, percentage of the efficient bond- 
ing material, vibration, and bending when the spans 
become comparatively long. It will be seen in the follow- 
ing appended table that the values of C are small for the 
smaller arches, rising gradually to the 12 in. arch and 
again decreasing. This is due to two of the above-stated 
reasons: First, the percentage of efficient bonding in the 
shallow arches is comparatively small, and, secondly, the 
susceptibility to bending and vibration in the deep arches 
is great: two very practical and good reasons for chang- 
ing the constant as has been done. In the table, values 
are given for the maximum and minimum sections that 
are practical. The cube root of any number is readily 
found in any of the rolling-mill hand-books, and solving 
the formula for any section desired is then a simple 
matter. 

VALUES FOR C, S, AND A. 

END-CONSTRUCTION FLAT ARCHES MADE OF SEMI-POROUS 
rERRA-COTTA. 



JZ 








Average section 






>- 




Minimum section. 


at present 


Maximum s 


"o.E 


c 






used. 






•C G 
















J" 




A 


s 


A 


s 


A 


s 


- 






feet. 


sq. ins. 


feet. 


sq. ins. 


feet. 


4 


.(>2 2- 


18 


2-5* 


28 


3.OO 


44 


3-47 


5 


•7370 


20 


3-4' 


3 2 


4.00 


53 


4-73 


6 


.8337 


22 


4.24 


36 


5.OO 


62 


5-99 


7 


■8793 


2.4 


4.84 


40 


5-75 


7' 


6-95 


8 


.9206 


26 


5-45 


44 


6.50 


80 


7-93 


9 


•9592 


28 


6.05 


48 


7--'5 


89 


8.90 


10 


•9744 


3° 


6.52 


52 


7-83 


08 


9.76 


1 i 


.9992 


32 


7.05 


5<> 


8.50 


.07 


10.54 


12 


1.0045 


34 


7-44 


60 


9.00 


1 16 


11.21 


13 


•992 1 


36 


7.69 


64 


9-33 


I2S 


1 1 . 66 


14 


.9822 


38 


7-95 


68 


9.66 


'34 


12.12 


L5 


•974* 


40 


8.22 


72 


10.00 


•43 


12.56 


16 


.9609 


42 


8.41 


7" 


10.25 


'52 


12.91 



The British Fire Prevention Committee, of London, 
whose main object is to direct attention to the urgent 
need for increased protection of life and property from 
fire by the adoption of preventive measures, has recently 
conducted the following tests: Official lire tests with par- 
titions, official tire tests with ceilings, official fire tests with 
glass, experimental plain glass tests, experimental fire 
tests with floors, experimental fire tests with doors, 
official fire tests with treated wood. The results of these 
tests are printed in pamphlet form for distribution. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



'7 



Selected Miscellany. 



NOTES FROM NEW YORK. 

Mr. Chas. A. Rich has planned a six-story bachelor 
apartment for Mr. W. H. Stearns, to cost $200,000. 

Mr. Wm. Waldorf Astor, of England, will erect an 
eight-story store and loft building on Broadway, corner 
of 13th Street, from plans by Clinton & Russell, cost 
$400,000. 

It is odd that so many of our architects have dis- 
covered during the past year that "single blessedness" 
is more conducive to success, or at least to personal sat- 



The trustees of a large church in Brooklyn have de- 
cided to spend $125,000 upon a new building. A daily 
paper announced that the committee spent last evening 
examining plans, seven sets having been sent in. They 
also announce that they will be very glad to receive 
further plans tor the next three weeks. Would any car- 
penter or mason submit bids under these conditions' 
What are we coming to? We New Yorkers have read 
with interest the " Rules lor Practice" laid down by the 
Boston Architectural Club, s<> of course Boston is free 
from the troubles which trouble us. We hope so. 

During the past week plans have been tiled for one 
hundred and seventy-two buildings, to be erected in Man- 
hattan and Bronx Boroughs alone, the total cost of which 





isfaction. Among the firms 
which have recently dis- 
solved partnership are Lamb 
& Rich, Brunner & Tryon, 
Berg & Clark, and Melendy 
& Detwiller. 

I have it on the authority 
of many of our contractors 
and manufacturers that the 
present high prices in build- 




CRAIG COLONY FOR EPILEPTICS. 

Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



exceeds S4, 000, 000. T h i s. 
it is needless to say, is an un- 
usually large amount of busi- 
ness to be tiled during so 
short a space of time. A 
great majority 1 if these build- 
ings are tenements, and the 
rush to tile plans is explained 
by the fact that during this 
month the new code goes 




1 1 II II llftll ...1 HMuT 




ing materials cannot last. There arc hundreds of opera- 
tions which have been laid aside, and which will stay 
there, until prices are more favorable. The year 1900 is 
bound to be a good one if manufacturers and producers 
will only realize this. 

A bill is to be presented to Congress during its pres- 
ent session providing for a new up-town post-office, 

which is badly needed. The site most favored is in the 
neighborhood of the Grand Central Station. The popu- 
lation of New York, taking the city in its largest sense, 
is now grouped about this point. Here is to be the great 
hotel and apartment-house district, and here will be 
gathered, more and more, the various kinds of businesses 
that make the largest use of the mails. 



into effect, which is not nearly so favorable to tenement 
building as the present building law. Of course. ill the 
buildings for which plans have been filed will not In- 
built at once and many not at all. 

( >n behalf of at least some of the architects of New 
York The Brickbi ilder is requested to register one vig- 
orous kick to head the list for the new century. Probably 
nothing is hurting the profession so much now as the 
••open competition," which has become a nuisance, and 

in fact an octopus gathering in the best of our architects 
who are unable to resist its glittering eye and suave 
manner. Of the many which have come to my notic< 
cently, I would like to call attention particularly to two 
which, as in nine cases out of ten, are bound to be 1111 



[8 



T II E B RICK UV I L I) E R 




SPANDREL, I 7 I 1! STREE1 EN rRANI I 
MEDICI > CHIRURGK \ I Hi (SPITAL, 
PHIL \IIKI rill A, PA. 
Executed by the Conkling-Annstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

Herman Miller, Architect. 

satisfactory. The trustees of a cer- 
tain free library in a suburban town 
had $30,000 to expend on a new 
building. Instead of inviting a lim- 
ited mini Iter of reputable architects 
to compete and paying them each an 
adequate fee for 

their trouble, they instituted an "open 

competition" into which thirty archi- 
tects were lured. Imagine it! Thirty 

architects devoting two weeks of hard 

work for the privilege of drawing a 

ticket in this lottery! The bait thrown 

out was as follows: First prize, S.}°° : 

second prize, $_'oo; third and fourth 

prizes, S100 each. Well, after two 




Building Commissioner McAndrews has turned 
over to tin- city law department the names of live 
hundred owners of buildings who have not complied 
with Section [98 of the building code, requiring swing- 
ing or revolving sash above the second story, except 
where safe balconies are provided. final notices have 
also been sent to many violators of this excellent ordi- 
nance for the safety of window washers. 

Charles A. Coolidge, S. S. Beman, and W. Carbys 

Zimmerman constitute the jury of award in the medal 
competition instituted by the Illinois Chapter. A. 1. 
A., for the benefit of the Architectural Club. The 

problem this year is a "Municipal Court " extending 
alongthe lake front on Michigan Avenue, from [ackson 
Boulevard to Randolph Street, and involves the de- 
signing of a city hall, a building for the board of educa- 
tion, and a proposed extension to the Art Institute. 

The usual holiday dulness in new building operations is 
greatly increased by the continued uncertainty as to the 
outcome of the pending negotiations between the arbi- 
tration committees representing the 
employers and the trades unions. The 
demands of the unions have grown to 
be so unreasonable and tyrannical that 
no very great hopes are cherished by 
the unrepresented but much inter- 
ested building public for an early and 
satisfactory adjustment of existing 
differences between employers and 
labor. 



months' hard (?) work the 
committee decided that not 
one of the designs was tit 
to build, but they generously 
distrib uted the prizes to 
those whose designs caught 
their eye. Now, is the 
"game worth the candle." 
and is the dignity of the pro- 
fession advanced by such 
methods"- Would any law- 
yer give two weeks of his 

time and best efforts just to have a committee pass on 
his ability? 

NOTES FROM CHICAGO. 

The Chicago National Bank competition is closed, but 
the award has not yet been made public. 

Louis II. Sullivan, I). II. Burnham, and Peter I!. 

Wight have been chosen to represent the architects on 
the executive board of the Municipal Art League. 

A large hotel in the lodging-house district, on the plan 
of the Mills Hotels in New York, is being talked of as a 
possibility in the near future. Something of the sort is 
certainly much needed in Chicago. 

Local architects are not at all pleased at the intima- 
tions recently given that the live new government build- 
ings soon to be erected in Illinois are to be designed in the 
office of the supervising architect at Washington. The 
buildings referred to are to be located at Joliet, Elgin, 
Streator, Freeport, and Monmouth. 



ILLUMINATING DIAL, EDISON ELECTRIC BUILDING, CHU IGO. 

uted by the American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company. 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



The ( onstruction Neivs gives the 
following account of an inter- 
It esting case which was tried 
here recently before Justice 
Underwood : — 

"Hen r y < \. Wright, a 
member of the Chicago Archi- 
tects' Business Association, 
brought suit against Nicolay 
Ilassclo, an owner. and Charles 
J. Cross, a contractor, for ar- 
chitect's fees for plans for a house, which had been 
erected in Rogers I'ark from copies of Mr. Wright's plans 




I'll \slKk CAP, HOTEL FOR WHITE I— I \M. : 

NEW YORK CITY. 
Executed by the Atlantic Terra-Cotta 
Barney & Chapman, \n I 



,X I tl - I Ml I I . 



tup: brick ium ld er 



*9 



\ 





l,li:k AKY 



H>n si. VI E \M MILTON, M VSS. 
McKlm, Mead & White, Architects. 



20 



THE BR IC K BUILD E R 




Underwood gave the complainant judgment for $157.50, 
being equal to a commission of 3^ per cent, on the cost 
of the dwelling." 



PANE] AT SIXTH STORY, HAMILTON BUILDING, 
Made by Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 
Mead & Garfield, Architects. 



\k RON, olllo. 



for another dwelling in the same vicinity, for a man 

named Ryan. The architect had communicated with 
Hasselo, as lie had heard that the latter contemplated 
building, and admired the Ryan house. 

•• Mr. Hasselo did not give Mi - . Wright the commission, 
but ultimately erected a house which was an exact dupli- 
cate of the Ryan residence. The plans of the Hasselo 
house were presented in court and bore the signature of 
the architect. R. B. Powell. A tracingof the plansofthe 
Ryan house was laid over the plans of the Hasselo house, 
and the\- were found to coincide exactly. Changes had 
been made in the size of windows and the height of 
first story of the Ryan house after the plans had been 
drawn, and the figures only were changed on the plans. 
These changes of figures were reproduced on the plans of 
the Hasselo house, leaving the drawings out of scale and 
showing plainly that the plans had been copied. Justice 







IX GENERAL. 



The Washington Architectural Club, now numbering 

somewhat over seventy members, has been admitted to 

the League. 

Mr. A. L. Brockway's paper, "The Influence of the 
French School of Design upon Architecture," was the 
most fully discussed paper read at the recent convention 
of the American Institute of Architects. 

On December 4 a dinner of fifty covers was given in 
the assembly room of the T Square Club to the visiting 




CARTOUCHE 0RNAMEN1 OVER WINDOWS, APARTMENT 
HOUSE, WEST KM) AVENUE, NEW YOkk CITY. 
ued in gray terracotta by Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 

Thorm & Wilson. Architects, 



DETAIL, SULLIVAN BUILDING, ST. lolls, MO. 

Made by Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. 

Isaac S. Taylor. Architect. 

members of the exhibition committee. Tables were ar- 
ranged in the form of a large T square, from the head of 
which Adin B. baccy, president of the club, presided. 

Work upon the circuit of exhibitions to be held in 
Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, St. Louis. Detroit, 

Cleveland, and Pittsburgh was reported well advanced. 
Reside an unusual quota of entries from the United 
States, over one hundred have been received from Eng- 
land, a large number from l'aris, and a few from Canada. 

The largest area occupied by a single private mansion 
in New York will be the residence of Andrew Carnegie, 
which will occupy the entire Fifth Avenue front between 
90th and 91st Streets. From the designs prepared by 
Babb, Cook & Willard, we have every reason to anticipate 
a stately establishment equaling any in Paris or Condon. 

At a recent executive board meeting of the Architec- 
tural League of America, held in Pittsburgh, a national 



THE BRICKIU'ILI) E R 



21 



committee upon municipal improvement and civic em- 
bellishment was appointed. It is composed of nine men 
from eight different cities, who have made this subject a 
special study, all of whom are 
willing' and anxious to be con- 
sulted by any who may desire 
to get n p municipal art socie- 
ties. 

We learn from Detroit that 
the local architectural club has 
taken the initiative in organiz- 
ing the Detroit Art Federation. 
The societies that responded to 
President Ropes's call are the 
Michigan Chapter of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Architects, the 
Water Color Society, the Art 
Association, and the Keramic 
Club. It is to be hoped that 
many more such alliances will 
be formed throughout the coun- 
try. 




monly employed in burned-clay fire-proof construction, 
also of partition blocks, girder coverings, furring tiles, 
etc. The binding of this work is in the style of the last 

century, being of a huff parch- 
ment color, with the title " The 
Story of tlie House" set in a 
design representing a rough 
hand board, such as might have 
been used tor bulletin purposes 
in the days of the Pilgrim fath- 
ers. As we have stated above, 
this work is a radical departure 
from the general form of trade 
catalogues. We feel that the 
architectural profession will be 
much interested in its contents, 
and welcome its originality. 
The only disappointment about 
the book is that there is not a 
great deal more of it. 



NEW CATALOGUES 
CALENDARS. 



AND 



I'll. ASTER CAPITAL, POSNER BUILDING, BALTI- 
MORE, Ml). 

Work executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 
Charles E. Cassell, Architect. 



"THE STORY OF THE 
HOUSE. Being some sugges- 
tions in brickwork from the cat- 
alogue of O. W. Ketcham, 
whose office is in the Builders' 
Exchange, of the city of Phila- 
delphia, in the State of Penn- 
sylvania. Illustrated and ar- 
ranged by Henry Loomis 
Curtis." 

" The Story of the House " 
is a title given to an extremely 
interesting catalogue of various 
forms of brick and terra-cotta. 
Advertising has surely become 
one of the fine arts, and this 
volume takes rank among the 
best of its kind. The first half 
is occupied by a number of 
clever sketches illustrating quo- 
tations from the poets, having 
special reference to such por- 
tions of buildings as are capa- 
ble of being constructed of 
brick. In the conception of 
these sketches Mr. Curtis has 
created some particularly pleas- 
ing designs that harmonize very 
effectively with the poetic char- 
acter of this portion of the book. 
The catalogue is divided into 
three parts: part one as de- 
scribed above; part two devoted 
to molded brick forms, of which 

drawings are given of a hundred or more patterns; part 
three, which treats of terra-cotta fire-proof materials. In 
this last there are illustrations of the various arches com- 




We are in receipt of the ad- 
vanced sheets of a catalogue 
shortly to be issued by the Tif- 
fany Enameled Brick Company, 
descriptive of theshapes, shades, 
etc., of the enameled brick 
which they manufacture. This 
booklet is published in a conven- 
ient pocket size, and is of attrac- 
tive appearance. In the arrange- 
ment of contents care has been 
taken to make all matter brief 
and concise, and yet to include 
all essential information possi- 
ble to give in a catalogue con- 
cerning the use and purpose of 
this product as a building ma- 
terial. Following the introduc- 
tory pages are tables of the di- 
mensions of their various brick, 
and diagrams are shown of cross- 
sections of the principal shapes, 
with a schedule of approximate 
costs of same. Explanatory 
notes of considerable interest ac- 
company these tables. We are 
glad to recommend this booklet 
as a work of reference very de- 
sirable to architects and Others 
interested in the use of enameled 
brick. Parties desiring copies 
should communicate with the 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Com- 
pany, Marquette Building, 
Chicago, 111. 



DETAIL, 



kill I \ HOUSE Al' AIM MEN Is, I'll m \., PA 
Made by Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 



( 



The Winkle Terra-Cotta 
ompany, St. Louis, Mo., have 



Willis c. Hale, Architect. issued a inosl at t ract i ve calendar 

for kjoo. The subject of the 
illustration, " The Goddess of Plenty," is evidently tab a 
from a photograph of a terra-cotta panel made by this 
company. The exquisite grace and beauty of the model- 



12. 



T II E BRICKBUILD E R 



ing and the artistic conception of the design are well 
worth more than a passing mention. 

James A. Davis & Co., Boston, Mass., distributors of 
high-grade American Portland cements, have issued a 
unique and pleasing 
calendar, the subject 

i 1 1 n s t rated being 
•• Tiny Tim." a high- 
bred Boston terrier, 
owned l>v Mr. I )avis. 



CURRENT [TEMS 
OF INTEREST. 




TheCeladon Terra 
Cotta Company, Ltd.. 

are furnishing the roofing tile fur the following buildings: 
Library at Wayland, Mass., Cabot, Everett & Mead, archi- 
tects; summer house, Thompson, Conn., tor Norman I!. 
Ream, Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects; residence 
tor A. C. Hindekoper, Meadville, Pa., Alfred H. Thorp, 
architect; residence. San Francisco, Cal., for X. Clark & 
Sons. 

Edward R. Diggs & Co., Baltimore, Md., are furnish- 
ingthebrici for the following buildings: The new Library 
building, Baltimore, Md.. Joseph Evans Sperry, archi- 
tect; the Emerson Building, Baltimore, Md.. William 
McLane Goodrich, architect: the Guardian Trust Com- 
pany's Building, Baltimore, Md.. Baldwin & Pennington, 
architects. This last operation will require over 120,000 
impervious light front brick. 

The Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn., has 
recently been reorganized with a liberal working capital, 
and the plant is now running under new management. 

The company announce that they are in position to fill 

all orders promptly, 

and will be glad to 

render estimates on 

any work in their 

line. They are also 

introducing in the 

market several new 

and beautiful effects 

in dull finished tile. 

The next conven- 
tion of the National 
Brick Manufactur- 
ers' Association will 
be held at Detroit, 
Mich.. February 5 to 
10, and we earnestly 
recommend t h o s e 

among our readers who are manufacturers' agents in 
burned-clay products to make an effort to be present. 
We particularly designate agents, because, as a rule, this 
important faction of the clay material business does not 
attend these conventions, and we believe that it would be 
to their advantage as well as to that of the industry as a 
whole if, in these assemblies, the market end of the clay 
business was more fully represented by their presence. 

The important part played both in the appearance 



ARCHITRAVE L'ROWN, APARTMENT HOUSE, NEW YORK ill\. 
ited by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. 
George F. Pelham, Architect. 





ggpEBr 


£3^ A 
1 


■^■Prbi- 




AtC^ilJ^ ML-Z-— — 









HOUSE AT OVERBROOK, PA. 
David Knickerbocker Boyd, Lawrence Visscher Boyd, Associated Architects 



and durability of a building by architectural terra-cotta 
is now firmly established. The year just closed has wit- 
nessed the success which can be obtained in this line 
where the article manufactured is of a high standard of 

quality. We refer to 
t h e Atlantic Terra- 
C< itta C( impany, of 287 
Fourth Avenue. New 
York City. This com- 
pany has been operat- 
ing for hardly more 
than a year, but by the 
character of its work 
has now an established 
position in all the prin- 
cipal cities of the East. 
Its success, naturally, was to have been expected, as, in 
its organization, the principal departments were placed in 
charge of experienced men, who had risen to high positions 
in the larger companies. Among the principal contracts 
made by the company are the following: Terminal Hotel, 
Boston, Mass., Arthur Bowditch, architect, George A. 
Fuller Company, contractors; Albany Building, Albany, 
Beach, and Lincoln Streets, Boston, Mass., Peabody & 
Stearns, architects. Norcross Bros., contractors; apart- 
ment house, uth and Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., 
Varnell & Goforth, architects. Dorsey & Smith, contrac- 
tors; police and lire house. Carpenter and ;th Streets, 
Philadelphia, Pa., Hazelhurst & Huckle, architects, J. 
E. & A. L. Pennock, contractors; valve house. Allegheny 
Avenue. Philadelphia, Pa., Wilson Brothers & Company, 
architects. J. E. &A. L. Pennock, contractors ; residence. 
Rhode Island Avenue. "N" Street and Scott Circle. 
Washington, D. C. Heins & La Farge, architects. George 
II. Turton & Co.. contractors; passenger station. Pitts- 
burgh & Lake Erie Railroad. Pittsburgh, Pa.. ]. A. At- 
wood, chief engi- 
neer. Henry Shenk, 
cont ract or; resi- 
dences. Fifth Ave- 
nue. Xew York City, 
for W. W. Astor, 
Clinton & Russell. ar- 
chitects, John Dow- 
ney, contractor; 
White Estate Hotel, 
38th Street and Sev- 
enth Avenue, New 
York City, Barney & 
C h a ]) m a n, archi- 
tects, Thompson & 
Adams, contractors; 
apartments, Central 
Lark Westand 93d Street. Xew York City. George Keister, 
architect. Patrick Norton, contractor; International Hank 
Building, Broadway and Cedar Street. New York City, 
Bruce Price, architect, George A. Fuller Company, con- 
tractors. The company doubled the capacity of its plant 
during the last six months, and the kiln which it has just 
completed is the largest oik- in the East. It is a pleasure 
to record the success which this company has met with 
and which it has justly merited. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

FEBRUARY, 

1900. 




<c 



< 



V. 



Z' 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MiiN l in v BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . ]'. ( ). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Huston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, r8a2. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, B\ I III BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed Hat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada $3.00 per year 

Single numbers 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ....... $6.00 per year 

s i BSl RIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the I nited States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Companj and its bram ties. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : — 



p \i,i 

Agencies. — Claj Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire proofing IV 

Machinery ... IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT. 

\TI7 E desire to express our appreciation and gratitude 
VV for the kindly indorsements of our new depar- 
ture, which have been so abundantly bestowed upon us 
by our subscribers. 

It would have been quite impossible to make acknowl- 
edgment in each instance, therefore we take this method 
to thank our supporters, and perhaps better, assure them 
that it will be our endeavor to merit their continued 
approval. 

In returning our thanks, we are not unmindful of that 
eloquent tribute which has come in the simple form of a 
" renewal," and it is our hope that to one and all of our 
friends may come, as a result of some greater effort, that 
encouragement which has been so liberally bestowed 



upon us 



The Pubi isiiKks. 



A 



A RCHITECTU R A L TRA I X I N( i. 

RCHITECTURE can to-day fairly be classed as 
one of the learned professions. In conversation a 
short time since with one of our most successful archi- 
tects, the fact was developed that his training previous 
to Starting in business for himself had been limited to 
less than a year in the office of an architect whose work 
certainly does not rank anion- the best, followed by a 
single trip to Europe. While this, perforce, answered 
the purposes of a man of undoubted genius, it is surely 
not enough, if we may judge by the average practitioner, 



who feels called upon to devote four years or more to 
technical training in the schools of this country, several 
years of hard study and travel abroad, and, in addition, 
four or five years in an office. The duties and responsi- 
bilities of the profession are increasing so fast and are so 
much in excess of anything that was thought of thirty 
years ago that, although there arc some most notable ex- 
ceptions, the qualifications of a modern architect are ac- 
quired only after long years of training. Professor Ware 
used to be quoted as saying that an architect did not be- 
come of age until he was at least thirty, implying that 
his architectural childhood extended over a long period 
of probationary years. We can see nothing but hope 
in a situation of this kind, for realizing how vastly ex- 
tended the scope of the architect's possibilities becomes 
by reason of a thorough preliminary training, taking 
into consideration also the fact that no one feels we 
have yet anywhere near approached the meridian of our 
architectural development, it is a thoroughly good sign 
that our architects are not only called upon but are willing 
to devote long years to careful preparation. 



THE executive mansion at Washington, while by no 
means on a par with the residences of royalty or 
of state executives abroad, is one in which we may at least 
have sufficient pride to preserve it from injudicious or ill- 
considered alterations. The action of the Pine Arts 
Union, of Washington City, protesting against the bill 
introduced into Congress for additions to the White 
House, deserves the cooperation of all who are interested 
in seeing the direction of our national architecture put in 
proper hands. The protest of the Union is against "any 
alteration or addition to the executive mansion being 
devised or executed without the examination or the 
advice of an expert commission of architects, landscape 
architects, and sculptors of national reputation." It 
would seem almost needless to urge any such protest as 
this; rather, that no Legislator would for a moment 
dream of following any other course than the one which 
this protest suggests. lint our legislators are not chosen 
for their artistic perceptions, or at least if they are the 
choice has been a most unfortunate one in the main, and 
it is sincerely to be hoped that the White House will not 
be injudiciously meddled with. 



r I ^HERE is trouble in the granite market between the 
1 workmen and the quarry men, the differences 

springing principally from matters of compensation. W< 

see it stated in the daily papers that the manufacturers 
maintain that brick, terra-COtta, and other materials 
could profitably be substituted for granite if the demands 
of the workmen were to lie conceded. While we are 



M 



T II K BRICKBUILD E R 



interested in seeing terra-cotta assume the place to which 
we believe it is entitled in our architectural development, 
and while we have every evidence to believe that it has 
obtained a position where it is not a competitor but 
rather an equal with oilier materials, we cannot feel that 
the loss of granite or any other stone is to be a gain for 
terra-cotta; but that, in proportion as the labor troubles 
are adjusted in such a manner as to leave the market 
tree, all the departments of building will be benefited, 
and there is no doubt in our mind about brick and 
terra-cotta receiving their full share of orders. The 
labor troubles seem to be ever with us as a part of 
national prosperity, and we can only hope that an ad- 
justment may be made between the men and the quarry 
owners by which the granite workers can keep up with 
the demand. 



THE death of John Ruskin in a way marks the close 
of a distinct period of development in modern 
architecture. While only one of the many who con- 
tributed to the renaissance in taste which has marked 
the latter half of the ninetenth century among the Eng- 
lish-speaking peoples, the part of Ruskin in the develop- 
ment was a very important one. He was one of the first 
of modern art critics to realize and formulate the dis- 
tinction between good taste and merely correct architec- 
ture. Like all reformers he carried his beliefs to extremes, 
and in the honest seeking after the traditions of truth and 
beauty which have come to be associated with his name 
he laid down some canons of taste which the calmer judg- 
ment of the end of the century has not been inclined al- 
together to accept. Hut when we consider the condition 
of England and America previous to his advent it is not 
to be wondered that the pendulum with him should have 
swung to the other side. He was a man of most keen 
susceptibilities, one with whom taste was sui generis, and 
not in the slightest degree dependent upon somebody 
else's diction or example. He thought out his own ideas 
in direct opposition to the inherited teachings <>f his gen- 
eration, and by the freshness and clearness of his ideas, 
no less than by his marvelous mastery of the English lan- 
guage, he was able to profoundly influence the art thought 
of the age. Moreover, he was the first of modern critics 
to fully appreciate the artistic qualities of terra-cotta and 
brickwork, and although the title of his perhaps best- 
known architectural work, " The Stones of Venice, " does 
not imply much recognition of burnt clay, his fondness 
for the color and texture of terra-cotta, for the delicate 
combinations of brick, burnt clay, and marble, and for 
the color sense which is so marked a feature of the North 
Italian work show how strongly the brick and terra-cotta 
impressed him. The immediate result of the new school 
of thought and criticism, of which he became the acknowl- 
edged head, was in England to bring about a revival of 
the brick and terra-cotta arts, and one of the most tangi- 
ble results of " The Stones of Venice " was the develop- 
ment of the possibilities of burnt clay. Raskin's early 
writings are associated with the successes of the English 
potters as well as the terra-cotta artists, and the revival 
which he was so largely instrumental in starting spread 
wherever English has been spoken, so that for years the 
name of John Ruskin was a synonym for what was best 
and purest in the art of architecture. 



The present attitude of the world towards art seems 
to us a more rational one. We are not carried to the ex- 
tremes that Mr. Ruskin advocated. Wc do not feel the 
need for the deliberate refinement in subordinate details 
which was such a satisfaction to him, and wc look at the 
matter of truth in design as one of relation far more 
than absolute fact. We have broadened our scope, en- 
larged our facilities, and are prepared to study architec- 
ture rather than to consider it a gushing effervescence of 
spontaneity. At the same time, however far we may 
have departed from the letter of the English reformer's 
teachings, the spirit is ever with us. and the essence of 
his works when stripped of the natural extremism which 
seemed to be a part of every apostolic thought has come 
to be accepted by the world as typifying our ultimate 
aims and our highest aspirations. Mr. Ruskin has for 
years ceased to be an active factor except by his past, 
and his peaceful death has come at the completion of a 
life in which his principles were fully explained and dur- 
ing which he was given ample time to work out all his 
theories. 



'"T^IIL death of the Duke of Westminster removes one 
A more of the notable ground landlords of London 
who have done so much to develop the possibilities of 
economic dwelling construction. One of the first at- 
tempts in this direction was made bv the Duke of Bed- 
ford, who selected a suburb a short distance from the 
crowded portion of London and proceeded, with the 
assistance of E. W. Godwin, Xorman Shaw, and several 
of the brightest and most progressive English architects, 
to evolve a town off-hand, building entire new streets, 
with row after row of cozy, homelike dwellings clustered 
about a central square given up to a clubhouse, a charm- 
ing little church, a village inn. and a public library. 
Our recollection is that all these buildings were con- 
structed of brick and terra-cotta. and the influence of a 
development of this sort has been felt in a great many 
ways in different parts of the world, these houses at 
Bedford Lark forming in some respects a model after 
which several moderate-priced villages have been built. 
The Duke of Westminster has left an excellent record as 
landlord and as a citizen of the metropolis, and has been 
a constant patron of the best phases of English archi- 
tecture. 



BV the death of Paul Sedille France has lost one of 
the most broad-minded members of the architectu- 
ral profession. While we would not be inclined to accord 
the distinction which has been churned of his being the 
architectural successor of Charles Gamier, he was a man 
of strong individuality, and one who was ever ready to 
take the good from architecture of all countries, in this 
respect being in marked contrast with most of his con- 
freres. A man of large inherited fortune, who had in 
addition earned a considerable fortune by his profession, 
he was in a position to assert an independence of mere 
academic limitations and t<> influence the realization of 
his ideas to an extent that the French architect seldom 
enjoys. He was an aristocrat bv instinct and the work 
which he has left behind him is in many respects some 
of the most interesting which the latter-day school of 

French architects have produced. 



T II E 15 RICKBUILD E R 



o 



The Minor Brickwork of the Apen- 
nines. Siena. 



BY WW 1 ER II. K I I HAM. 



A 



S the "accelerated" train winds its leisurely way 
from Empoli over the red soil of the Tuscan up- 




SIENA, GENERAL \lh.U FROM CHURCH Of SAN DOMENICO. 

lands there is little to indi- 
cate the wonderful stores 
of art treasures awaiting us 
ahead in the lonely old town 
on its windy hilltop. Dry, 
brown, and bare the hills 
appear in the November 
morning, dotted here and 
there with plain and poor- 
looking farmhouses, until, 
trundling around a curve 
in the steady up grade, our 
narrow car window sud- 
denly shows us a magnifi- 
cent sweep of red brick 
wall of tremendous height 
and studded with towers, 
swinging majestically away 
around the slope of the 

hills above the railway. The train comes to a stop 
right under these mighty parapets, and seizing our bags 
and sketching stools we set off, full of anticipation, up 
the winding street to the town. Just inside the gate one 
of the finest and oldest industries of the place is put in 
evidence by a large manufactory of wrought iron, the 
excellence of whose output is attested by the beautiful 
torch holders set in the outside walls. 

The "Via Garibaldi," by which all good Italian 
towns are entered, now swings to the left in the regula- 
tion manner into the " Via Cavour," and at once it seems 
as if four hundred years had rolled back, leaving us 
standing in a street whose architecture and people indi- 
cate the time of the Middle Ages. Dark and gloomy 
Gothic palaces rise side by side with the architectural 
productions of the golden age of the Renaissance; the 
narrow and winding street is peopled with the cloaked 
and slouch-hatted figures of the melodrama, among whom 




KON'I'K 0VILE, SIENA. 



teams of great white oxen with horns of preposterous 
length slowly drag loads of produce over the stone pave 
ment. 

Siena is an example of a mediaeval town, which lias 
come down to us intact, its features embalmed as it 
were in the dry air of its upland moors. A terrible 
pestilence which depopulated it in the fourteenth century 
so stunted its growth that it never recovered its prosper 
itv. and the old streets and houses are presented to us 
unspoiled and unchanged by modern improvements. 
The space enclosed l>v the city walls rests on the ridges 
of three hills, which radiate from the center, star fashion, 
leaving deep valleys between. The present buildings are 
almost entirely confined to the ridges, while the valleys, 
once the abode of thousands of citizens, are given over t<> 
gardens and orchards. It is this mingling of crowded 
streets and vast empty hollows and gardens which gives 
to Siena a topography which strikes the stranger as 
peculiarly expressive of the awful fate which overtook 
the community, and converted the arrogant and prosper- 
ous rival of Florence into a secluded and back-going pro- 
vincial town. But the era of prosperity lasted long enough 
to erect one of the finest cathedrals, certainly the finest 
campanile, and dozens of the most beautiful palaces and 
houses in Italy, beside providing the city with works ol 

art in the way of paint- 
ings, carvings, and iron 
work, which will always 
make it artistically one of 
the most important towns 
of Europe, 

Siena is emphatically a 
brick town. It is true that 
the cathedral and a few 
other buildings are built of 
stone or marble, but the red 
b r ick, rich and brilliant 
with age, is the prevailing 
material. Molded b r ick s 
are used to a considerable 
extent, but many of the 
cornices are made of plain 
brick arranged in tasteful 
patterns. 




•r ■ _ -»-^ 





,iiA)."A>HO< 1 H>.' 



Mill II Mill IV M 



BRICK CORNICE, PALAZZO I'ol I IM, SIENA. 



26 



Til E B R K' K BUILDER 





Two genera] types of cornices appear: the arcaded 
or Gothic type and the mo- 
dillioned or Renaissance. 
The Gothic cornices, which 
sometimes are surmounted 
by battlements, consist of a 
scries nf small arches, either 
pointed or semicircular, rest- 
ing on corbels, which may 
either he made by projecting 
square-edged courses of brick 
each a little further out than 
the one below it. or by cut- 
ting of the bricks to a diag- 
onal plane, which gives at a 
distance the effect of a regu- 
lar stone construction. The 
soffits of the arches are 
cusped with the aid of terra- 
cotta pieces, and dentals, 
block and billet moldings, 
and molded String courses 
are brought in above and be- 
low to give the requisite ap- 
pearance of strength to the 
composition. The projection 
is often considerable, a n d 
more than we would be in- 
clined to use i n m o d e r n 
times. 

The Renaissance type is richer, and is more likely to 
be surmounted by the overhanging Italian wooden eaves 
with hanging gutter. More terra-cotta is used in these, 
and all the members of a regular Corinthian cornice are 
introduced. The modillions are decorated with beauti- 
fully modeled acanthus leaves and the egg-and-dart and 
dental courses are given all their due prominence. The 
cymas are decorated in the finest examples, though in 
some they are simply expressed by molded bricks on 
edge. The cornice of the Pollini Palace, illustrated by 
the photograph, is one of the best of these. A large 
scale detail of the facade was published in Tut Brick- 

Bl ILDER, Vol. VI., No. 5. 

It is not to be denied that much of the attractiveness 
of old Siena comes from the delicate tones with which 
the ages have colored the old brick buildings which line 
its streets Common red brick is a material which grows 
old gracefully, and every century adds its charm to the 
glowing walls. I do not remember having seen else- 
where such a red as glows on the old Fonte Nuova, while 




the front of the Public Palace, with greenish stains creep- 
ing over the weather-beaten bricks, and black and white- 
marble escutcheons, is, with the similar facade at Pia- 
cenza, the finest example of a literally " green old age " in 
architecture. Again, perhaps such masses of the mate- 
rial are not to be found elsewhere. Here are dozens of 
houses propped on brick retaining walls 30 or 40 ft. 
high, strengthened with gigantic buttresses and arches. 
Here are great churches, where all the ornamentation has 
been lavished on the interior, leaving to the outside only 
the rudimentary masses of the architectural scheme done 
in the rough, unveneered brickwork, which are vet 
grand because of harmony in size and proportion. Here, 
too. is the graceful and slender campanile of tin' Mangia, 

with its faithful encircling 
audience of grimly serious 
old, red Gothic palaces which 
have for centuries listened to 
the sound of its bells across 
the old town square. Very 
serious and very stately is 
the brick architecture of old 
Siena, with none of the ex- 
travagance and abandon of 
the work at 1'avia or Milan. 

The more famous pa 
of Siena have been so well 
and often described that I 
shall limit this article to some 
of the smaller and more pic- 
turesque monuments with 
w h i c h the city is replete. 
Among these none are more 
attractive than the fountains 
or public washing places, of 
which there are several in t he- 
lower parts of the town, be- 
side some just outside the 
walls. These pools are gen- 
erally covered with massively 
vaulted brick roofs supported 
on great piers and Gothic 
arches of beautifully molded 
brickwork. The Fonte Nuova is one of the best known 
of these. It dates probably from the thirteenth century. 








F"o„t. R 



m. '5(a> 



T II E BRICK BUIL I) E R . 



27 



and has a facade of two fine pointed arches in molded 
brick, with the outer rim of the archivolt marked by a 




finely cut pattern in the same material. A small dwell- 
ing which rests on this imposing substructure is ap- 
proached by a curiously arched brick staircase, shown in 
the annexed sketch. The putlock 
holes remain in the brick walls, 
as they do in so many Italian 
buildings, and give with the 
weather-stained facade a remark- 
ably imposing appearance. The 
coloring of the old red bricks is 
exquisite. 

The Fonte Ovile, surrounded 
by olive trees in the picturesque 
hollow below the great city gate, 
with its garrulous laundresses, to 
whose laborious cudgeling are 
committed the shirts and shifts of 
the neighboring quarters, is an- 
other of quite similar construc- 
tion. It is some 30 or 40 ft. high, 
and the two arches arc separated 
by an engaged column with a 
carved capital, all done in brick. 
The central pier is about 4 by 7 ' •_> 
ft. in plan, which gives some idea 
of the massive and solid appear- 
ance of the building. The dark 
and cool water gushes from the 
back of this lofty cavern, form- 
ing a delightful contrast to the 
hot and dusty roadway. 

More secluded and therefore 
less known is the situation of the 
Fonte Piscaja, outside the Porta 
Camollia. This is a considerably 
larger affair, having three sturdy 

arches, which support, above a finely proportioned cor- 
nice and ornamental brick courses, a building of consid- 
erable size and commonplace design, probably a later 
erection. 

In the historic Contrada dell' Oca, the " Ward of the 
Goose " (the various quarters of Siena are named after 
birds and animals), under the cliff on which stands the 
great church of San Domenico, and near the birthplace 
of St. Catherine, is the less ornate but possibly more 
dignified Fonte Branda, Ion-- the favorite spring of the 
tanners and dyers of the vicinity, and even praised by 
Dante in the " Inferno," " Per Fontebranda non darei la 
vista." 

Others still are more ruined architecturally, like the 
Fonte Follonica, hidden deep in the gardens behind the 




Via Ricasoli, in the search for which I chanced upon an 
exquisite wrought-iron crane and wheel set in a statelj 
arch in an old palace court. After finding one of these, 
Miir has always a feeling that each heavily barred courtyard 
gate conceals another, and I am afraid that in default of 
the courage necessary to ring up the porter and ask him 
if he had an ornamental well-curb in the house we did 
an entirely uncalled-for amount of keyhole peeping in 
the aristocratic old street. 

Beautiful and interesting hits >>\ brickwork are not 
confined, however, to the city proper, and a walk in any 
direction outside the walls will result in finds well worth 
preserving in the sketch-book. The gateways and barbi- 
cans themselves have finely molded arches and corbelled 
and arcaded cornices in the style of the very best~period, 
and near the Porta I'ispini 1 re- 
member a semicircular bastion 
w it h a charming Renaissance 
cornice in the most delicate pro- 
portions. Following the highway 
from this gate down the long 
slope into the misty valley, you 
cross a stream by a picturesque 
bridge, and mount again by ve- 
randahed farmhouses with project- 
ing eaves and outside stairs, until 
in about two miles you arrive at 
the old Italian manor of "Ouattro 
Torre," its four towers, medal- 
Honed walls, and arched court 
standing among the terraces and 
balustrades of a decayed garden 
with the dependent farmhouses 
at a respectful distance'. ( >r in the 
other direction, out from the 
Porta Camollia, are the Palazzo 
da Diavoli and the chapel beside 
it, better preserved and more 
famous. The brick farmhouses 
of Siena province deserve more 
attention than they generally ob- 
tain, and are among the most 
picturesque specimens of Italian 
rural architecture. The natives 
are courteous and intelligent, and 
fairly well to do for Italy, while 
the scenery is delightfully char- 
acteristic and full of atmosphere. 
Returning to the city from one of these excursions, one 
can hardly fail t<> be impressed by the gigantic masses of 
the red brick churches, which are placed on most of the 
promontories above the roads. The gates are usually 



in c tyard, Via Ricasoli, Siena. 




C^ra^r^- 



28 



T II E BRICKIU"! LI) ER. 




IRICK CORNICES, SIENA. [AMES P. [AMIESON, DEL 



placed topographically somewhat lower than the neigh- 
boring land, so as to secure an easy -rade to the valley 
below, and almost every point of the star is dominated 
by the walls of some church building, mighty as only 
Italian churches can be. In the city proper every street 



TH E B R ECKBUILD E R. 29 

A Public Library, Cost One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars. 




and lane abounds with carvings, shrines, wrought-iron 
balconies, torch holders, and wealth of architectural de- 
tail sufficient to hold an architect for weeks. 

The cost of living in Siena is very low, and if it were 
on the direct line between Florence and Rome its artistic 
and historical wealth and delightful climate would 
doubtless attract a great many more visitors than at 
present. The style of work in brick and terra-cotta is 
qitite distinct from that in Bologna and North Italy, 
while the hilly nature of the town site produces unlooked- 
for complications and novel solutions of the designers' 
problems. 

WE are now in the midst of an era of great buildings, 
great at least in one dimension, but our mightiest 
efforts of to-day fade into insignificence when compared 
with the tremendous achievements of periods of the past, 
when steam engines, swift moving derricks, and all the 
modern paraphernalia of building operations were un- 
known. The Colosseum at Rome is an illustration in 
point. Our readers are doubtless familiar with it, and 
also with Trinity Church in Boston, which, while by no 
means a large church, is a very sizable structure. A 
prominent builder told us, a short time since, that if he 
could have at his command the number of men who were 
daily employed upon the actual construction of the 
Colosseum, with the materials to draw from which were 
lavished so extensively in that Roman structure, he could 
build, equip, and finish a structure equal to Trinity 
Church for every day in the year. 



i:N I. 



M IIW l-.IM [ l< I I!. 



TO one who knows a New England town of twenty- 
five thousand inhabitants, where this library is 
supposed t<> be located, this problem requires some little 
consideration to meet the by no means easy conditions. 
For nowhere else are there a people more critical or more 
intelligent, and quick to appreciate such opportunities 
literary and artistic as may be offered them. The people 
here are quite as up to date as in many larger cities ; many 
of the townspeople spend much of their time in some 
neighboring large city; many have traveled far and near, 
ami all know what they want, and usually want some- 
thing " modern " instead of something which will remind 
them of the days of their forefathers. Nowadays, when 
oftener than not, even in such a small place, librarians 
are graduates of some of the library training schools or 
institutes, libraries have changed from warm, rich, and 
cozy but dark interiors to a more business-like arrange- 
ment, better suited to the needs of a public, who arc not 
all students or bookworms. With one hundred thousand 
dollars to spend on this building, care should be taken 
not to produce an institution which the town cannot 
afford to run properly, or which should, on its main 
street or square, be too conspicuous an example of some 
one's munificence. It should be simple, dignified, and 
have the rare charm of belonging to the place where it 
has been erected — look as if it had always been there. 
Nothing could be more inappropriate here than the de- 
cadent vagaries of a Parisian boulevard, which always 
remind one of a people who had rather drink of the 
muddied waters than to imbibe further up stream the 
waters of a purer, simpler style of architecture. 

The library should be planned with an eye toeconomy 
of working force, besides making a pleasant and cheerful 




sort of meeting place, for those people who go" get books, 
glance at the latest magazines or illustrated papers. The 

women like to have a little chat about this bonk or 

that, etc., and to an atmosphere of refinement pro- 
duced by following rather severe classic precedent, can 



.3° 



T II E B RICK BU I L I) E R 




PERSPKC I IVE 



be added a warm, cheerful 
with an air of artistic taste, 
for this town lias no art mu- 
seum, art stores, or other 
similar attractions of a large 
city. 

Librarians in general do 
not seem to be agreed as to 
what constitutes a good li- 
brary plan, although agreed 
as to what is not. The li- 
brarian of one of the largest 
public libraries in this coun- 
try, when besought for a few 
crumbs of wisdom on this 
subject, said he had no time. 

it was his busy daw < >n 
the occasion of a competi- 
tion for a large public li- 
brary, some years ago, one 
of the competitors, who had 
practised his profession suc- 
cessfully thirty-five y e a r s 
with honor and much profit, 
associated with himself a 
well-known library expert. 
The result was, this compet- 
itor did not even attain to 
a mention, and the prize 
went to one who had never 
built a library, and little of 
anything else. On another 



homelike feeling, together 



tained a librarian to help him, and was beaten by people 

who apparently were not 
troubled by the latest ideas 
in the librarian's world. 

Possibly there will be a 
happy day when the libra- 
rian of the future, reclining 
on a divan, surrounded with 
pretty assistants, will only 
be required to say "book," 

and the book will be there. 

Then it will be agreed that 
the successful library plan 
will have arrived. Hut then 
the professional architectural 
competition experts, and 
those who have looked into 
the co u r t y a r d f the 
" Ecole," will ai'ise and con- 
demn the plan, as it "is not 
just," is not symmetrical, 
has no •• central axis " if 
there is a room here, there 
must be one on the other 
side of the building in a cor- 
responding position, the 
same size and shape, as it 
people were supplied with 
wings, the roof taken off, 
and they " enjoy " a " beau- 
tiful symmetrical plan." as 

occasion a competitor re- they fly over the building. Some librarians would prefer 





1 I l,\ \ I [ON. 



in these conditions under consideration a one-storied build- 
ing. Here there is money and land enough tor this. The un- 
packing room is in the basement immediately under the 
cataloguing room, with stairs and a book lift leading to it. 
Both this room and the librarian's room could have a mez- 
zanine story if required. Toilet rooms for the public are 
in the basement, reached by stairs at each side of vestibule. 
A children's room, now considered necessary for every 
library of any pretensions, is located in the basement at 
rear, as the ground slopes down here. This is not objec- 
tionable, as an attendant is usually required here, whether 
located on first floor or not, and in basement children would 
not produce the stir or confusion to distract the reader. 
As in the case of literary work, there are some who 
think that " style " is 
everything, the story not 
so much ; a similar parallel 
might be adduced in archi- 
tecture. In this stage of 
the world, when novelty is 
no more novel, and motifs 
are become hackneyed, 
what appears on paper as 



B RICK BUI LI) E R. 

PERMANENCE IX BUILDING. 



.31 




dull can by a careful attention to proportion, detail, etc, 
turn out fine and pure enough. For an architect's work 
and study by no means stop when the design is made. 
The execution, the care spent in detail, gives to a build- 
ing the stamp of individuality and refinement. 

The exterior walls will be faced with light gray, Ro- 
man shape bricks, with wide, white horizontal joints, and 
vertical joints to be closely laid. The trimmings of terra 
cotta of similar shade. The roof tiles, finials, etc., shall 
also be of glazed, dull-green terra-cotta. The whole 
building shall be of fire-proof construction throughout. 



WE have frequently deprecated in these columns the 
excessive haste which characterizes modern work, 
accompanied as it generally is by neglect of good con- 
struction. The discouraging tendency of haste upon 
good architecture is an element which counts for more in 
our national development than we perhaps sometimes ap- 
preciate. The policy of "good enough" is what has 
transformed many a promising young architect into a 
mere commercial hack, who though theoretically in love 
with his profession is simply after the dollars. It takes 
SO much time to study that unless an architect will be 
most strenuous in demanding the opportunity he will 
find himself drifting in the wrong direction. There used 
to be a saying among some of the salesmen who had to 
do with architectural goods in this part of the world that 
it was easier to give a Boston man what he wanted than 
it was to persuade him that something else was better. 
The truth of this can hardly be questioned, though we 
fancy that its application need not be restricted to Boston ; 
but the architect who lets that fact influence his design will 
sooner or later find himself adrift. Broadly speaking, the 

conscientious architect will never 
allow considerations of cost or 
time to influence his judgment or 
decision as to what is. under the 
circumstances, right or best for 
the building. This implies neither 
rank extravagance nor oblivion 
to the client's wants, but is, in 
fact, the truest consideration of 
the real necessities. We had an 
illustration brought to our notice 
a few days ago of the deplorable 
results to every one concerned 
of undue haste in building. An 
architect had made a very clever 
design for a small structure. He 
had hit it about right without 
being obliged t<> spend a great 
deal of time in study. The con- 
tract was let to a thoroughly good 
builder; but the condition of the 
steel market and some labor agi- 
tations conspired to so delay mat- 
ters that the building, which was 
to have been completed within a 
year, and could have been done 
in proper manner in that time, 
had hardly more than the foun- 
dations laid six months alter the 
contract was signed. The owners insisted on tin- struc- 
ture being completed on contract time. The builder was 
able and willing to do so, and though the architect pro- 
tested, his protest was neither sufficiently loud nor effica- 
cious, and the result is that to-day we have a building 
which was, to be sure, completed in contract time, but 
in which the finish is making laces at all beholders, the 
masonry is settled, several of the sills cracked, and there 
is about this structure, less than two years old, a general 
air of dilapidation, which is the natural concomitant of 
loo much haste. 



32 



THE B R I C K 15 T I L I) E R 



Minor Brick Chateaux in France. 
III. Late Renaissance. 

l;\ WILLIAM I". PARTRIDGE. 

BESIDES those treated in our recent paper, tin- later 
period of the Renaissance under Henri II. brought 
two innovations that entirely changed thecharacter in the 

detail of the smaller cha- 
teaux. 

The first of these was 
rustication: the quoins and 
other stonework, which had 
up to this time been bonded 
flush with the brickwork, 
were now set slightly in ad- 
vance of it. This charac- 
teristic became a fa v o r i t e 
feature in doors, windows, 
cornices, and panels. 

T h e second was a re- 
versal in the s c h e m e of 
color. The brickwork now 
marked the principal archi- 
tectural lines in red, the body 
of the building being of col- 
ored brick or stucco. The 
wall spaces were decorated 
by stone panels, sometimes 
w i t h niches containing a 
bust. 

The masses, however, 
still followed the early tradi- 
tions, though the towers were often replaced by wings. 

In the little Chateau d'Ormesson, in the department 
of Seine et ( >ise. for example, the corner turrets are 
rusticated and corbeled out in a manner interesting and 
unique. The ar- 
chitraves, panels, 
a n d portions of 
the rustication are 
of brick ; the body 
of the building is 
CO V e re d w i t h 
stucco. 

The drawings 
of this building, 
published by San- 
,'. show con- 
siderable di f f e r- 
ences in the treat- 
ment of the lintels 
over the windows. 
These were prob- 
ably altered in the 
eighteenth c e n - 
t u ry, the door 
showing a motive 
of the t i in i 
Louis XV. 

The Chateau de Faldndre, in Orne, was built in the 
seventeenth century, having been begun in [319. How 
far an older building influenced it we cannot tell. 




i 11 \ 1 1 \i a I IRMESSON. 




I II \ I I \l HI 1 ,ol l.'\ \\ SUR M \k\l-.. 



but the chateau exhibits no radical departure from the 
recognized Gothic type. It is said to have been influenced 
by the work at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, especially in the 
staircase, which is of brick and stone, cleverly vaulted. 

The exterior of the building is of stucco with strongly 
col, ,red brick pilasters and string courses. In the 
central part the pilasters extend from the base to the 
cornice, while thosL- of the corner pavilion start from a 

higher level. The composi- 
tion is charming. The soft 
color of the high roof to 
which time has given a 
bloom, the stucco sufficiently 
discolored to lose its harsh- 
ness, and the dark red lines 
of the architecture combine 
to form a picture well set in 
a background of dark foli- 
age. 

The seventeenth century 
( 7/ a t ea 11 de Gournay-sur- 
Marin is an example of the 
extreme to which rustication 
was sometimes carried. Its 
quoins, window architraves, 
and lintels are all rusticated. 
The wall surface, which is of 
brick, is treated as a panel, 
the brickwork projecting an 
inch or two ; the larger 
spaces have also an applied 
panel framing a bust. The 
central motive is d o u b 1 e, 
under a single pediment. The Mansard roof here ap- 
pears for the first time upon these smaller buildings. 

The little Maison de Mademoiselle de Montpensier at 
Pont-1'Eveque, which the searching archaeologists tell us 

was not hers at all, 
b u t belonged to 
the Fresneys, is a 
small building of 
the period of Louis 
XIII. It is quite 
picturesque in its 
t r e a t m e n t, the 
dormers w h i c h 
se e m to h a v e 
spaced themselves 
breaking through 
the cornice of the 
towers. The broad 
wall space between 
t h e middle win- 
dows is divided by 
Hush quoin s, if 
such a feature can 
be so called. The 
center, however, 
is marked by a 
little porch with a 
roof supported by columns somewhat similar in shape to 
the towers, between which it forms a sort of connecting 
link. There are a number of smaller houses of this char- 



THE BR IL'K BU I L I) E R 



33 







A., 

9 s * 










34 



THE BRICK IUMLDK R. 




The curved work of the Gothic period could be carried 
as far as the French carried it only in a country pro- 
vided with such stone as nearly every quarry in France 
supplies. But light-colored stones in small blocks can be 

had almost everywhere, and so can clay; and the use of 
these two materials in conjunction here shown in the 
small chateaux is full of serviceable sufferestion. 



MAISON l>K MADEMOISELL1 HI MONTPENSIER. 

acter — one can hardly apply the word chateau to a 
building of this size- that will repay a visit and study 
at this place. 

The Chat can de Balleroy&aA the Abbatiale de la Croix- 

Sauit-I.citfroi, as is readily seen, are 
both of the familiar type, although 
the central tower, the predominat- 
ing feature in the one. is reduced in 
the other to a small pediment. 

The Chat can de Balleroy, in Cal- 
vados, is typical of the extreme type 
in which the staircase tower is the 
principal feature of the facade and 
the adjoining wings recede. It is 
heavily rusticated, and the wall sur- 
face of brick is everywhere used as 
a background, contrasting with the 
architectural lines in stone. 

In the Abbatiale tic la Croix- 
Saiut-l.cn/roi, on the contrary, the 
central pavilion is reduced to the 
minimum; the wings advance, thus 
gaining in importance, while the 
brick is used in panels for its color 
alone, the surface of the wall being 
in stucco. This arrangement cer- 
tainly adds to the gaiety of the 
effect. Another building of this 
same type is the Chateau de Danbeuf 
in the department of Seine Inferi- 
eure. It is heavily rusticated, the 
wall surface of brick being orna- 
mented with stone panels. 

In these later examples the de- 
parture from the early Gothic cha- 
teaux seems extreme: but they are 
nevertheless evolved from those 
Semi-dwellingS, semi-fortresses. 



MUNICIPAL BUILDING LAWS. 

MILE in nearly all our large American cities we 
are passing through a period of unrest and dis- 
satisfaction, seeking to change the legal possibilities of 

building construction, it is a little consolation to know 
that in I'aris, the oldest and most architectural of the 
European capitals, the same questions are being agitated. 
The new construction with which we are so familiar has 
not yet spread to Europe. Possibly it may never do so. 
and yet we find that questions of limitations in height 
are being constantly discussed in Paris. The world goes 
very slowly on the banks of the Seine and. perhaps, before 
our ten-year-old steel construction can make its way to 
foreign shores we may have seen tit to gWe it up here 
and revert to a more strictly masonry construction for 
our large buildings. That is one of the unsolved prob- 
lems of the future, and in the mean time we can only 
regret that our sense of personal rights and limitations 
of corporate jurisdiction do not permit us here, as in 
I'aris. to insist upon at least the appearance of uniformity 
in our streets. 










4 






rp^r^*;!> 



.Ml 



i T I I I i in 



t:t l-±-1: 



HO l El HI \ ll I I , \ I L0RRIS. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



35 




COLOMBIER A'l' BOOS, FRANCE. WILL S. ALDRICH, DEL. 



36 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Fire-proofing. 



THE McCORMICK STORES AT CHICAGO COM- 
PLETED. 

IN The Brickbi ilder for December, 1899, an illustra- 
tion was given from a photograph of the most north- 
erly of the three wholesale stores lately erected for 
Stanley R. McCormick, on Michigan Avenue. Chicago, 
showing it in course of erection. The object was to show 
how a store front is treated in such a manner that there 
is an intimate correspondence between the skeleton steel 
structure, the lire-proof protection of the same, and the 
external covering, from all three of which the design is 
evolved. This being so, it was also stated that this 
building is an actual demonstration of the commercial 
value of art as ap- 
plied to a purely 
business building. 
The tenants who 
occupy it pay as 
an annual rent a 
certain percentage 
on the cost of the 
land and building. 
This cost was in- 
creased by the em- 
ployment of Louis 
11. Sullivan to de- 
sign the front in 
ad d i t ion to the 
services of the 
firm of Holabird 
& Roche, who de- 
s i g n e (1 and con- 
structed the three 
stores, all o i 
which are rented 
at the- same per- 
centage on the 
cost of each. 

We a r e no w 
able to present an 
illustration of the 
fronts of the three 
stores completed, 

two of which are 

the design of Holabird & Roche, though their architec- 
tural services covered all three except the one front de- 
signed bv Mr. Sullivan. We also give a complete con- 
structional and detail drawing of the front of the middle 
store, the street numbers of which are [32 and 134, 
which is in three bays and seven stories high; while 135 
and [36 is in two bays and of tlie same design, though 
only six stories high. It will be seen that there is no 
difference between the artistic treatment of Mr. Sulli- 
van's front and those of Holabird & Roche except in de- 
tails. Mr. Sullivan's front is nearly white terra-cotta, 
while the other two are built of red brick and red terra- 
cotta. The treatment of the first-story windows is prac- 
tically the same, the visible supporting fire-proofed 
columns being seen through the glass. In Mr. Sulli- 
van's the first story is plated with ornamental cast iron. 




THE McCORMICK STORES, MICHIGAN WK.M'K. CHK VGO. 



In the others the finish is brick and terra-cotta. All the 
party walls are of Steel skeleton construction, the col- 
umns and floor girts being first covered with terra-cotta 
fire-proofing, and again covered with 4 ins. ot brick, 
which is bonded in with the 13 in. brick panels which 
close the openings. These panels can be removed in any 
place without affecting the construction, so that any two 
floors or the whole can be thrown into one building. 
The girders run across the buildings from north to south, 
and the floor beams run fore and aft, the front ami rear 
girders being located in the front and rear walls. The 
dimensions of the buildings on the -round are as follows: 
135 and 636, 44 by 160 ft.; [32, 133, 134, 62 by 160 ft.: 

and 129. 130, 131 (tin- northerly one), <>2 by 160 ft.: 135 
and 136 is <SS ft. high; 132. 133, 134, 101 ft.: and 129. 130, 
131 is 1 12 ft. high. Tlie adjoining building on the north 

is the C hie a g 
Athletic Club, de- 
signed by Henry 
[vesCobb. They 
stand opposite to 
that part of the 

Lake Front Park 
that has not yet 
been assigned to 
any purpose. De- 
signs are now be- 
i n g m a d e b y 
members of the 
Chicago Architec- 
tural Club in com- 
petition for t h e 
a n n u a 1 -old, 

silver, and bronze 

medals of the I lb- 
no i s Chapter of 
the American In- 
stitute of Archi- 
tects, for a 11 e w 
City Hall, to be 
located opposite to 
these stores. The 
Chapter has vol- 
unteered to re- 
name that part of 
Michigan Avenue 
fro m Randolph 
Street to Jackson Boulevard, which was not put in charge 
of the South Pari Commissioners, as the ••Municipal 
Court"; and if its dream is ever fulfilled by the erection 
of the municipal buildings on the east side of the court. 
forming a group with the Art Institute and the Public 
Library, the buildings here illustrated will be no insignifi- 
cant feature in it. On the west side, the vacant spaces 
and those covered with temporary buildings, and the 
magnificent building site at the North End, now occu- 
pied by a cigar factory, will be the most Splendid locations 
for private buildings in the whole city, if this plan should 
ever be carried out. The public buildings will set back 
from 50 to So ft., as the Art Institute does, leaving broad 
esplanades in front with excellent positions for statuary, 
and Opportunity for a comprehensive artistic treatment 
for the approaches to a group of municipal buildings. 



T li ]■: i; r i c k nr i l d e r 



37 




TOWNSEND BUI LDING 
FIRE. 

Wl". arc frequently called 
upon to chronicle the 



111', I Al I. OF 



I 'un of Store Froth 



i Ri >n i , Mccormick b\ ii him 

Holabird & Roche, Architi i I 



\'.". 



results of fires in fire-prOof 
| buildings, and although the 
expression seemsan anomaly 
it is one which is readily ap- 
preciated by those who are 
familiar with the develop- 
ments and application of Ameri- 
can fire-proofing methods. .And 
we have yet to chronicle an in- 
stance wherein fire-proofing, if 
properly designed and properly 
applied, tailed to accomplish all 
that could reasonably he expected 
of it. The recent lire in the 
eleventh story of the Townsend 
Building, corner of 25th Street 
and Broadway, New York City, 
built by Mr. C. I.. W. Eidlitz, is a 
case in point, and adds another to 
the practical demonstrations 
which we have had of late years 
of the claim that with first-class 
fire-proof construction a lire can 
ie practically confined to a single 
room without damage to the struc- 
tural portions of a building, pro- 
vided these structural portions 
are properly protected. We can- 
not properly fire-proof either the 
tenants or the contents of even 
the most carefully constructed 
building, and these will always 
give trouble and enable a confla- 
gration to spread to a certain ex- 
tent, as was the case in the Town- 
send Building. But though tin- 
lire was quite severe and was 
allowed to get a considerable head- 
way before it could he checked. 
nevertheless, with the exception 
of the woodwork and certain par- 
titions, the standing finish and 
glass, and certain damages by 
smoke and water in the rooms im- 
mediately adjoining, no o t h e r 
harm was caused to the interior 
(.I the building, The fire-proof- 
ing around the columns, nearly 
all the fire-proof partitions, also 
the arches of the floor above and the floor beams 
themselves, were not apparently damaged a particle, 
and will not even require to In- replastered, while 
the total damage to the building is estimated at only 
$4,000. It is a satisfaction to appreciate that our 
American methods of protection against lire can be 
depended upon to check the spread of a conflagration 
and to ai least greatly minimize any possible danger 
to 1 he structure itself. 



38 



THE BRICK BUI LI) ER 



Selected Miscellany. 



NOTES FROM NEW YORK. 

The general condition of business in this city is good. 
In regard to building operations, there will be little ac- 
tivity this spring, unless the high prices of building 




HOUSE, EUCLID AVENUE, CLEVE1 \M>. OHIO. 
Granger & Meade. Architects. 

materials take a tumble. There are a number of large 
contracts which arc being held up on this account, and 
unless conditions change before the country becomes en- 
gaged in the turmoil of a presidential election there is 
small hope of getting this work under way before another 
year. 

The Orange, N. |., Library competition, mentioned in 
the lanuarv Brickbuilder, and which was not awarded 
to any one of the thirty competitors, has been finally 
given to McKim, Mead & White. If this had been done 
in the first place there would have been no complaint, 
and thirty architects would have been saved much time, 
money, and trouble. 

Just a few more words in regard to competitions. 
Architects arc not only invited and urged to enter into 
competition for large and important buildings, but are act- 



ually being asked to compete for the privilege of making 
alterations and additions to existing buildings. Accord- 
ing to the "Record and Guide," the Long Island Col- 
lege Hospital is to build an extension, and four promi- 
nent architects have been asked to submit plans, although 
one of them planned a successful addition to the building 
in 1897. 

An important murder trial was delayed by a juror's 
illness, due to the draughts of a badly built court house, 
which cost the city $2,000,000 and which has been 
completed only five years. The judge savs that he 
is made so stiff and sore by the draughts as to be scarcely 
able to get out of his chair at the end of a day's session, 
and that it is almost impossible to keep twelve jurymen 
together for a number of weeks without sickness being 
caused among them by the cold and bad ventilation. 

The contract for the construction ot the underground 
railroad has been awarded. The cost will be $35,- 
000,000. It is predicted that the city will make rapid 
growth north of the Harlem River, and that property 
values will increase more than the amount for which the 
city obligates itself, and before the bonds for the whole 




HOUSE, Kill. II) AVENUE, (I I'M 1 \M>. OHIO. 
Granger & Meade, Architects. 




HOUSE, EUCLID HEIGHTS, CLEVEJ \M>, OHIO. 
Alfred Hoyt Granger, Architect. 



sum are called for. Then. too. an army of workingmen, 
estimated at from ten to fifteen thousand, will be em- 
ployed in tlie construction of the road, and permanent 
positions for about three thousand will be created. The 
road will extend from the City Hall to Kingsbridge, with 
a branch in the Borough of the Bronx. Work is to be 
commenced at once. 

The revised plans of architect John R. Thomas for 
the interior decorations and finish of the Hall of Records 
have been approved by the board of estimate, and a bond 
issue of $2,250,000 has been authorized for their comple- 
tion. 

Three attractive new office buildings are well under 
way on lower Broadway. They are by architects Clinton 
& Russell, Bruce Price, and Cass Gilbert. In the two 
latter the fronts will be mainly of brick. In Mr. Price's 
building- the combination is buff and red brick, the buff 



Til E K RICK BU I L D E R 



39 



color predominating- and red brick being used as alternat- 
ing quoins in the jambs and voussoirs over openings. 
In Mr. Gilbert's building the main wall is built of a very 
pretty red " rain-drop " brick, the pilasters at the top be- 
ing faced with green brick, and the effect is very attrac- 
tive and not so startling as one might imagine. 



NOTES FROM CHICAGO. 
Under the supervision of architect Frank P>. Abbott, 




NUNUI'TON COURT, HKKKKOKIISHIKK, KNOl.AM). 



there has recently been completed an inter- 
esting piece of foundation work, which is to 
carry the walls of an eight-story light man- 
ufacturing building on a lot 100 by 150 ft. 
On one corner of the lot there is an old 
three-story brick building, the owner of 
which refused to build party walls. In 
order to avoid injury to the old walls while 
driving piles for the new structure, they 
were supported on heavy steel beams rest- 
ing on bearings 10 ft. away from the 
trenches in which the piles were driven, 
and a trench was dug 6 ft. below the old 
basement to eliminate vibration. Al- 
though the outer row of piles was driven 
within a few inches of the old walls, the 




1 PT0N CO! IM, HEREFORDSHIRE, ENGLAND. 

maximum displacement of them was but one quarter of 
an inch. 

One of our aldermen has prepared an ordinance limit- 
ing the height of apartment houses to lour stories, but 
there is little likelihood that any such building regulation 
will ever be adopted. For a fact, the most serious tires 
in flat buildings have occurred in the three or four story 
type, which the law permits to be built of cheap and 
inflammable construction, after requiring brick exterior 





DOUBLE HOUSE, GERMANTOWN, IM. 

David Knickerbocker Boyd, Lawrence Vissclier Boyd, Associate Architects. 



DOUBLE HOI SE, GERM VNTOWN, PA. 
Da vicT Knickerbocker Boyd, Lawrence Visschei Boyd, Associate Vrchiteci 



walls and lire-proof light shafts. What we 
need is a better standard of quality in build- 
ings of this class. Lower rates of insurance, 
increased durability, insulation from sound, 
etc.. ought to justify Eire-proof methods oi 

construction, even though there be a small 
increase in rent rates. 

At a recent meeting of the local Chapter 

A. 1. A.. Mr. Peter I!. Wight read selections 
from Tolstoi's "What Is Art?" Tin- paper 
was followed by a general discussion. 

At the Architectural Club, on January 15, 
Mr. Joseph Twyman lectured on "The Psy- 
chology of Textile Materials," and exhibited 
some rare imported tapestries, < >n January 
22, Mr. Frank Garden, assisted by Mr. George 
Dean, gave an account of his experience in 



I" 



T II E BRIC KBUIL I) E R . 



the Klondike, in connection with which he showed some 
excellent lantern slides. January -'9. " Bohemian Night," 
eight of the members of the club as hosts provided a 
unique and enjoyable "Faust" program, in which a 
•• Faust " supper, " Faust " costumes, and " Faust 
music were enjoyable and successful features. 

Prof. X. Clifford Ricker, president of State Board of 
Examiners of Architects, and Peter B. Wight, secretary 

and treasurer, were reelected at the annual meeting on 
[anuary 1 2. 

Among the propositions brought before the recent 
annual meeting of the National Building Trades Council at 
Milwaukee, was one providing for the placing of a union 
label on all union-built structures; no action was taken, 
however. 

Wilson & Marshall are the architects for the new 
Illinois Theatre, to be built on Jackson Boulevard on the 
site of the old Armory. 

The labor situation, with respect to the building 
trades, has at last come to a erisis. Having grown 
weary of the studied delay on the part of the Building 
Trades Council in taking action on proposed arbitration 
measures, and other urgent questions demanding an 
early settlement, the Building Contractors Council has 
fixed the conditions and the rates of wages to which all 
employes must submit. Similar action was taken soon 
after by the largest firms of general contractors in the 
city who are not members of the Building Contractors 
Council. The issue has been squarely made between the 
opposing forces, and a struggle without precedent in the 
stormy history of local labor troubles is believed to be at 
hand. The contractors have given the mayor warning 
that the city will be sued for damages to property caused 
by the strikers. In the mean time the building investor 
and the architect will be ground a little finer between 
these upper and nether millstones of capital and labor. 



^^ 



NOTES FR< >M ST. L< >UIS. 

Mr. Edward Garden, an old member of the St. Louis 
Architectural Club, recently returned from Alaska, gave 
an entertaining talk on his experience in that country. 
illustrating same with lantern slides. 

Mr. Porter White read before the club recently a paper 
on plain and ornamental plastering, and Mr. P.. J. Rus- 
sell is giving a series of talks on building superintendence 
at the regular monthly meetings. 

The club gave a dinner on January 26, at which Mr. 
Edward Garden gave a talk on the ••Social Engagements 





SPANDREL, ENTRANCE MEIMCO 

CHIRURGICAI. HOSPITAL, 

PHI I XDKIl'HIA. 

Executed in terra-colta by Colliding- Arm 

Terra I my. 

Herman Miller, Architect. 

of St. Louis Draughtsmen, " and papers 

were read by Mr. R. M. Milligan, Mr. 
Ernst Helfenstetter, and Mr. ('. < ). 

Pfeil. 

The report of the commissioner of 
public buildings shows the amount of 
work done in the city during the year [899 to be less 
than for the previous year, and of this an increased per- 
centage of frame buildings. The permits issued in [898 
were 1,861, and the value of the buildings, $7,429,729. 
During 1899 there were 1,539 permits issued for build- 
ings, amounting to $7,087,027. 

The builders and labor organizations have selected an 
arbitration committee in order that differences may be 
settled without interfering with the work on World's 
Fair buildings. 

A movement is on foot to make the present site of the 
Merchants Exchange the nucleus of a large wholesale 
district resembling the Cupples district. 

The Cupples district is about to receive two new addi- 
tions in the way of five-story buildings: one by Lames & 
Young, and the other by }. L. Wees. 

Merchants and property owners in the vicinity oJ the 
Union Market have become aroused over the migration 

of a number of substantial firms from that locality, the 
cause of which they attribute to the dilapidated condi- 
tion of the market. An effort is being made to raise 
Si 00,000 for its improvement. The market belongs to 
the city, but it is unable to put the property into good 
condition, ami the citizens are going to take the matter 
in their own hands. 



PANE] BETWEEN WINDOWS. OFFICE 1:1 [LDING, MW YORK 

cm . 

Executed in gray terra-cotta by the I - I rra-Cotta Company. 

Robert Maynicke, Architect. 



NOTES PROM PITTSBURGH. 

It is announced that all the land required for the new 
Union Station for the Pennsylvania systems has been 
obtained and that work will be commenced in a short 
time. I). II. Burnham, of Chicago, is the architect. At 
flic same time all tracks are to be either raised or lowered 
and all grade crossings done away with. The improve- 
ments, it is estimated, will cost about ,xi ^,000,000. 

After considerable investigation two model tenements 
are to be built here, to cost about ^500,000. 

Though the city has issued bonds to raise money to 
buy the land needed for the proposed addition to the 
Carnegie Institute, nothing has yet been done toward 
securing this property, and the scheme will be dropped, 



T II E B RICKBUILD E R 



I' 







x 






£4 

- , 






4 2 



T II K BRI C K IU T I LI) E R 




it is said, until 
the city fulfils 
its promises in 
this respect. 

A 1 d e n & 
Harlow h a v e 
been appointed 
architects of the 
n e w school 
bu ildin g for 
I ir;if and 1 )umb 
Asylum : the old 
building was re- 
cently burned. 
The new build- 
ing will cost 
$200,000. 

The West- 

inghouse Com- 
pany will soon 
commence work 
on their shops 
in Manchester. 

England. The 

plant will cost 
bet w e e n five 
and six million 
d oil a r s . 
Thomas Rodd 
is the architect 
and engineer. 

The Pittsburgh Hank for Savings is to erect a new 
bank and office building. 

[f all the proposed office buildings should be built this 
spring, office rents will be apt to come down with a rush. 

There is to be a competition tor the Allegheny High 
School building, and it is supposed it will be conducted 
on the "good old plan"; and no doubt a large number 

of architects will enter, for unfortunately here we are not 
up to Boston's '• Rules for Practice." 

!■'. C. Rutan, \V. J. East, and Mr. Stevens were the 
jury of award in the recent competition of the Architec- 
tural Club. The Club lias made the improvement of that 
portion of the city between the Union Station, the 
B. & O. Station, and the "Point," or junction of the 
Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers the problem for the 
work of the year. The recent competition called for a 
general plan, showing points to be improved, The men- 
tions were: 1st. P. A. Leisch; 2d, J. T. Comes; .}d, 
Harry Estep. The best ideas of these schemes have been 
adopted and the future work of the club is to be devoted 
to the special consideration of the following points: 1st, 
the improvement of streets and property in the neighbor- 
hood of the two stations and of the Allegheny County 
Court House; 2d, the approaches to all bridges; 3d, 
the improvement of the " Point " and the designing of 
new buildings forthe Exposition Society; 4th, the laying 
out of a scheme of boulevards around the city and to 
connect these points ; 5th, the removal of the " hum]) " on 
Fifth Avenue. 



I \l , ENTRANCI HAMILTON BUILDING 
\kko\. OHIO. 
I cuted by Northwestern Terra-Colla Company. 
Meade S Garfield, Archi 



PERSONAL AM) CLUB NOTES. 

Arthur S. Meloy, Fred II. Parsons, and Frederick II. 
Beckwith, of Bridgeport, Conn., have formed a copart- 
nership under the firm name of Meloy & 1 'arsons, for the 
purpose of carrying on a general architectural and en- 
gineering business; office. 23 Post Office Arcade. 

Louis Mullgardt and J. M. Dunham, architects. St. 
Louis, have dissolved copartnership. Mr. Mullgardt has 
opened an office at 415 Commercial Building. 

The last regular monthly meeting and dinner of the 
Sketch Club, of New York, was held on Saturday evening, 
February 3, at which resolutions as to the reorganiza- 
tion of the club were adopted unanimously. 

The Chicago Architectural Club will hold its thirteenth 
annual exhibition at the Art Institute. Chicago, from 
Tuesday, March 20. to Monday, April 2. 

The Washington Architectural Club's program for 
its regular meeting of February 3 consisted of a visit to 

the " Halls of the Ancients." An address was made by 
the curator, Franklin W. Smith, who is putting unflag 
ging enthusiasm into the great undertaking of establish- 
ing •' National Galleries of History and Art." The added 
interest in, and better appreciation of architecture which 
would be awakened in the public mind by such an insti- 
tution as Mr. Smith contemplates, 
and of which the present "Halls 
of the Ancients" is but a fore- 
runner, leads him to seek the sup- 
port of the architectural fraternity. 



THE USE < >F ENAMELED 
BRICK FOR EXTE 

RK >RS. 

IX our December issue we took 
occasion to comment edito- 
rially on the growing tendency 

among architects t<> use enameled 

brick more extensively in the inte- 
rior finish of all classes of build- 
ings. Recently our attention has 
been called to a new field in which 
this material is being successfully 

employed. The smoke-laden at- 
mosphere of many of our large 
cities has made it desirable, if not 
imperative, that some form of ma- 
terial shall be used in the construc- 
tion of buildings, especially fronts, 
that shall withstand this contami- 
nating nuisance, which adds not 
the rich color of age, nor by its 

deposit heightens the effect of 
lights and shades, but rather be- 
smears design, and clots detail. 

It is not necessary, and we ven- 
ture to say not desirable, that the 
brick intended to combat this dis- 
figuring agency shall have a highly glazed surrace 
rather one that shall be sufficiently enameled to be 
tively non-absorbent. Such a brick because of its 




P WEI., 
ted by New Vol 
chitectural I 

("omi 
Clinton X Russell, \nl 



. but 

posi- 
dull 



THE BRICK BUI L I)ER 



4.3 




any limits of form, texture, or color qoI to be reached by 

these materials. " 



- L 

— 

CAPITAL, APARTMENT HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 
Executed by the- New lersey Terra-Cotta Company. 

M. I'.trnstcin, Architect. 

finish will not reflect the light, which is one of the chief 
objections to the use of enameled brick for exteriors, and 
furthermore its original attrac- 
tiveness can be restored by an 
occasional bath. 

Dull-finished e n a m e 1 ed 
bricks, which meet in every 
respect these requirements, 
have recently been placed upon 
the market by the Tiffany En- 
ameled Brick Co., of Chicago, 
and judged by the class o f 
work in which they have been 
employed, and the testimonials 
from architects and owners, 
they have met with deserved 
success. Among the new 
buildings in which these bricks 
have been, or will be, used is 
a residence at Kansas City, of 
which S. R. Frink is the archi- 
tect ; a business block at Kan- 
sas City, Louis Curtiss, archi- 
tect; a business block at Chi- 
cago, the owners of which, Geo. B. Carpenter & Co., 
write: "They make a handsome front, and the ease and 
cheapness with which they can be cleaned make them 
especially desirable for smoky cities"; a business block 
at Columbus, Ohio, C. A. Stribling & Co., architects; a 
business block at Chicago, I). E. Postle, architect. Re- 
garding this building Mr. Postle says: "The cost oJ 
keeping the fronts clean has been normal, although the 
building stands where it is exposed t<> the various impu- 
rities, such as smoke and soot." 

Perhaps the most important building, architecturally, 
for which these bricks have been specified is the new 
Church of Christ (Scientist) at Chicago, Hugh M. G. Car- 
den, architect. Mr. Garden, in speaking of their adop- 
tion, says: "The conditions of the climate in Chicago and 
our proverbial sooty atmosphere make an imperative 
demand for non-absorbent materials for exteriors of 
buildings. After thorough investigation I adopted dull- 
finished enameled brick for the entire exterior of the new- 
Third Church of Christ (Scientist) of this city, not only 
on account of it non-absorption of moisture and dirt, but 
because of its great beauty. The combination of this 
material with enameled terra-cotta Opens to us greal 
possibilities in exterior decoration. There are scarcely 



MANUFACTURERS' CATALOGUES AM) 
SAMPLES DESIRED. 

THE following-named architects would he pleased to 
receive manufacturers' catalogues and samples: W. 
G. Pigueron, Hamilton Building, Park Avenue, corner 
125th Street, New York, X. V.; W. I >. Triple Belvidere, 
111.; A. I). Clifford, 450 Livingston Street, Elizabeth, 
N. J. ; Julius Wenig, 655 New York Avenue, Washington, 
I). C. ; Barrett & Thomson, Raleigh, X. C. 



"iS. 




CONSOL, INTERNATIONAL HANK BUILDING, NEW YORK 
CITY. 

Executed jn terra-cotta by the Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company. 
Bruce Price, Architect. 



CURRENT ITEMS oh INTEREST. 

R. W. Allison, president of the Empire Fireproofing 
Company, has purchased the fire-clay plants and coal and 

clay mines formerly owned by 
t h e United States Fireclay 
Company and the Ohio Sewer 
Pipe Company, at Lisbon, 
( )hio. Associated with Mr. 
Allison in the purchase is 
Henry M. Keasbey, president 
of the Central Fireproofing 
Company, of New York, and 
also president of the Raritan 
I [ollow and Porous Brick Com- 
p any, f Keasbey, X. |. 
Messrs. Allison and Keasbey 
recently purchased the terra- 
cotta works at < >snaburg, near 
Canton, Ohio, and it is their 
intention to consolidate these 
with other plants which they 
are negotiating for. For this 
purpose a company is being 
organized under the laws of 
the State of Xew Jersey, 
which will have its headquarters in Pittsburgh. 

The Colum- 
bus Brick a n d 
T e r r a-C o tta 
-Company a r e 
supplying their 
g r a v Roman 
brick for an 
a p a r t m e n t 
house in Xew 
York City. 
( 5-eorge Keister, 

architect; their '-^^^^^^^^" 

gray Norman )f^fe* > 

brick for t h e 
seventeen- story 
office building 
for the Union 
Savings I! a n k 
and Trust Com- 
panv. at C i n- ' lpITAL ' " IK " N STREE1 rHEATRE < 

, ., • IIP VELAND, 1 Ullo. 

C 1 n nati, ( )hio, 

Exei Hi' 'I In iIm I mil. in.'! 1 ■ 'ii. 1 ( ompany. 

I ). II. Burnham t., ,., . 1 M, ti ■ ,■,. Architect 




«\ * r* 



II 



T II E l'» RICKBUIL I) E K . 



& Co., architects; also gray bricks for residences at 
Dayton, Norwood, and Avondale, Ohio. 

Charles Bacon, Boston agent for Sayre & Fisher 
Company, is supplying bricks tor the following new con- 
tracts: Telephone Building, Boston, Peabody & Stearns, 
architects; Medical Library, Boston, Shaw & Hunnewell, 

architects: and four resi- 
dences. Bay State Road. 
Boston. 

The At wood Faience 
C o m p a ny, of I tartford, 
Conn., has changed i t s 
n a m e to The Hartford 
Faience Company. There 
has been a change in the 
management, a n d n e w 
c a p i tal lias been inter- 
ested : and they are now 
in a better position than 
ever before to meet the 
demands for their line of 
manufacture, which i n - 
eludes terra-vitrae, dull 
finish tile, faience man- 
tels, and special faience in 
borders, moldings, wain- 
SCOtingS, and bas-relief. 

A well-known profes- 
sor in one <>f our large 
colleges has recently ad- 
vised the members of the 
architectural class to study 
closely the subject of 

burnt clay in all its branches, lor the reason that he be- 
lieves that burnt clay in its various forms is destined 
logically t<> become the lead- 
ing building material of the 
future, in this country. As a 
starter, we would refer all 
those interested in the subject 
to the new catalogue issued by 
the American Clay Working- 
Machinery Company, of Bucy- 
rus, Ohio. In this elaborate 
work one may get a good idea 
of the initial methods by which 
a good building is produced, for 
if we accept as a truism the old 
saying that " tine feathers make 
fine birds," it must be admitted 
that well-made bricks play no 
small part in the appearance of 
a building. To follow this 
book from cover to cover is to 
learn that the employment of 
intricate and ponderous ma- 
chinery, "built right and run 
right," is the means by which 
is brought to the hands of the 
architect and builder that qual- 
ity of material by which they 
too may build right. 



CONVENTION OF Till-: NATIONAL BRICK 

MANUFACTURERS' ASS< K'lATM >N. 

DETROIT. 

THIC National Brick Manufacturers' Association he 
its Fourteenth Annual Convention at Detro 



February 




eld 
it, 

It was without doubt one of the most 
interesting conven tion s 
held by the association, 
and the attendance was 
unusually large. 

The members w e r e 
welcomed to Detroit by 
the mayor of the city and 
the governor of the State, 
and everything possible- 
was done by the local 
committee, of which Mr. 
I-'. 1'.. Stevens acted as 
chairman, to provide for 
the wants of the members 
and their ladies. 

Besides the usual num- 
ber of technical papers 
are of in 1 1 



which 
chiefly 

Hirer, 
topics 

would 
those 



to the manufac- 
there were other 
discussed w h i c h 
be of interest to 

who are users of 



FIGURE FOR TIIK k I I I KM lol SI VPARTMENTS, l'HN\ 
Executed in 1 the Perth Amboj Terra-Cotta Company. 

Willie < .. Hale. A.. 




\l \ IN ENTRANCF FEDERAL BUII.OINl 
mux, oiiio. 
Exei uted by the Si. l.ouis Terra-Cotta Company. 



I> II. riiirnham & Co.. Architects 



burnt clay products. 

This association e m - 

braces in its membership 

many of the leading burnt 

clay manufacturers of the country and there is evidently 

a growing sentiment among them that it is desirable to 

briny more prominently before 
these conventions the market 
end of their business, and we 
have been assured by Mr. Ran- 
dall, the secretary, that it is his 
intention to invite one or more 
architects, and perhaps a 
builder, to submit papers, the 
nature of which shall briny into 
closer touch with one another 
the manufacturer and the user. 
We believe such a departure to 

be desirable and feasible, and 
that it would largely increase 
t h e interest in these annual 
conventions. 

The newly elected president 
is Mr. W. I), dates, of t h e 
American Terra-Cotta & Ce- 
ramic Company, of Chicago, 
who succeeded in office Mr. W. 
I). Richardson, of the < Ihio 
Mining & M a n u f a e t u r i n g 
Company, Shawnee. Ohio, 
both of whom are well a n d 
favorably known in the build- 
ing world. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

MARCH, 
1900. 




V. 

■f. 

— 



£ 



ft 

ft 

fjt VOL 9 
NO. 3 



3*&&3* 



THE 

BRICKBVILDER 



ft 



» MARCH m 



w 



u 

lift 




h r b. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MON I III.Y BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

S5 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. (.). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12. 189 >.. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, B\ Mil BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada £5.00 per year 

Single numbers 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union $6.00 per year 

SUBSI RIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANI I. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

lirick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 



pagi; 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery . . . IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



WE have in these columns several times suggested 
the possible desirability of minimizing the 
amount of steel to be used in a building, having in view 
the extreme liability to corrosion which this metal offers. 
We have read with much interest in the London Builder 
an account of the precautions taken in connection with 
the steel work of the Forth Bridge in .Scotland, which 
included scraping, a coat of linseed oil, two coats of red 
lead, and two coats of oxide of iron paint. With all this 
care signs of rust constantly appear, and the lower parts 
of the bridge have to be reeleaned and repainted once 
every year. It is reasonably open to question whether a 
material which is so readily corrodible is a suitable one 
for use in any structure intended to be permanent, 
especially when the steel structural parts are to be hidden 
entirely from inspection for repair in the center of a 
masonry wall. 

IN a few cities of this world the natural advantages 
seem to be intelligently utilized, as in the Thames 
Embankment, London, the residential portions of the 
harbor at Cadiz, or the northerly portions of Naples. 
Boston, with all its magnificent park system, seems to 
be hopelessly behind in this respect. .South Boston lias 
a splendid outlook towards the harbor in several direc- 
tions, but the shore line is practically abandoned to bath- 
ing houses and cheap places of amusement. Beacon 
Street, which still remains one of the best residential 
portions of the city, backs in the most contemptuous 
manner onto the magnificent prospect of the Charles 



River and the Back Bay, and while there are a lew 
houses which recognize the value of the outlook and put 
their best rooms towards the water, there does not seem 
to be any disposition to admit that the rear of the water 
side of Beacon Street is good for anything but stables 
and out-houses. The old poetic statement that " all 
nature is but art unknown to thee" applies with par- 
ticular force to these portions of Boston, for the possi- 
bilities of natural environment could hardly be more 
thoroughly ignored. 



A FEW years since the Beacon Boulevard was ex- 
tended from Boston through a prosperous section 
of Brookline, and in the process of widening it lapped 
over onto what was a species of sink hole of unknown 
depth. The hole was filled in to an extent that to the 
casual observer presented the appearance of a promising 
building lot. Two or three years ago an enterprising 
speculative builder purchased the land and proceeded to 
erect thereon a row of very handsomely finished apart- 
ment houses, which were speedily rented and occupied, but 
almost as speedily emptied and absolutely vacated, to 
remain in that hopeless condition ever since. With a 
blind faith in the solid appearance of the earth, which 
seems to be a function of our esteemed jerry-builders, no 
apparent attempt was made to investigate the soil upon 
which the building was to rest, and the structure has 
been gradually settling ever since, at so varying rate, 
however, that the walls and lintels are cracked in all 
directions, and the town authorities have ordered the 
building taken down. It would be a comparatively 
simple matter for an educated structural engineer to 
underpin a building of this son and make it absolutely 
secure. As one of our builders remarked in connection 
therewith, if a modern shipbuilder can construct a twenty- 
thousand-ton steel box which will float in perfect safety 
through the fiercest gales of the Atlantic, there ought to 
be no difficulty in making a proper bed on which this 
house could rest securely in the middle oi the mud. Un- 
fortunately in this case there are legal complications, so 
that no one quite dares to assume the risk of putting 
money into the fast-failing structure. Consequently we 
may have presently to record the entire collapse of the 
building. Such occurrences are very rare. We recall 
one instance in Brooklyn, where a house was built on a 
steep bank of clay overlying an inclined stratum of rock, 
with the result that when the water worked in between 
the clay and the rock, the bank and all slid out bodily 
into the street. Generally speaking, however, we load 
old Mother Earth with impunitj almost anywhere, and 
with a blind sort of trust that somehow she will bear her 
burdens safel v. 



4" 



T HE I? R I C K B l' I L I) E R . 



ARCHITECTURAL ROUTES IN EUROPE. 

BV C. II. BLACKALL, 
SECRE'l \KY OF I 111-. ROTCH IKAYKIINo SCHOLARSHIP. 

THE Paris Exposition is a magnet which will un- 
doubtedly draw many students of architecture t<> 
Europe this coming summer, and as Paris contains only 
a small portion of the treasures which are available to the 
American student, the architectural highways of Europe 
will be pretty apt to be more than usually crowded. While 
it is true that an intelligent student will pick up a lot of 
valuable ideas almost anywhere, it is a great help to one 
who contemplates travel to formulate his plans and lay 
down some definite program for his guidance. There is so 
much to be seen, it is so hard to make a wise selection on 
the spur of the moment, and so much more is accom- 
plished by at least an elimination of the unnecessary, 
that having made a choice of the route, times, and sea- 
sons, the student who is to profit most by a brief trip to 
Europe will, generally speaking, be the one who adheres 
most closely to his preconceived program, knowing per- 
fectly well what he wants to see. and making it his 
business to see and study only those things without over- 
crowding. The following suggestions are accordingly 
presented to the readers of The Brickbuii.DER, with the 

hope that they may be of service to the younger men who 
will find it possible to include a trip abroad in this year's 
experiences. 

A trip to Europe without Italy would be omitting all 
that is most valuable. The central and southern parts of 
Italy cannot be enjoyed during July and August. Con- 
sequently, in planning a trip, the time must be so dis- 
posed that these months will find the traveler in the 
more salubrious climates. Again, there are three types of 
possible trips through the architectural centers of Europe. 
The first embraces simply a general survey, merely skim- 
ming off the cream from the surface, including only the 
points <>f architectural interest of the very first impor- 
tance; the second includes the chief points of the prin- 
cipal architectural countries, namely, Italy and France; 
and the third includes more of each, beside s< >me acquaint- 
ance with Spain, the Netherlands, and England. The 
first trip could be accomplished bv a month's sojourn 
abroad, not including the time of transit across the ocean, 
the second would require at least two months, and the 
third four. In order to make these suppositional trips 
more tangible, I will assume approximate dates and 
distinct lines of travel. 



' I ■ K 1 1 ' NO. I. 



ONE Mo\ III \1:ko \ I). 



Leave New York or Boston April 14. Arrive at 
Naples, by the North German Lloyd Mediterranean ser- 
vice, the Anchor Line, or the Plorio kubatino. April 25. 
Spend one day in Naples, one day in Pompeii, arrive in 
Rome April 28. Spend one week in Rome, arrive at 
Florence May 5, stopping over between trains at Siena. 
Three davs in Florence would give one a very fair idea of 
its treasures. Then would follow one day at Pisa, one 
day, including the time spent in traveling, at Genoa, and 
four days divided between Pavia, Milan, Bologna, 
Vicenza, arriving at Venice, say. May id. Three days 
at Venice would have to answer, though it is little 
enough, That would bring us to Saturday, the 19th of 



May. Monday morning, the 21st, we ought to be in 
Paris, where we could spend two da vs. leaving there 
on the afternoon of the 24th for London, Stopping 
only long enough to take a hurried glimpse around the 
city, and taking a steamer at Liverpool on the 26th for 
America. 

A wide-awake student will take in everything, but 
there are sonic things that he must be sure to see, and I 
would suggest the following for the various cities: 
Naples, the Museum. This ought to be studied pretty 
carefully within the time allotted. Pompeii is one vast 
storehouse, and I shall not particularize. In Rome, the 
six days at disposal can be arranged as follows: First day, 
hire a carriage for the day and drive to the Capitolinc 
Hill and then down the Corso to St. Peter's, and back to 
S. M. del Popolo and out to Villa Borghese, back to the 
Piazza di Spagna and the Villa Medici, then to S. M. 
Maggiore, across to the Lateran, and around bv the 
Forum to the medieval portion of the citv. and across the 
Tiber and thence to Montorio, ending with a second 
visit to St. Peter's, none of these buildings being visited 
in detail the first day. The second day to be devoted 
entirely to the Roman remains, the Forum, the Capitolinc 
Museums, the Coliseum, the Laths of Caracalla. and the 
Pantheon, with a visit in the afternoon to Tivoli. The 
third day devote to the early Christian and medieval 
churches, particularly San Clemente, San Paolo, San 
Lorenzo. S. M. in Trastevere and S. M. Maggiore. The 
fourth day devote entirely to St. Peter's and the Vatican. 
'fhe filth day devote entirely to the Renaissance palaces, 
especially the Massimi, the Borghese, the Cancellaria, 
the Farnese, and the Farnesina, together with the 
Renaissance churches, S. M. del Popolo, the Church "I 
tin- Jesuits, S. M. Sopra Minerva. S. M. della Pace, and 
San Carlo a Catinari. 'fhe sixth day to be devoted ex- 
clusively to the art galleries. 

At Siena the Town Hall and the Cathedral are the 
chief attractions. These can be seen in a very short 
time. 

At Florence the three days at disposal can be ex- 
pended by giving the first to the Bargello, Palazzo 
Vecchio, San Lorenzo. La Ladia. and the Palazzo Sandol- 
fini. The next day to the Palazzo Strozzi. the Cathedral, 
the Bigallo, tlie Baptistry, the Palazzo Riccardi in the 
morning, and Santa Croce, San Miniato, and the Boboli 
Gardens in the afternoon. 'fhe third day should be 
devoted to the picture galleries. 

Pisa would offer only the Cathedral, Baptistry, and 
Leaning Tower. In Genoa study by all means the 

Andrea Doria Palace, the University, and the Villa 
Scassi. At Pavia it is worth while to spend a little time 
at the Cathedral and then take a running trip over the 
Cettosa. At Milan study the Cathedral, the Victor 
Emanuel Gallery, San Satiro, and San Ambrogio. At 
Bologna sec by all means the Palazzo Bevilacqua, Palazzo 
Lava, and San Petronio. At Vicenza there would be 
time only for the Basilica and the Palladio Theatre, but 
by watching trains there might be a chance to slip in a 

trip to Verona to take in the Loggia of the Gran' 
( ruardia. 

'fhe way to see Venice in a hurry depends entirely 
upon one's temperament. Speaking for myself, out of 
three days I would spend one divided between San 



T II E B RICK IU T I L I) E R . 



47 



Marco, Ai Frari, the Miracoli, the Scuolo San Marco. 
and the Salute. The second day would be devoted to 
San Marco and the Academy, and the third day would 
be given up entirely to floating around in a gondola. 

Three days in Paris would include one at the Exposi- 
tion, one at the Louvre, and one tor a continuous drive 
all around town, including the Champs Flysees, Notre 
Dame, Hotel de Ville, the Grand Opera, the Luxem- 
bourg, the Pantheon, and the whole length of the main 
boulevards. 



'I'kll' NO. 2. 



TWO MONTHS ABRO ID. 



I have gone into considerable detail in outlining trip 
No. i. Limits of space in this article would hardly per- 
mit of as much detail for No. 2, and I will simply indi- 
cate an approximate route and times. 

Leave Boston or New York April 14, arrive at Naples 
April 24. Visit Naples and Pompeii as before, including 
a trip to Amain. Allow three days to Palermo and back, 
and then take train for Rome, arriving at that city on 
the 2d of May. Twelve clays ought to be given to 
Rome, followed by a five days' trip to Florence, stopping 
off at Orvieto to see the Cathedral, at Assisi to see San 
Francesco, at Perugia, at Arrezzo, and at Siena, arriving 
at Florence May 19. Allow five days this time for Flor- 
ence, which is little enough, and allow two additional 
days for a trip to Prato, Pistoja, Lucca, and Pisa. On 
the 27th start for Venice, stopping at Bologna and Fer- 
rara, arriving at Venice on the evening of the 29th. 
Five days is not too much for Venice. On the 4th of 
June start west on a trip to include Padua, Vicenza, 
Verona, Mantua, Cremona, Piacenza, Milan, Pavia, and 
Genoa. This would take up six days, leading us to the 
10th. One day more at Genoa would bring us to June 1 1. 
Then go by Mont Cenis route to Geneva and thence to 
Paris, arriving at the latter city 011 the 13th. Three 
days in Paris would carry us to the evening of the 16th. 
Then make a circular trip including Chartres, Orleans, 
Blois, Le Mans, Vitre, Mont San Michel, Caen, Rouen, 
returning to Paris on the 21st. This would give us still 
two days to reach London and take a steamer from Liver- 
pool on the 23d of June. 



3- 



FOUR MONTHS ABROAD. 



Here, again, the detail is too much for insertion in 
this article, and I can lay out only the route. 

Leave New York or Boston April 14, arrive at 
Gibraltar the 21st. Take a trip through Spain, including 
Malaga, Granada, Cordova, Toledo, Madrid, Burgos, 
Saragossa, and Barcelona. This can be done in fifteen 
days, which brings us t<> May (>. At Barcelona take 
steamer for Naples, following the same route as far as 
Genoa given in trip No. 2. This would finish Italy in 
seven weeks, bringing us to June 24. After this I should 
give a whole week to a short trip through Switzerland, 
starting via St. Gothard to Lucerne, over the Briinig 
Pass to Berne, and across to Geneva, which would bring 
us to the 1 st of July, thence heading for Paris by way of 
Lyons, Le Puy, Clermont, Bourges, Tours, blois, Or- 
leans, and Chartres. The French capital would be reached 
in twelve days, or on, say, July 14. The following week 
up to Inly 21 would be devoted to Paris, besides two 



days devoted respectively to Fontainebleau and Ver- 
sailles, leaving Paris on the 24th of July for a trip 

through Normandy, including be Mans, Yitre. San 
Michel, Avranches, Coutances, Bayeaux, Caen, Lisi- 
eux, and Rouen, a trip of twelve days more, which will 
bring us to August 11. This trip could be followed by 
a week spread around between Amiens. Khcims, Brus- 
sels, Antwerp, The Hague, and Amsterdam, whence a 
steamer could be taken to London. This would still 
leave a week for England, which would have to be re 
stricted to London, Winchester, Salisbury, Oxford, Lin- 
coln, Chester, and Liverpool, taking the steamer on the 
25th. 

An excellent preparation for any one of these combi- 
nations is a diligent study of Baedeker, with constant ref- 
erence to Professor Hamlin's or Mr. Russell Sturgis's 
histories of European architecture. Mother wit and a 
determination to make the most of every moment will be 
great guides. The cities enumerated in any one of these 
trips could receive serious study during several years 
without by any means exhausting the subject, and the 
student who is undertaking to obtain the most he can in 
the least time must exercise the most rigid self-restraint. 
In trip No. 1 there would be no time for sketching. An 
excellent substitute and perhaps in some ways an even 
better plan than sketching is to buy photographs plenti- 
fully. These are cheap all over Europe and enable one 
to collect the odds and ends of his observation in a very 
satisfactory manner. It is well, also, to buy photographs 
in advance if possible, so as to be prepared a little for 
what is coming, and while in Rome, if the student can 
get access in one of the libraries to Letarouilly, it helps a 
great deal to study the buildings in print form first, and 
one will save a great deal of time and see much more in- 
telligently by knowing what is before him. 

In regard to expense, tlie most satisfactory way on 
the whole, if one has the money to stand it, is to buy 
Cook's hotel coupon tickets. This means an expenditure 
for board and lodging of at least $2.50 a (lav. Oil 
the other hand, if one is so disposed, by a little time 
spent in seeking out, confining the search entirely to the 
hotels and restaurants mentioned in Baedeker, one need 
not pay over two francs and a half per day for lodging in 
Italy, or three francs in France, nor more than five francs 
per day for food in Italy, and six francs in France. In 
Spain good accommodation can usually be had, if one is 
resolved to pay no more, at prices ranging from S'-oo to 
$1.25 per day for meals and lodging. In regard to 
traveling expenses, the railroad fares for the first trip 
would cost about $42, for the second trip $60, and 
for the third trip $1 10. If the student intends to travel 
second class, add 40 per cent, to these prices, or it' first 
class, double them. Then lor museum tees, incidentals, 
etc., there ought to be an allowance of a dollar a day. 
This would bring the minimum approximate cost for the 
first trip, exclusive of steamer passage, i<> $125, for the 
second trip $225, and tor the third trip 8430. 

Of course, any attempts to outline routes of travel in 
this manner are extremely general and would not answer 
for all temperaments nor for all circumstances, but they 
can at least suggest the manner in which tin- student can 

intelligently plan beforehand and he able to economize 
both money, time, and energy. 



4« 



Til E BRICKIIl'IL I) E R 



Minor Brickwork of the Apennines. 
II. Umbria. 

BY WALTER H. KM. MAM. 

THERE is a certain softness in the I'mbrian land- 
scape which seems to reflect itself in the traits 
of the inhabitants. There is an absence of the rough 
intimations in their speech, a peculiar drawl enters into 
their pronunciation, and the gentle countenances of Peru- 
lino's saints and madonnas are often reproduced among 
the natives of the present generations. This peaceful 
atmosphere seemed especially striking to us as we de- 
scended from the train at Foligno after a half-day's ride 
from Anemia through the wild ravines and gorges of the 
Apennines, and the impression was deepened by the 
obliging attitude of the station master, who agreed, for 

a consideration, to hold the north-bound accommodation 
train, due in an hour, if we did not return in time from a 
hasty trip about the streets of the town. Judging from 
such inspection as I was able to give, Foligno deserves a 
longer visit. There arc several Renaissance buildings of 
the first order, one very good, the Palazzo Xuti, by 
Baccio d'Agnolo, and among the examples of good brick- 
work was the arched passage at the side of the cathedral 
with its delicately decorated window and archivolt. 

It was the twenty-fifth of February, when, after a short 
run from Foligno, we slowly climbed the winding road 
which leads from the station up t<> the gate of Assisi. 
Although the fields were still dry and brown, the breath 
of spring was in the air, and the afternoon haze which 
hung over the sunny valley of the Tiber was mingled 
with the scent of burning leaves and of the freshly up- 
turned earth. The gray-green olive trees mingled the 
tone of their foliage with that of the fields into that deli- 
cate, dusty brown color which is the prevailing note of 
an Italian winter landscape, scarcely contrasting the 
scenery itself with the domes of the great church of Santa 
Maria degli Angeli, which rises so majestically above the 
plain. 

Assisi stretches its brown length along the slope of a 
promontory above the beautiful I'mbrian valley, sunning 
itself in the lazy Italian atmosphere with scarcely a sign 





(JENERAl VIEW Ol \sslsl. 

of life either in its long, main street or in its winding and 
sloping lanes. At the extremity of the promontory the 
square tower of San Francesco marks the limit of the 
town to the west, while eastward the brown houses fuse 
again into the mountain side. The town, best known for 
the wonderful frescoes by Giotto and the strikingly 
cavernous interior of the church raised over the grave of 
St. Francis, is mostly built of a brown, local stone, used 

in such small pieces that the effect, except in color, is 
almost that of brickwork. Actual brickwork, except in 
isolated and unlooked-for instances, is not found to any 




Ait>s* 



"IitWlA.^iT TV.. 






great extent, but when used at all it is most cleverly em- 
ployed, as shown in the sketches of the little balustrade 
that encloses the Ramp leading from the ground to the 
first floor of an old building, and the simple cornice that 
crowns a corner house just inside the gate. 

Like Siena, Assisi has an equipment of public foun- 
tains in style peculiar to itself. They are often placed in 
wide recesses in the walls along the streets, and are fur 
nished with a row of water jets which spout horizontally 
into a long trough. These, with the abundance of other 
architectural "properties," which lib the winding, hilly 

streets and graSS-gTOWn piazzas, would well repay the 
visit of the searcher for the picturesque, aside from the 
artistic treasures of the great church of St. Francis, and 
the attractive natural surroundings which distinguish it 
even in a land of beautiful cities. 



T 11 E H RICK B l T 1 L I) K R 



A') 




PALAZZO DEL CAPITANO DEL POPOLO, PERUGIA. 

The towers of Perugia, ten miles distant, are plainly 
visible on their lofty hilltop, and the wide expanse of 
level valley land between offers tempting inducements to 
make the journey thither by highway rather than by rail, 
especially as the picturesque mills and bridge at the river 
may be seen, and the remarkable Etruscan tombs may be 
visited en route. These tombs are wonderfully well pre- 
served, with their representations of ceiling beams cut 
out of solid rock and their terra-cotta reclining figures of 
family groups, all holding in their hands the coin neces- 
sary to pay for the ferrying across the dark river. Be- 
yond the tombs the groimd rises rapidly, and our little 
Italian horses, with the friendly aid of a donkey bor- 
rowed on the way, tow us bravely up the long ascent 
until the officers of the unusually suspicious octroi stop 
us under the old Roman archway and insist on rummag- 
ing our innocent valises for "vino." 

Inside the gate Perugia impresses one as a peculiarly 
dark and gloomy town even for Italy. Besides the narrow 
streets and tall houses common to most Italian towns a 
building stone is used, which darkens almost to black and 
gives a smoky and dingy but most impressive local color 
to the old Umbrian city. While the porous local stone 
is the principal building material a good deal of brick- 



WLM & jifc-jjMLJfL^rr' 




work is used here and there, and sometimes in an entirely 
unexpected style. The old brick house which stands in 
the Via Pernice, on the slope of the hill below the Public 
Palace, is an example of this curious introduction of exte- 
rior mannerisms. Some ot its details almost resemble 
the work often seen on private buildings in America. The 
alternating block decoration around the window arches 
suggest Venetian work, while the round-headed windows 
and heavy arch rings indicate an earlier period of archi- 
tecture. The gateway gives entrance to a narrow court. 
barely 20 ft. in length, from one side of which a flight ol 
Steps built of brick, with a brick balustrade, ascends to a 
loggia. A zigzag molding similar to that in the Bargello 
at Florence follows the line of the treads and risers and 
supports the balustrade. A groined vault supports a 
balcony over these steps under which is the main en- 
trance t<> the house. At the level of the upper floor 
there is a balcony carried on terra-cotta corbels and fur- 
nished with an iron railing. The roof is brought for- 
ward to form a cover for this balcony, the projecting 
rafter ends being held up by a long timber which crosses 
the entire width of the court. 

The windows are round headed and the sill and arch 




PALAZZO PUBBLICO, PERUGIA. 



FOUNTAIN IN rOWN SQI \ k I "I PERUGIA. 

moldings are done in molded brick and terra-cotta. The 
curious little brick balcony which juts out under the top- 
most window in the smaller wing of the building is also 
supported on terra-cotta corbels of odd design. The 
building is now considerably out of repair, and gives 
little idea of its early splendor, reminding one strongly 
of the so-called house of Tristram the Hermit in 
Tours. 

The dark and gloomy facade of the Public Palace 
watches over the little town square which has been the 
scene of so many desperate civic struggles. Many a 
time have the flagstones been littered with the corpses ol 

Baglioni and Oddi, while the survivors have dragged 

themselves gasping to the cathedral steps. Over the 
arched portal on the great balcony, dangling from tin- 
claws of the two symbolic griffins, are some iron bars and 
chains, taken from the gates of Siena in some half-for- 
gotten foray. The rough, brick walls oi the cathedral, 
still waiting for the completion of their revetment of 
marble, contribute t<> a certain savagery of scene which 
even the beautiful Gothic outlines oi Arnolfo's fountain 



5° 



T II E B R ICKIU'ILD I". R . 



fail to dispel. The street architecture of Perugia most 
effectively reflects its stormy history, and to us it seems 



I 







incredible that at the very time when the shouts of the 

chieftains and the clash ot' arms resounded in these narrow- 
streets Perugino and his pupils were painting in some 
lofty studio their sweet-t'aeed saints and madonnas and 
peaceful LJmbrian landscapes. 

Perugian architecture is not wholly given over, how 
ever, to these forbidding productions, and graceful door- 
ways, balconies, and windows are found in many of the 
streets. Not far from the town square, in the Piazza 
Sopramura, rises the palace of the Capitano del Popolo 
with a splendid round-arched portal, a row of deli- 
cately detailed windows, and a charming Renaissance 




WlMPOW • 5 ^\*RIA DEI. CAUMIIF ( 



Exchange, with its splendid decorations and woodwork. 

In intarsia work, wood carving, anil choir-stall work, in- 
deed, Perugia easily stands in the front rank, as will be 
seen by the accompanying illustration showing the inte- 
rior of the Church of San 1 Metro. 

The Corso Vanucci leads from the unpromising sur- 
roundings of the Public Palace to the garden of the l'rc- 
fettura, from which, as from Assisi. a beautiful view is 
obtained over the valley 'if the Tiber as far as Foligno, 
Spello, and Trcvi. 

Many other examples of good brickwork are found in 
the mountain towns of the region between here and 
Rome. In the latter city itself, while vast quantities of 
bricks were used and re-used in the Middle Ages, the 
material does not appear to have been thought of as being 
beautiful in itself, and was only employed in the general 




Elevation o-»qodq,t- rAc^Dt 



. w . - , .-.— ; .,. ,w . S.v . i .M-^ViY.NW 




- .....V 



balcony at one side with armorial bearings; while in the 
other direction is the beautiful Collegio del Cambio, or 



Pi_/"vN op Court 
Hoi >| |\ PERUG1 \. ITALY. 

masses of the building, the ornamental work being done 
in stone or marble. The many-storied bell towers are 
well known, and the old Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo 
on the Cselian hill is easily one of the most picturesque 
sights in the Eternal City, with the graceful colonnade 
of its apse rising above the damp and time-stained gar- 
den walls and massive arches at its base. At the same 
time the view is very typical of the appearance of the 
half-deserted southern quarters of Rome. 

In comparing the work in central Italy with that in 
the northern towns a good many minor peculiarities of 
the work of the two sections will appear. One noticeable 
fact is that while the Renaissance cornices of the two 
cities are much alike in detail, those in Siena are covered 
by the far-projecting Tuscan caves, supported on wooden- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



5 1 



rafter ends, while in Bologna this seldom occurs, the 
cornice itself forming the sky-line. Moreover, on the 




DOORWAY OF CATHEDRAL, FOLIGNO. 

Lombard plain cities were numerous and close together, 
and building stone was scarce. Naturally, brick and 
terra-cotta became the building materials par excellence, 
and the proximity of so many rival cities caused a rivalry 
in design, so that the terra-cotta and brick ornamentation 
is more varied, richer, and more prevalent than in cen- 
tral Italy, though it is not necessarily more refined. The 
Lombard cities are almost wholly constructed of brick, 
while Siena and Perugia are largely stone-built towns. 
It is customary to bestow considerable ornamentation on 
the window openings, the fashion varying in the differ- 




ent towns. In Bologna, for example, flat decorated 
pilasters are placed at the sides of the windows carrying 
the arched top, and a slender mull ion in the form of a 
column divides the enclosed space into two portions with 
semicircular heads, while the tympanum is further en- 
riched by disks or rosettes. This work is executed in 
red terra-cotta, usually of excellent workmanship. An- 
other building in Bologna, the Casa Stagni, on the corner 
of the Via Rizzoli, lately remodeled, lias been charmingly 
decorated in color in a way which revives the best tradi- 
tions of the old Italian School. The frieze has a dee]) 
blue ground on which is painted a delicate Renaissance 
pattern in light tones. The corner balcony and window 
trims are done in white, with the scrolls in soft blues and 




APSE OF CHURCH OK SAINTS JOHN WD PA1 I, 



CASA STAGNI, BOLOGNA. 
\. Sezanne, Architect. 

reds. The whole idea almost makes one wish that build- 
ing operations were more active in Italy so that the un- 
doubted abilities of I talian architects might have better 
opportunities for development. 

Many other minor variations of window decoration 
might be noticed, such as, for example, the hit from 
Brescia, where a band of glazed green pattern tiles en- 
closed by a rich rope molding surrounds the window 
openings. Venice has many examples of this style with- 
out the tiles. The arcaded sidewalks of Bologna also 
provide another opportunity for much decoration of capi- 
tals and archivolts. 

In Siena, however, brick decoration is mostly 

lined to the cornices and some restrained ornament about 
the windows and doors, while the brickwork itself is em- 
ployed in structural masses of such size and importance 
that it gains immensely in effect as a material. 



52 



THE BRK'KIU'ILDKR 



Heating and Ventilating of School- 
houses. 

BY R. C. CARPENTER. 

THE necessity for ventilating schoolhouses and other 
public buildings is now admitted to such an ex- 
tent that but few people maintain that some system of 
ventilation is not essential, and no argument in favor of 
good ventilation is necessary. Statistics are not wanting 
which show a very great improvement in the health of 
pupils attending such public schools as have an improved 
system of ventilation, which can be directly attributed to 
the system of ventilation in use. The object of this ar- 
ticle is not. however, to argue the advantages of improved 
systems of ventilation, but is to present a description of 
some of the methods which have been actually employed 
and give suggestions for proportioning and constructing 
such systems. While it is of advantage to consider sys- 
tems of warming and ventilation as inseparably connected 
in method of construction it should be remembered that 
it is entirely possible to construct them separately, and 
that until within a few years it has been customary t<> put 
in svstems of heating entirely independent from those 
for ventilation. 

Air Required : A study of the subject of ventilation 
will show that authorities differ greatly as to the amount 
of air which is required. Thus Tredgold in writing on 
this subject, in [836, stated that 4 cu. ft. of air per minute 
was good ventilation for health}' people, but that the sick 
in hospitals would require 6 cu. ft. per minute. Morin a 
few years later recommended 7 to 8 CU. ft. per child in 
schools and [3 t<> 17 cu. ft. for each adult in public as- 
semblies. At the same time, he recommended that work- 
men in ordinary workshops be supplied with 33 cu. ft. of 
air perminute, and that those working at unhealthy trades 
should be supplied with about (>o en. ft. per minute. It 
will be noted that to accord with this requirement chil- 
dren are t<> have very much less supply of air than grown 
people. Authorities at the present time. I think without 
exception, consider that children require fully as much 
air as adults. There has been a tendency, in later years, 
to increase the requirements for air supply whenever op- 
portunity would permit, as it is generally held that pro- 
vided the air can be handled, the greater the amount 
supplied the better for the health. Economy and pru- 
dence, however, require a certain limit which has generally 
been fixed at 33 cu. ft. per minute, or 2,000 cu. ft. per 
hour for each person, and that amount is maintained the 
same whether the occupants be children or adults. 

The requirement of 33 cu. ft. of air per minute is a 
reasonable one for most conditions, and as high as can 
consistently be urged at the present time. This amount 
can be considered for the time being as the standard of 
present practice. This amount may be thought exces- 
sive, especially when it is considered that the total amount 
of air actually required or used for breathing by each 
person rarely exceeds from one fourth to one half a cubic 
tout per minute. From this it follows that if the pure air 
from the atmosphere could be directly conveyed to the 
person who required it in such a manner that it would not 
be contaminated by the surrounding gases the amount 
mentioned as a standard for ventilation would certainly 



be excessive. Practically it is impossible t<> introduce 
pure air into a room in such a manner that it will not 
diffuse with the air already present. From this it follows 
that no matter how much fresh air be supplied, each per- 
son will breathe some of the contaminated air which had 
previously been found in the room, so that the act of 
ventilation is to be considered as largely one of dilution 
of the air existing in the room. Such being the case it 
is then essential that the existing air be so diluted that 
no harm to the people who breathe it shall result. The 
aii' in inhabited rooms is usually contaminated by the 
productsof respiration, which throw into the room watery 
vapor, organic matter, and a certain amount of carbon 
dioxide. The air is also contaminated by the burning of 
gas and by other forms of combustion. The products o\ 
respiration contain frequently a considerable number of 
bacteria, and these are probably the cause of more disease 
and suffering than are the other poisonous matters exist- 
ing in the products of respiration. It is quite probable 
that the best argument for improved ventilation is found 
in the fact that the supply of large bodies of fresh air 
acts to reduce the amount of injurious bacteria present 
in a given amount of air respired, and also fortifies the 
system against the effect of such bacteria as do exist. 
Regardless of the amount which might be necessary to 
maintain the health of a child in the best condition, we 
will assume that 33 ft. per minute or 2,000 cu. ft. per 
hour is required for each child. 

Distribution of Air: Practical ventilation requires 
not only the admission of a certain amount of air for 
each person, but it requires that this air should be uni- 
formly distributed throughout the room, or at least that 
it shall be made uniformly accessible to all persons. It 
must be distributed without producing sensible currents 
or draughts, otherwise the good results which would follow 
from the improved ventilation may be more than neu- 
tralized by the exposures due to wind currents, which fre- 
quently cause colds and other forms of sickness. 

Practically, then, the problems of ventilation require, 
first, an amount of air which is not less than 2,000 cu. ft. 
per pupil each hour, and second, the uniform distribution 
of the air supplied in such a manner as to produce no 
draughts and give the best ventilation. 

Temperature: The problems of heating require the 
room to be kept at a temperature which practice and cus- 
tom in this country demand shall be 70 degs. Fahr. It 
should be noted, however, that this temperature is merely 
the demand of habit, and that some other temperature 
considerably lower might be equally comfortable were the 
people accustomed to it. This statement is well attested 
by noting the habits of people in countries other than 
our own, as, for instance, in England and on the continent 
of Europe, where a temperature 5 to s degs. lower is con- 
sidered comfortable. The relation that temperature 
bears to the health of the pupil is probably not definitely 
determined, but it is quite certain that sudden changes 
have a very serious effect on the health, and hence an 
additional requirement for heating should be that oi 
maintaining an equable temperature, it being fully as 
uncomfortable and as unhealthy for the child to be over- 
heated as to be underheated. In the problems of heat- 
ing a room it is difficult to maintain all portions of the 
room at the same temperature; the heated and warm air 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



53 



tends to rise to the top of the room because of its light 

weight, while the cooler and heavier air tends to remain 
at the bottom. This action carries the heat to a portion 
of the room where it is not required, leaving the inhab- 
ited part of the room at a lower temperature. In any 
system of heating the more nearly this tendency to over- 
heat certain portions of the room and underhcat others 
can be obviated the more successful is the system of 
heating. 

Form of Rooms : The form and dimensions of the 
rooms may have much to do with the uniform diffusion, 
both of the heat and the air introduced for ventilation, 
and while general systems and general requirements may 
be discussed with propriety in the limits of this article, 
the conclusion should not be drawn that special methods 
might not give much better results under some conditions 
than those described. The difficulties of obtaining uni- 
form diffusion of the heat and the air increase with the 
height of the room. It was formerly supposed that a 
high room, since it afforded large storage space for air, 
provided better ventilation than a low room. It is, how- 
ever, a fact capable of proof by calculation that an im- 
mense amount of storage capacity is required for each 
person, provided no exterior air be admitted, and this 
amount is so great that little practical benefit is derived 
from such a storage capacity as could be provided in the 
upper part of a room. In other words, in order to pro- 
duce and maintain good ventilation the actual amount of 
air required must be constantly supplied from an outside 
source. If the room is of moderate height, I mean by 
this having a height of from two to three times that of 
its occupant, the problems of ventilation and of heating 
are generally easier of solution than with higher rooms, 
and better results are obtained in practice. 

Motion of Air : Air for ventilation can be moved in 
three ways: first, by heat applied directly to a flue for 
the purpose of warming the air in it, or by heat indi- 
rectly; second, by mechanical means, as, for instance, by 
blower, fan, etc. ; third, by induced methods, as by jets 
of steam, etc., which we do not consider. In the hot-air 
furnace system of heating, the air is warmed directly by 
coming in contact with the heater, and the motion or cir- 
culation produced is caused by the difference in weight 
of the colder air on the outside of the building and the 
warmer air in the flues leading to the rooms. The higher 
the temperature of these flues the greater the delivery. 
of air. It is often supposed that a heated Hue provides 
an economical method of moving air; on the contrary, 
actual experiment and trial show it to be an exceedingly 
costly and inefficient method of applying heat. The air 
which is moved by heat has a velocity due to the differ- 
ence of temperature between that in the flue and that 
outside. If the outside air is colder than that in the flue 
there is an upward draught in the flue; if, on the other 
hand, the reverse conditions exist there may be a down- 
ward draught in the flue, in which ease the currents of air 
move in the opposite direction from that required. When 
no heat is required in the interior of the rooms a special 
fire must be maintained in the flues to keep them hot for 
ventilation purposes, or otherwise ventilation must be 
provided for by opening the windows and doors and 
admitting the outside air directly into the rooms. Doubt- 
less good ventilation could sometimes be obtained by 



admitting outside air freely into the rooms, provided it 
could be equally diffused, hut it has been found that 
practically no ventilation is likely to be supplied unless 
it can be done by apparatus which does not require the 
attention of the teacher. The mind of the teacher being 
preoccupied with his work, he is likely to neglect ventila- 
tion or anything which does not produce absolute dis- 
comfort. For this reason it is not considered desirable 
to erect any system of ventilation which cannot be oper- 
ated in all conditions of weather, and bv a regular at- 
tendant whose special duties are such as to require him 
to keep the system in operation continually. 

The velocity of air discharged from a heated ventilat- 
ing Hue in feet per second is computed quite accurately 
by tlie formula 

■■ = 8 V /i( 7^i)~ 
460 + / 

in which ft equals the height of the chimney or Hue in 
feet, t' the temperature in the flue, and / the temperature 
of the outside air. The amount of air discharged will be 
found by multiplying the velocity of discharge, as com- 
puted from the above formula, by the area of the dis- 
charge flue; the amount so calculated will be reduced by 
friction in the pipe and other causes. Mr. Alfred Wolff 
considers that the safe discharge should only be taken as 
one half that given by the above calculations; my own 
experience would indicate that two thirds of this amount 
can usually be safely assumed for flues of 25 to 50 ft. in 
length, and such as are commonly used in the ventilation 
of school buildings. A better method, doubtless, would 
be to compute the size of flue required by the calculations 
as outlined above, and then to increase each dimension by 
two inches as an allowance for loss of head due to fric- 
tion. For long flues an additional amount proportional 
to the square root of the length would need to be added 
to counterbalance extra frictional losses. 

The following table shows the velocity in feet per 
minute which would be produced in the discharge from 
a Hue for a difference of temperature and height as 
given. In making a practical application of this table 
the area in square feet of a line can be determined by 
dividing the amount which must be discharged expressed 
in cubic feet per minute by the velocity as given in the 
table. The area so obtained is the theoretical area when 
no friction exists. To account for friction determine the 
dimensions of the required flue corresponding to this 
theoretical area and increase these dimensions by 2 ins. 
to obtain the actual si/.e. As an illustration, suppose 
that the excess in temperature of the air discharged from 
a line above that of external air is 50 (legs., that the 
height of flue is 20 ft., and the corresponding velocity as 
given in the table is 6-84 ft. ; suppose that it is required to 
discharge 6,000 CU. ft. of air per minute through this 
flue. The theoretical area must be ",".",", or 8.7 sq. ft. Its 
dimension in one direction is usually assumed thus: If 
we wish our flue to be about 4 ft. in one direction, its 
dimensions in the other direction would be found by 
dividing X. 7 by 4, which gives 2.18 ft., corresponding to 
26.2 ins. The theoretical area would thus be 48 by 26.2 
ins. I would add to these dimensions 2 i n si. . making 



the dimensions of the line 



bv 2.S.2 ins. 



This 



lite 



would be found satisfactory provided the inlets were 



54 

properly proportioned to overcome 

size to keep a moderate velocity, 
or one not exceeding 400 ft. per 
minute. In order to fulfil this 
condition in the above instance 
it will be necessary to make inlet 
openings with rounded forms and 
with an area nearly 50 per cent. 
greater than that of the Sue. 

I \ HI I SHOWING VELOCITY OF UR 

in fee i per mini ik in flues 
(theoretical). 



T II E BRIC K BT I L D E R. 



loss, and of sufficient 





■ I tempera 


ure of discharged air from 


= 


Hue above that ot external air, degrees Kahr 


X 


aa 

1 

V 


a 
at 

u 




v 

2 


M 
it 


6 




10 
U 




HI 

•V 

g 


u 
u 























1 


,s 


68 


84 


w. 


10S 


OS 


IS2 


216 


.v,., 


; 


no 


142 


[88 


2l8 


242 


268 


(34 




838 


10 


154 


216 


266 




342 


$7° 


tM 


..N4 


'S 


19s 


266 


3 2 4 


;;<> 




460 


i94 


838 


I02S 


20 


242 


306 


576 


,34 


,84 


53° 




968 


[l86 


-' ; 


242 


242 


420 


,°4 


542 


594 




10.X2 


1 326 


',0 




:.-" 




530 


i94 


6,o 




1186 


i ( ;.- 


Si 




406 


406 


i72 


(.,0 


702 




12S0 


1^68 


40 




434 


53° 


012 


-02 


75° 


968 


1 ;68 


K, r( , 


4- 


v\ 


460 


■M 


(">iO 


rio 


796 


102S 144S 


'77 s 


50 342 


484 


594 


084 




838 




1874 


60 376 


532 


'■; 


:t" 




922 


1 198 1671 ■ 


2012 


70 401. 


S?2 




810 


930 




1286 


1S00 






(>I2 


75° 


306 




'""■' 


1376 


1930 


23/0 


• ,o 440 


,.,\ 






10^2 


1128 


MM 




24,0 


100 4S6 


.,N, 


S40 


970 


1068 


1198 


1536 


2160 


2650 




The system of ventilation in 
which the air is moved by means 
of heat applied to a flue is fre- 
quently spoken of as natural ven- 
tilation, and while the writer can 
see little or no appropriateness in 
that term for want of a better 
name the system will be so de- 
nominated in this article. 

Mechanical Ventilation: The 
principal system of mechanical 
ventilation is that in which air is 
moved by a centrifugal fan or 
blower; for this purpose two 
forms of fans arc employed, one 
of which receives the air at one 
side and delivers at the opposite 
side, the principal motion of the 
air being parallel to the axis. 
This is termed a disk fan and is 
illustrated in the accompanying 
diagrams, Figs: 1 and 2. The disk 
fans are made either with plane or 
curved blades as shown. The 
other fan delivers air radially and 
from the ends of its vanes, and is 
usually known as a centrifugal 
/'lower or quite frequently as a 
blower. A form of blower wheel 
without casing as ordinarily used 
is shown in Fig. 3. The same 
principle of operation governs 



disk 1 \n w 1 111 PL \nk ia. \I>KS 




DISK IAN \\ I I M CURVED BL VDES. 





lie;. 4. DIAGRAM OF CASING OF BLOWER 
DISCHARGE OPENING I VN BE XI 1NY 

I'OIN I . 



both fans, the principal force which is used in moving the 
air being the centrifugal force 

generated in the rotation of the 
wheels; in the disk fan the air is 
received on one side and dis- 
charged on the other; in the 
blower fan the air is received at 
the center of the wheel and dis- 
charged at its circumference into 
a casing, as shown in Fig. 4. The 
disk fan on account of its peculiar 
form is only suited for use where 
little difference of pressure is re- 
quired. It is valuable for mov- 
ing a large volume of air at low 
velocity and is probably the best 
form for exhaust or suction fans, 
and maybe used in improving the 
draught of a Hue. The blower 
form of fan is better adapted to 
move air when a considerable dif- 
ference of pressure is required, and 
hence is better suited for forcing 
air through ducts or pipes. It is 
the ordinary type used in school- 
house ventilation where the air 
necessarily must be transported 
some distance. It has been men- 
tioned that the expense of ventila- 
tion by the heated flue is greater 
than that of ventilation with a fan. 
It is meant by this that more fuel 
is required. For instance, if coal 
be burned under a boiler so as to 
form steam, and if this steam be 
used in an engine, even of a poor 

class, and the power so derived be 

used to operate a blower, much 
more air will be moved per pound 
of fuel consumed than if the same 
coal had been burned directly in 
a Hue so that the entire amount of 
luat had been used for moving 
air by making it warmer a n d 
lighter than the surrounding air. 
Large losses take place in operat- 
ing a blower under the conditions 
mentioned, but these losses arc- 
many times less than those which 
take place when ventilation is 
produced by use of the heated 
line. In other words, the mechani- 
cal system of ventilation is more 
efficient than the so-called natural 
system. 

The mechanical system is. in 
fact, very many times more effi- 
cient than the natural system : the 
value of the fuel used, as ex- 
plained above, in a mechanical 
System is from ;o to 194 times 
that used directly for draught in 
a chimney 10 ft. high, and from 7 



FORM OF \\ II Kl I I ' >K BLOWING FAN 



THE BRICK BU I L I) ER 



55 



to 20 times that used directly for draught in a chimney 
100 ft. high. These differences are very great and show- 
that it is never economical to burn fuel directly for the 
purpose of moving air in a heated flue. 

It is usually the case that during the cold months the 
flues leading- to and from the various rooms are main- 
tained at a high temperature in the ordinary operation of 
warming the building, and under such conditions natu- 
ral ventilation more or less effective can be obtained 
without extra cost. It is also true that during cold 
weather, and especially in large buildings, the steam 
which has done work in an engine may still be utilized 



ot the fan wheel moves 5,000 to 6,000 ft. per minute, and 
the diameter is taken sufficiently large to reduce the 
rotative speed to from ,500 to 400 revolutions per minute, 
it being generally desirable to have the rotative speed 
not much in excess of 300 revolutions per minute, 
because at high speeds noise may be produced by the 
fan, which is likely to be transmitted to the rooms. 
Under the conditions of ordinary working, the capacity 
of a blowing fan can be found quite accurately by multi- 
plying the cube of the diameter in feet by the number of 
revolutions, and multiplying this product by 0.4. Thus 
a fan wheel 4 ft. in diameter making 100 revolutions 





FIG. 5. AIR INTRODUCED AT BOTTOM, FIG. 6. AIR INTRODUCED ox SIDE, HIS 
DISCHARGED AT TOP. CHARGED AT lop. 



FIG. 7. AIR INTRODUCED ox SIDE, 
DISCHARGED ox OPPOS1 IF. SIDE. 



for heating purposes, and in that case no extra heat of 
practical amount would be required for the fan venti- 
lating system. As a matter of comparison the two sys- 
tems of ventilation would stand, so far as economy is 
concerned, on a practical ecpiality during the cold season 
when the heat reqtiired for warming was applicable to 
aid in ventilation, but during the seasons when ventila- 
tion without heating is required economical advantages 
are many times in favor of the fan system of ventilation. 
The force which is applicable for ventilating purposes 
with any natural system of ventilation is a feeble one; 
consequently with such systems the amount of ventilation 
is likely to be affected by adverse wind currents and by 
outside or inside temperatures, and hence it is uncertain 
in its action and likely to be unsatisfactory in charac L er. 



would deliver 0.4 of 6,400 ft., or 2,560 ft. A disk tan 
follows tile same law, but the coefficients are not so 
accurately determined and vary greatly with the pressure. 
The horse power required to drive a fan delivering air 
under the conditions usual in schoolhouse ventilation is 
equal to the fifth power of the diameter of the fan in 
feet, multiplied by the cube of the number of revolutions 
per second, divided by 100,000; thus the power required 
to drive a fan 4 ft. in diameter at a speed of 240 revolu- 
tions per minute, or 4 revolutions per second, would be 
equal to the fifth power of four which is 1,024 multi- 
plied by the cube of four which is 64, giving a product of 
65,536. This divided by 100,000 gives as the power 
required to operate a fan 0.66 horse power. If the speed 
were 4X0 revolutions per minute, or 6 revolutions per 




FIG. <S. AIR ADMITTED ON SIDE, DIS 
CHAKGKl) NEAR BOTTOM. 




FIG. <;. AIR ADMIT I I •: I > \ I BOTTOM, 
DISCHARGED NEAR BOTTOM. 



1 

10 

F- 




% I BREATHINetlNk-T 




UJ 


" '. 




' -..•'-r-W.M 



INLET NEAR POP, Mm II \ Rl ,1. 
NEAR BOTTOM. 



The mechanical systems of ventilation are, on the other 
hand, affected by no stress of weather, and the force 
available is always sufficient to overcome the counter 
effects of wind or difference of temperature. It is for 
this reason positive and reliable. 

It has been shown to be under usual circumstances 
much more economical to operate; consequently the ad- 
vantages appear to favor the mechanical systems from all 
standpoints of view. 

Capacity of Fans: The fans for ventilation are gen 
erally operated at such a speed that the outer periphery 



second, the power required would be ^.i horse power, or 
8 times as much as in the preceding east'. 

Change of Air: In considering problems of ventila- 
tion the amount of air required may be expressed very 
conveniently in a form expressing the number of times 
that the air will need to be changed in any given room 
per hour. As an illustration, supposing that a room is 
seated for sixty pupils, that each pupil requires 2,000 eu. 

ft. of air per hour, and that consequently we must supply 

for this ventilation 120,000 cu. ft.; supposing that the 
cubic contents of this room be 20,000 CU. ft., we would 



56 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



then need to change the air in the room to meet this re- 
quirement six times per hour. It will generally be found 
that in order to properly ventilate school buildings the 
air will need to be changed from six to twelve times per 
hour. 

Limit of Velocity: The air 
which is discharged from 
rooms 1>\" natural ventilation 
would ordinarily pass out with 
such a velocity as would be 
produced by a flue having the 
height and temperature as 
previously described, yet it is 
best that such velocity be re- 
duced to such an extent as to 
produce no sensible draught 
in the room from which the 
air is taken. The air in flues 

and passages, cither flowing to or from the room, may 
move at high velocity without detrimental effect: but 
that through the registers should be moderate: the limit 
may perhaps be put at 5 or 6 ft. per second ( 300 to 360 
ft. per minute) for the entering air, and 7 or S ft. per 
second (420 or 4S0 ft. per minute) for the discharge air. 
This will vary with conditions, however. In practical con- 
struction the register either for the supply air or the dis- 
charge air should be made large enough to permit the 
necessary flow at the desired velocity. The following 
table is a convenient one for estimating the area of a reg- 
ister required for supplying air to a room. The table 
gives the net area; hence to the amount given by the 
table an addition should be made to cover loss by "Tills 
and other obstructions, which can usually be taken at 50 
per cent. 

It will be noticed from the table that if the air in a 
room is to be changed six times per hour and to enter 
through a register at a velocity of 5 ft. per second, or 300 
ft. per minute, we shall require 4<S sq. ins. for each 
t, 000 cubic ft. of space in the room; when an allowance 
for grills, etc., has been made, the register area will be 
increased 50 percent, and become 72 sq. ins. 

This table will be found a great convenience in laying 
out a system of registers, as it will apply to any system 
of heating and ventilation. 

NET REGISTER AREA 

IN SQ1 \KK INCHES FOR EACH 1,000 CUBIC FEET OF SPACE. 




\kk \M.I\II.N I 



Velocity 
feet. * 




El "I TIMES ilk 


l HANGBP 1 1 1 HOI R 




•v 

c 
z 








0. 


1 2 


3 


4 


s 




8 


[< 




I 


f)0 


40 


80 


I 20 


1 60 


200 


24O 


320 


400 sq 


ins. 


2 


1 20 


20 


40 


60 


So 


100 


I20 


160 


200 


. , 


3 


i So 


1.3-3 


26 


40 


53 


6 7 


So 


107 


[ 33 




4 


240 


10 


20 


3° 


40 


5° 


60 


So 


1 00 




5 


300 


■S 


16 


24 


34 


40 


48 


64 


So 




6 


360 


'-■7 


13 


20 


2 7 


33 


40 


53 


67 •• 




S 


4S0 


5 


4 


'5 


20 


25 


30 


20 


5° 




10 


600 


4 


.S 


1 2 


'7 


20 


24 


3 2 


40 




'5 


900 


2.7 


5-.? 


<S 


1 '-3 


'^:~, 


16 


21 


26.6 ., 


,, 


20 


1 200 


2 


4 


6 


8. S 


10 


1 2 


16 


20 


, , 


-5 


1500 


1.6 


3-4 


4.8 


6.8 


8 


9.6 


12.S 


i6 .. 




,?o 


1 <Soo 


1-3 


2.7 


4 


5-7 


"■7 


8 


to. 5 


'3-3 -- 





Introduction of Air: The best method of introducing 

air into rooms is not determined with any very great 
amount of precision by different authorities; indeed, it 
will be found that there is a great difference of opinion 

on this subject. Some eminent 
engineers contend that all the 
fresh air should be introduced 
at the bottom of a room and 
taken out at the to]); others 
equally eminent contend that 
all the fresh air should be in- 
troduced at the ceiling and 
taken out near or at the floor. 
There are very strong argu- 
ments for both methods, and 
it is doubtless true that either 
the one or the other may be 
used under special conditions 
with success. It is probably true that the best heating 
and ventilating engineers at the present time use either 
method, depending upon conditions. It is a fact which 
is well proved by experiment that the diffusion of air 
will be affected greatly by the velocity of the entering 
air, by the position from which the air is supplied, and 
by the form and dimensions of the room. Consequently, 
the method which may be successful and give good re- 
sults in rooms of certain proportions wotdd fail alto- 
gether with rooms of a different form. It is doubtless 
true that less force is required for an upward system of 
ventilation than for a downward system, but, on the 
other hand, this very fact tends to make the problem of 
an equable diffusion of air and heat more difficult with 
the upward, than with the downward system. The fol- 
lowing diagrams, see Figs. 5 to 10, show the results of 
experiments made by introducing air into a small room 
in various positions, and also of changing the location of 
outlet. In the diagrams the location assumed by the 
fresh and pure air is shown by shaded lines. The object 
of the experiment was to obtain a uniform distribution of 
the fresh air in each case. It will be noted that this 
object was most nearly accomplished when the inlet and 
outlet were in the relative position shown in Fig. 10; in 
all other cases there 
was a tendency for 
the fresh air to take 
a direct path from 
the inlet to the out- 
let, 1 e a v i n g t h e 
greater portion of 
the room without 
ventilation. It will 
be noted that these 

experiments i □ d i- 

eate the best diffu- 
sion of the pure air 
when the inlet is 

situated at about two thirds of the height from floor to 
ceiling and the outlet is near the floor in the same side, 
but at the opposite diagonal corner. It has been proved 
practically that with rooms of about the proportion 
shown in the diagram, good results in the diffusion of 
heat and air are obtained by introducing the air at a 
point two thirds of the distance from floor to ceiling and 




110. 1 
no 1 



2. iKoss SECTION snow [NG 
AIR \M> coil) \lk l.l'CTS 
VND MIXING DAMPER. 



THE BRICK BUI L I) E R 



57 



near one corner, and locating the register for discharge of 
air on the same side of the room, but near the floor and 
near the lower diagonal corner. Much better results arc 
obtained by keeping both heat and vent flues near an 
inner wall, and many designers arrange, when possible, 
to bring in the supply of fresh air over a door. As the 
motion of the air is aided materially by heat, it is evidently 
of great advantage that the flues for supply of fresh air 
or discharge of vitiated air should be kept as warm as 
possible when an upward current is desired. When a 
downward current is desired the flue should be kept as 
cool as possible. 

It is perhaps impossible to specifically state directions 
for admitting and removing air into a room which would 
not be open to exception. The methods which have been 
given outline the principles to be considered, and describe 
methods which have generally proved satisfactory. 

Heating: Heating may be performed with various 
mediums, of which steam, hot water, and hot air is princi- 
pally used. In each case the medium for warming is 
heated at some con- 
venient point in or 
near the building, and 
transferred while i n 
the heated state to the 
place where warmth is 
required. The method 
of heating by hot air 
might seem to be the 
best suited for school- 
houses from the fact 
that the air under such 
conditions may be 
made to provide both 
warmth and ventila- 
tion. There is, how- 
ever, a certain diffi- 
culty arising w h e n 
systems of direct hot- 
air heating are applied 

to large buildings, due mixing 

to the fact that the 

force which is available for moving heated air is a very 
small one, and consequently the circulation produced is 
likely to be affected by winds and outside air currents. 
A heater for hot air is commonly termed a furnace, and 
in the construction usually adopted the cold and fresh air 
from the outside is drawn over the heated surfaces of the 
furnace and discharged into the various rooms by the 
force of gravity pressing downward on the colder air out- 
side. In small school buildings good results both in 
heating and ventilating have been obtained with the 
furnace system, but such results are unusual in large 
buildings, and it is now generally believed that this 
system can be applied successfully only to small build- 
ings. It cannot be recommended as a successful system 
for buildings containing more than eight rooms. Even 
for such a simple case as a six-roomed building difficulty 
will be found at certain times to secure a uniform diffu- 
sion of the heat and air. It may incidentally be re- 
marked that in connection with the furnace systems of 
heating, instances are on record in which attempts have 
been made to warm and ventilate rooms with hot air in 




which no ventilating ducts were provided to carry off 
the air discharged from the room. While in our previous 
discussion we have said little regarding the ducts for dis- 
charging the air, yet it must be evident on consideration 
that if means are provided for supplying air to a room 
means must also be provided tor the discharge of air 
from a room, or we should soon have a state of conges- 
tion of air which would prevent the admission of any 
further supply. 

It is quite true that a certain amount of success has 
attended some of the old furnace heating systems which 
were erected without ventilating ducts, ^\uu no doubt to 
the fact that the heated air escaped through crannies in 
the walls, cracks around windows, etc. 

Steam heating is, perhaps, more usually employed 
than any other system, especially for school buildings of 
lars^e size; hot-water heating systems are used only to a 
limited extent. Either steam or hot-water heating 
can be used by placing the radiation directly in the 
rooms, or using the radiation to warm the air supply 

which furnishes t h e 
ro o m s with ventila- 
tion. The direct radi- 
ation systems, while 
useful under certain 
conditions, afford no 
ventilation, and at the 
p resent t i m e are 
seldom installed t 
any great extent for 
schoolhouse heating in 
recent build in ,u' s. 
I! o t h steam or hot.- 
water radiation may 
be placed at the bot- 
tom of air lines and 
thus used to warm air 
which ascends into the 
rooms, giving a sys- 
tem of natural venti- 
lation; but this sys- 
tem is open to all the 
objections which pertain to any system of natural ventila- 
tion. At the present time the system of heating and 
ventilation principally used in the best constructions is 
an indirect svstem of heating in which a fan or blower is 
employed to drive the required air over the heating sur- 
face, or around it as required to produce the desired tem- 
perature, and thence into the various pipes leading to the 
rooms as shown in the sketch. Fig. n. In the most ap- 
proved construction, the fan is operated at a constant 
speed, so as to deliver a uniform amount of air. The 
amount of heat is varied to suit the requirements for a 
uniform temperature in the room by passing the current 
of air directly in contact with the heating surface or 
under or above it as desired. This system, as usually 
constructed, is shown in the diagram, Fig. i t, and is seen 
to consist of a few coils of steam piping, marked temper- 
ing coil, between which the air is passed by suction, 
thence the air is drawn through a blower which delivers 
it either between the coils of a heater or under these 
coils as may be desired to maintain a uniform tempera- 
ture in the rooms. This system requires two pipes or 



58 



T II E B RICK BU ILDER 



passages leading from the blower— one for hot air, the 
other for cool or tempered air — to the foot of a vertical 
flue leading to the room to be warmed. A damper located 
at the foot of the vertical Hue is arranged to be adjusted 
either by hand or thermostat to admit any proportion of 
warm or cool air into this vertical Hue required to keep 
the room at the proper temperature. This system gives 
every room a constant amount of ventilation, the dam- 
pers being so arranged that as one pipe is closed the other 
is opened. The volume of air cannot be varied which is 
delivered to each room. Appliances in each room regu- 
late the relative amount of hot and cool air independent 
of all others, which insures an independent regulation of 



VCKT FLUES FOB 
TOILET KOOMS ON 

.1 '1 :«DFtoon$, 



*t] n b c-j- 



air is usually 50 per cent, greater than that for the cold 
or tempered air. Figs. 12. 13, 14. and 15 show different 
arrangement of dampers for admitting and mixing the 
air from the two pipes leading from the blower to this 
vertical Hue. This damper is arranged in some cases by 
means of rods or chains so that it may be operated from 
the room above by hand, and in other cases by means of 
a thermostat which is operated automatically l>v change 
of temperature in the room above. The figures show 
carious forms of these dampers. 

The diagram, Fig. 16. shows plan and elevation of 
this system of heating a schoolhouse. and is copied by 
permission from the catalogue of the Buffalo Forge Com- 
pany. This diagram shows the position of the fan for 
delivering over or around a heater, and also the layout 
for the main pipes leading from the heater to the various 
rooms. The relative positions of hot-air registers and 



Boiler Room 

|EB1 Ear tsgr 




m^UMLB-" 



BASEMENT PLAN 



CROSS SECTION 



IK',. 16. DOUBLE l>l 1 I SYSTEM Ol HOT \M> COLD \IK SI PPLY. 



temperature depending upon its requirements. It is in 

many respects a model system. Vent ducts arc provided 
from each room independent of those from any other 
room. The pressure produced by the fan insures circu- 
lation, and if the air is properly introduced into the 
rooms, there is a good diffusion and also a free discharge 
of air from the vent ducts. 

The object of the tempering coil is to warm all the air 
to a point that it will not chill the pupils when entering 
the room. The pipe for the warm air and for the tempered 
or cool air join, as previously described, near the vertical 
Hue leading to the room. The area of pipe for the hot 



vent registers in each room are also shown. The heater 
over which the air is driven by the pressure from the 
tan may be located so that the cool air will be shunted 
either below or above or at the side; the common practice 
is to shunt it below the heater, but recently one promi- 
nent engineering firm has arranged the heater so as to 
shunt the cool air above. This is probably an advantage, 
and will doubtless be generally followed in the future. 

Various other modifications of the blower system 
of heating and ventilating have been used with success. 
One modification consists in the use of exhaust fan in 
the vent ducts, another the use of a single pipe from the 



T HE BRICKBUILD E R 



59 



blower to the foot of a Hue leading to the room, and the 
ti.se of an independent steam heater for each room through 
or around which the air could he shunted. The blowers 
have been driven by gas engines or by electric motors. 
Any one of these modifications may he better suited to 
meet existing conditions, and no judgment could he 
entered as indicating that one system was superior to 
another. 

Direct Radiation: It is usually desirable to warm 
those portions of a building in which ventilation is not 
required by direct radiation, and in some instances direct 
radiation has been employed as a heating accessory for 
the main school rooms, but this I do not think is to he 
recommended. The use of direct radiation for heating 
halls is in my opinion good practice; these halls arc 
frequently connected with the outside air by the opening 
of doors; they are usually needed only for passageways, 
but in order to keep pupils in best health they should be 
maintained at as high a temperature as that of the recita- 
tion rooms. To meet these various conditions nothing is 
better than direct radiation, and so far as my experience 
goes nothing can be operated so economically. For the 
purpose of warming halls I should advise that the radiat- 
ing surface be computed by the following method: 
Estimate the area in square feet of the exposed wall 
surface including windows, of this take one fourth, add 
to the result the area of glass surface in square feet, 
and three times the volume of the hall in cubic feet. 
The radiating surface should equal in square feet one- 
fourth the last result. 

Heating Surface for Blowers: It will generally be 
found that if the air he delivered into the room at a 
temperature of 120 degs. and a sufficient amount he- 
supplied for ventilating purposes, the room will he kept 
comfortable in all stresses of weather. For this condition 
it will be found that if the air passes over or in contact 
with a heater containing 20 rows of 1 in. steam pipe, 3 
eu. ft. of air will be heated per minute fur each foot 
in length of pipe. By dividing the total amount of air 
required in the building per minute by 3, the total 
length of inch piping in the heating surface may he- 
computed . 

Much more could be stated in relation to the heating 
and ventilating of schoolhouses, but the limits of the 
present article cannot be further extended, and it is 
thought that sufficient has been written to give an idea 
of the problems which confront the person who would 
heat and ventilate school building's. 



Fire-proofing, 



FROM many quarters we hear reports of the forma- 
tion of municipal art societies and general move- 
ments tending towards the embellishment of American 
cities. New York, Cleveland, San Francisco, Haiti- 
more, — each have vast improvements under discussion, 
and are studying what metropolitan Boston has already 
achieved with so much success. Possibly the most com- 
prehensive organization now assuming shape is the 
newly formed Fine Arts Federation of Philadelphia, 
which is made up of delegates from different organi- 
zations, including representatives from all the depart- 
ments of the municipal government. It proposes to 
hold a public meeting in the spring to which speakers 
from several cities are to be invited. 



A NEW FIRE-PROOF CONSTRUCTION. 

rHE tremendous advance in the price of steel work 
of every description has had the effect of checking 
a great deal of building during the past eighteen months. 
There does not seem to be any immediate prospect of re- 
duction in the cost of this most important building mate- 
rial, and. as we have repeatedly remarked in these col- 
umns in the past, the prevailing high price is sure to set 
us thinking whether it is not on tin- whole better to build 
our buildings without steel of any sort. This is quite 
aside from considerations of rust or corrosion, which of 
themselves are potent factors in suggesting the employ- 
ment of material which possesses a greater degree of per- 
manence. We have, however, so accustomed ourselves 
of late years to consider that a tire-proof building must 
necessarily he of the steel construction type that we are- 
apt to lose sight of the fact that it is perfectly possible to 
elect a building, oral least some types of building, with 
an extreme minimum of steel and without the use of any 
steel beams whatever. An attempt in this direction has 
been made with a very considerable degree of success by 
Henry Maurer & Son. manufacturers of fire-proofing, 
No. 420 23d Street, Xew York, who have devised 
a new method of fire-proof construction, which they 
designate as " Herculean," by which all of the floor con- 
struction is entirely self-contained. It consists essen- 
tially in an assembly of rows of square blocks, between 
which are placed light T-irons fitting into grooves pro- 
vided for them in the terra-eotta blocks, the iron being 




I 11.. 1 . "HERCULEAN 1 1 \ 1 \k( 11 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION. 

thoroughly bedded in cement. (See Fig. 1.) Tin- T-irons 
are protected by not less than 2 ins. of terra-cotta on all 
sides, and as this system admits of an almost indefinite 
extension as regards spans, it will readily be seen that 
floor beams can be omitted entirely, the tensile stresses 
produced by vertical loads being taken up by the T-irons. 
while the compressive strength of the terra-cotta blocks 
is ample tor all emergencies. No concrete or other filling 
is necessary, the blocks forming both lion- and ceiling, 
ready for plastering. Tin- blocks are made of various 
sizes, regulated by the width of span, from 1 to 14 ins. 
thick. Exhaustive tests have been made ol the rigidity 
and strength of this construction. For a span of 20 ft. in 
the clear with i .; in. blocks, a load of 500 lbs. to the 
square foot was imposed and left in position lor several 
months, producing a deflection of only fo of an inch 

Drop tests of 1,000 lb. dead weights were also made with- 
out producing any deformation of the construction. 



6o 



THE BRK'KBriKDKR 



While this method would perhaps be most available 
for the construction of large fire-proof structures, such as 
factories and warehouses, it is particularly suitable for 




ordinary dwellings, and its cost and ready adaptability arc 
such that there is no reason why any form of dwelling 
should not be constructed with its use. In order to show 
its possibilities Henry Maurer & Son have just completed 
at their works in New Jersey three dwellings, each 22 
by 42 ft., two stories in height, with sub-cellar and 
with every modern improvement, thoroughly fire-proof 
throughout, with 2 in. partitions, at a total cost of $3,000 
for each building. Fig. .} shows the interior construction 
of one of these houses. 

While this construction is new. it presents so many 
good points and embodies so thoroughly the results of 
long years of training in fire-proof construction that it 




readily demonstrates what we have felt to be a fact, that 
houses of limited cost can be economically built of fire- 
proof construction throughout within limits of expense 
which would compare favorably with that of the ordinary 
and quite uninteresting frame house. Most of our bless- 
ings come to us in disguise, but if the high prices of steel 
which our constructors and investors are now resenting 
should result in a more general adoption of some such 
system as this, we could well afford to pay the price. 



r 



Till-; THEATRE FRANCAIS FIRE. 

HI-", fire which resulted in the almost total destruc- 
tion of the Theatre Francais, Paris, is one of those 
reminders that there are some things that are not done 
better in France. We have often to complain of fires in 
our fire-proof buildings, but although the inflammable 
nature of our American constructions is held up to 
the readers of foreign magazines as a dreadful warning, 
it would be almost impossible for any American city to 
be caught in the predicament which accompanied the fire 
in Paris. The conflagration started shortly after noon. 
Apparently the first thought of the management was the 
very laudable one of rescuing the imperilled artists, who 
were about to begin their rehearsal. Then the tire de- 
partment was summoned with the usual promptness 
which characterizes affairs of that sort in Paris, but, as 
the despatches naively remark : " Twenty minutes elapsed 
before the first detachment arrived and then only hand 
pumps were brought. Finally steam pumps came, but 
then it was found that 110 water was to be had. It 
was 12.45 •'■ Xl " nearly three quarters of an hour after 
the alarm was raised, before an adequate stream of water 
was poured into the burning building, which by that 
time was quite beyond help." 

This is very amusing reading to Americans, who art 
accustomed t<> the almost instantaneous work of an ordi- 
nary, well-equipped tire department. Nevertheless, in a 
broader way, such an occurrence speaks volumes for 
the construction of the foreign buildings. We should 
hope that at no time would our fire department ever ar- 
rive at such a condition as was indicated in the despatches, 
but it stands to reason that Frenchmen have never been 
blind to the possibilities of a conflagration, and if their 
firemen are so lax it is because they are so seldom called 
upon to cope with a tire of any magnitude. Our fire- 
proofing methods are more scientific, and, on the whole, 
more generally applied, especially in down-town districts, 
than is the case in Paris. But we do not seem to have 

materially diminished the number of our fires thereby, 
either up or down town, and though we may smile at the 
performances of the French pompiers we may well envy 
the conditions from which such slackness arose. 



FIG. ,5. SHOWING INTERIOR CONSTRUCTION. 



BY an oversight, we failed to mention in our January 
issue the fact that the original matter which ap- 
peared in this department concerning the special charac- 
ter of porous terra-cotta fire-proofing material, and that 
on maximum spans for flat terra-cotta arches of various 
cross- sectional areas, was prepared from data worked 
out by and under the direction of Mr. Henry L. Hinton. 
of the Central Fire-Proofing Company, of New York. 
Edi roRS. 



THE BR IC K BUILD E R 



61 



Selected Miscellany. 



NEW YORK NOTES. 

The event of the past month of most interest to 
architects was the exhibition of the Architectural 
League which has just closed. It was conceded by all 




OFFICES FOR A PHYSICIAN AND AN ARCHITECT, BURLING- 
TON, VI'. 
W. R. B. Willcox, Architect. 

to be most creditable and in advance of all former ex- 
hibitions. For some reason or other there was a notice- 
able absence of work by our best Beaux Arts architects, 
Carrere & Hastings, Ernest Flagg, and Howard & 
Canldwell, although the breach was admirably tilled by 
the magnificent drawings of M. Benard for the University 
of California Buildings. Indeed, this competition to- 
gether with the Custom House was enough alone to make 
the exhibition a success and well worth a visit. Probably 
these exhibitions are of more value 
as a study and an object lesson to 
draughtsmen and young architects 
than they are to the general public, 
who are slow in becoming interested 
in an art which they consider dry and 
mechanical, although their prejudices 
are being slowly but surely removed. 

If we may be permitted to touch 
once more upon the subject of com- 
petitions, it may interest our readers 
to know that a school board in a New 
fersev town has advertised for com- 
petitive plans for a two-room school 
building to cost $5,000. We refrain 
from giving the address, as they de- 
sire to limit the number of competi- 
tors to two hundred. 

It is announced that the buyers of 



tin.' block fronting on the west sick' dt Broadway, be- 
tween 85th and 86th Streets, have had plans drawn by 
Hill & Turner lor a seven-story apartment house, which 
is to be erected on the site at an estimated cost of S400,- 
000. An interesting feature of the plan is that they pro- 
vide for direct communication between the proposed 
rapid transit underground station at 86th Street and the 
apartment house by means of private stairways. Ten- 
ants of uptown apartments will no doubt appreciate the 
advantage of being able to step on board trains dry-shod 
in inclement weather, but the idea of protected commu- 
nication with stations ought to appeal especially to store- 
keepers in the shopping districts. 

The suggestion that Fifth Avenue be widened by 
taking in the stoop space is one that is revived at 
intervals, but which could be better applied to Nassau 
Street and Broadway, between Chambers and Wall 
Streets, where increased space for pedestrians is much 
more needed than on the uptown thoroughfare. 

The suggestion that Madison Square Garden be taken 
for the new uptown post-office has aroused opposition, 
on the ground that the city needs such a building for 
holding large gatherings, great shows, etc. It is true, 
if the garden is turned to other uses than those which it 
has hitherto found unprofitable, New York will probably 
be the only great city that does not possess a building 
suitable for large gatherings and spectacles; but it is also 
highly probable that if this should become the case, the 
necessity for such a building would soon become ap- 
parent, and private enter]M-isc would quickly supply it, 
though in a location where taxes are not so excessive, 
and where it could be made to pay. 



CHICAGO NOTES. 
Mr. John H. Bogue, who is promoting the building 
of " Mills's Hotels " in Chicago, recently gave a lecture 

on this subject before the Architectural Club. The 
application of the idea to local conditions was discussed 
and the lecture was illustrated with lantern slides of the 
Mills Hotel, No. 1, in New York. 

At a recent meeting of the Illinois Chapter of the 
A. I. A., at the Art Institute, Mr. Samuel A. Treat gave 




IATHING ESTABLISHMENT, REVERE 
Stlckney & Austin, An hit* i I 



l:l \i II, M \SS. 



(m 



T II E BRICKBUILD E R . 



an informal talk on "Past and Present Factory Con- 
struction," which was supplemented <>n the following 
day by a trip through t lie* Western Electric Company's 
new factory buildings, and an inspection of the various 
electrical products turned out by the company. 

The August Maritzen Company, of Chicago, an Illinois 
corporation advertising itself as " architect, " and which 

has been the defendant in a civil suit brought on behalf 
of the State by the Board of Examiners of Architects, for 
using the word "architect " in its signs, etc., has escaped 
further prosecution of the suit upon payment of costs 
and abandonment of its illegal practices. This company, 
of which Mr. August Maritzen. a licensed architect, was 
the head, was organized t<> act as "architects, engineers, 
and contractors," in violation of the Illinois license law. 
which expressly forbids the practice of architecture by a 
corporation. This suit was the last of several of a 
similar nature in which the defendant corporations after 
short legal contests thought best to abide by the law. 

For some time the Chicago Woman's Club has taken 
an active interest in the movement for a more beautiful 
city. Its first practical move in this direction is the 
appropriation of si.ooo for the improvement of the tri- 
angular space at the intersection of Bellevue Place. Rush 
and State Streets, known as '-Oak Park," after the 
designs of Mr. Birch Burdette Long, one of a number 
submitted in the recent Architectural Club competition for 
prizes offered by Pratt & Lambert. While Mr. Long's 
design was not premiated, owing to the opinion on the 

part of the jury that it ex- 
ceeded the limitations as to 
cost, it was generally con- 
ceded to be not only the 
best, but a very original 
and appropriate scheme. 
It provides for a simple 
shelter roof of timber and 

tile on brick and terra-cotta 
piers, a brick and terra-cotta 
fountain in the fore-round, 
iggesting in general form 
an Italian well-curb, in a 
pleasing setting of lawn 
trees and shrubbery. The 
terra-cotta ornament is 
treated in polychrome. In 
announcing the selection of 
this design the committee 
of the art department of 
the club stated that it was 
chosen •• because it seemed 
best suited to the condi- 
tions, and was distinctly 
original and not merely a 
conventionalizing of some 
old-world model." They 
expect to have the improve- 
ment completed early i n 
CARYATID, WHITE ESTATE the summer, and hope that it 
hotel, \k\\ \okk city. may prove an object lesson 

the Mian, :,- T.,r.,< „iu of what can be done for small 

Company. 
Barney & I hapman, Irchitects. parks at a nominal expense. 





PANEL, POOLE LIBRARY, HAMDEN, Ml). 

Executed in terra-cotta by (onklins- Armstrong Terra-Cntta Company. 

Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 

Much interest is being taken in the coming thirteenth 
annual exhibition of the Chicago Architectural Club to 
be held at the Art Institute from March 20 to April 2. 
The foreign and American drawings now on the circuit 
of the Architectural League of America will be supple- 
mented, it is hoped, by an unusually large and interest- 
ing exhibit of local work. Among the unique features 
of this year's exhibition will be the catalogue, and com- 
prehensive exhibits bearing on the good housing problem, 
and municipal improvements. The catalogue will be 
issued without any advertisements whatever, the expense 
being met by subscriptions from citizens interested in 
the club and in the cause of good architecture. The 
number of illustrations will be nearly doubled and the 
quality of the- reproductions will be of the best. 

A new cover design to be used annually has been 
furnished by Robert C. Spencer. Jr.. giving to the cata- 
logue in its new form the title. " Hook of the Exhibition 
of kjoo." Shortly after the opening of the exhibition the 
Improved Housing Association will hold a series of con- 
ferences at the Art Institute. 



NOTES FROM MINNEAPOLIS AND ST. PAUL. 

Prospects in the Twin Cities are good, provided no 
trouble arises between contractors and their employees, 
and provided further that there is no more advance in 
price of lumber and iron. The former seems unlikely 
and we trust the latter equally so. Most people now 
realize that no -real fall in prices will occur in tin- near 

future, and we do not expect any large enterprise to be 

••held up" on this account. The great advance in iron 
and lumber is leading architects to consider more and 
more the use of burnt clay for all their work. 

The street paving question is again before us with the 
probability that brick has grown into favor and will be 
used more largely than heretofore. 

The use of enameled brick for exteriors is somewhat 
new in Minneapolis, not so much so in St. Paul. The 
question as to its durability in our severe climate is an open 
one as vet. The new Tribune Building and two fronts 



THE RRICKBU1LDKR 



63 




EI, I. IS HALT.. 




COMMITTEE ROOM. 

INTERIORS, MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY BUILDING, FENWAY, BOSTON, MASS. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Archil 



6A 



T II E B K I C K IIUIIJ) E R 



for the Realty Care and Improvement Company are 
the first ventures in Minneapolis, and their weathering 
qualities will be watched with interest. 

Among the larger enterprises assured for Minneapolis 



'■^^T^^rYr^f^ft^ ^^ ^^*"*^ 




mnimiiuiuniiiuiuiiniiiiuiiianiuniuuiuiiuiii i uiim i i i n i i i uii i uu 




.iiiimiiiiiiiiiimiiNm 



11111 MiiHiiHiiiiiHiiiiiiinninmniiinnmninmmif 




DETAIL, VNDRUS BUILDING, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

Executed in terracotta by the American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company. 

Long & Long, Archite* is 

may be mentioned: Asbury Methodist Hospital, cost 

$150,000, E. I'. Overmire, architect: five-story business 
buildingfor McCusick, Copelin Company, to cost $60,000: 
annex to Donaldson Building, to cost $50,000; the < Msen 
Arcade, to cost $40,000: these latter two by Kees & Col- 
burn, architects. 

L. S. Bumngton, once our leading architect, lias aban- 
doned the profession and made a fortune from his acety- 
lene patents: he also claims to be the father of our 
modern steel skeleton construction. 

Cass Gilbert has opened an office in New York City: 
the St. Paul office will be continued. 

Ernest Guilbert, one of our best boys, has gone to 
Xew York City, being now in the office of Harding & 
Gooch. He was for several years in the Chicago office 
oi Henry Ives Cobb, and for a time in the Boston office 
of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. 

Architect Fred Kees has associated with him in busi- 
ness Serenus M. Colburn, for several years his head 
draughtsman. Both are to be congratulated. 



IX GENERAL. 



On Saturday, February 17, the Architectural League 
of Xew York entertained the T Square Club, of Phila- 
delphia. The Philadelphians were met by a committee 
at the 23d Street Station, and escorted to the Manhattan 
Hotel, where dinner was served. Following, a reception 
was held in the American Fine Arts Society's liuildimr 



on 57th Street, where the exhibition was inspected, and 
a Bohemian evening was enjoyed. 

The subject of the problem recently announced by 
the managing committee of the John Stewardson Memorial 
Scholarship in Architecture for the fourth competition to 
take place in March, shows a wise departure in the prepa- 
ration of its programme. It calls for the improvement oi 
the entrance to Fairmount Park. Philadelphia, by the 
proper treatment of the plot of ground bounded by Spring 
Garden Street, 25th Street, and Pennsylvania Avenue, 
and of the bank of the reservoir opposite the plot. More 
specific requirements were given at the School of Archi- 
tecture at the University of Pennsylvania on Saturday, 
March 17, when the preliminary sketches were made. 
This is the lirst scholarship competition problem we 
know of which has been prepared with a view to inter- 
esting the student in local requirements, and for this 
reason should add a new and vital interest to the work. 
It is by intimately relating architectural education to the 
immediate requirements of a professional career that the 
best work is obtained. 

It is announced that the Architectural League of 
America will send a delegate to the Fifth International 
Congress of Architects to be held in Paris during the 
summer. He will deliver an address in French upon the 
new movement in the United States. 

Rumors come from Chicago to the effect that the 
Chicago Architectural Club is to be the first architectural 
society to hold an exhibition and publish a catalogue 
without soliciting advertisements, also that their forth- 
coming publication is to mark an equally important 
departure in its editorial make-up, which is under the 
charge of Mr. Dwight Heald Perkins. 

The St. Louis Architectural Club will hold its annual 




TERR \ Co I I A C MM I \ I . 

1 id Iv 1 In- New l<T-sr\ Terra I otu Company. 

architectural exhibition at the St. Louis Museum of bine 
Arts, from April 7 to April 22, inclusive. 



Til E B R I C K B T I L I) E R 



65 




NURSES HOME, CAMBRIDGE HOSPITAL, ( ^MBRIDGE, \I \i- 

Stickney it Austin and William E. Chamberlin, Associated Architects. 




INTERIOR OF DOME FORMING CEILING AND ROOF, 70 FT. SPAN, OVER M \ I \ EXHIBITION HALL, SHOWING VLSO STEPPED 
MASONRY GALLERY FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 1\ GUASTAVINO SYSTEM. UK. II SCHOOL, EAST BOSTON, MASS. 

John Lyman l-'avon, Architect. 



66 



T II E 1$ RICKBUIL I) E R . 




VIEW OF MODELING DEPARTMENT, NEW Vokk ARCHITEC 
TURAI. I kkk \ t 11 II \ COMPANY. 

MA N U FACTU RERS' CATA L< >< i U ES A X I > 

SAMPLES DESIRED. 

The following-named architects would be pleased to 

receive manufacturers' catalogues and samples: L. R. 

Christie. Gill Building, Steubenville, Ohio; \V. Klinkert, 

San Jose, Cal. 

CURRENT [TEMS OF INTEREST. 
The ( >hio Mining and Manufacturing Company has 
removed its New York office to 150 Fifth Avenue. 

The Hartford Faience Company will furnish theterra- 
vitrae and faience wainscoting used in the new depot at 
Dayton. Ohio, Elzner & Anderson, architects. 

A. E. Sprackling, architect, Cleveland, Ohio, has 
prepared plans tor a five-story hotel building, to he of 
brick and terra-cotta. It will have all modern hotel con- 
veniences, including ice machine and complete electric 
plant for light and power. Cost, ,Sjoo,ooo. 

The Penn Buff Brick and Tile Company is supplying 
the enameled brick used in the Carnegie mansion. New 
York City, Babb, Cook & Willard, architects. About 

200,000 bricks will be used. 

The Atlantic Tcrra-Cotta Company is furnishing 
terra-cotta on the following contracts: St. Stephen's 
Guild House, Providence. K. I.. Martin & Hall, archi- 
tects: gymnasium, Foxboro, Mass., Charles Brigham, 
architect: Hamilton High School, Hamilton, X. Y.. E. 
A. Quick & Sons, architects: Lenox Hotel, Boston, 
Mass., A. H. Bowditch, architect: Golf Club building, 
Babylon, L. I.. Clarence K. Birdsall, architect: office 
building, Mercer and Spring Streets. New York City, 



Clinton & Russell, architects; stable. 107 East S26. Street, 

Xew York City. S. E. Gage & W. J. Wallace, architects. 

The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company has been 

awarded the contract to furnish their cream and green 
shades of enameled brick for the interior wainscoting of 
the new Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad depot at 
Rock Island, 111., Walter T. Krausch, architect. 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Limited, will sup- 
ply the roofing tiles on the following new contracts : Michi- 
gan Homeopathic Hospital, Ann Arbor, Mich.: library 
at Wellington, Conn., Wilson Potter, architect: residence 
for Thomas Woods, Colorado Springs, Thomas McLaren, 
architect: building for Western Tool Company, Kewanee, 
111.: West Side Grammar School. Evanston, 111.. Patton, 
Fisher & Miller, architects; Everett School. Boston, 
Mass., Fessenden & Libby, architects. 

Fiske & Co.. Iioston. report tile following new con 
tracts for their line of front brick: Schools at East and 
South Boston and at Newton, Mass. ; several dormitories 
for Harvard at Cambridge, Mass.: gymnasium at Mt. 





PANEL, SCHOOLH01 SE, CHICAGO, I II.. 
Executed in terra-cotta by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 
August Fiedler, Ai h 



PEDIMENT OVER ENTRANCE, OPERA HOUSE, MERIDIAN, Miss. 
ii by 1 1 !«.- Perth Auiboy Terra-Cotta Company. 
Alfred Zucker. Architect. 

Holyoke, Mass.; school for deaf and dumb at Hartford. 
Conn.: theater at Ameshury. Mass.; seminary at Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Of interest in connection with our illustrations of the 
Museum of Science and Art. University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Cope & Stewardson, Frank Miles Day & 
Pro., and Wilson Lyre, associated architects, is the 
fact that the brick which have been used 
with such excellent effect were manufactured 
In' Sayre & Fisher Company. These bricks 
arc known as their selected hard-burned red. 
with black headers. The dormitory build- 
ings for the same University, of which Cope 
& Stewardson are the architects, are built 
of these same bricks, as is the new Law 
School Building, by the same architects. 
The color is entirely new. and different from 

the ordinary red pressed brick; though they 
are pressed brick, there is enough roughness 

about them to give that character which is 
desired by many of our architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

APRIL, 
1900. 




CO 



Z 



X 



z 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY HY 

ROGERS & M ANSON, 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. ( ). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12. [892. 
COPYRIGHT, ,1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed Hat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada #5.00 per year 

Single numbers 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ....... $6.00 per year 

Si KM RIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . 1 1 and III 

Brick Ill 

., Enameled Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements I V 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery ... IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



UNSOLVED PROBLEMS. 

ALTHOUGH architecture is approaching the condi- 
tion where it can be called an exact science as well 
as an art, there are many unsolved problems which in the 
absorbing study of modern commercial exactions have 
remained quite beyond our reach. The average archi- 
tect has little time for speculative experiments, to say 
nothing of the general absence of spare cash which 
thorough investigation requires, but it is to be hoped 
that some architect will arrive erelong with a sufficiently 
persuasive tongue to influence some of our millionaires 
to dispose of their surplus shekels in such manner as to 
enable at least a few of these long-desired investigations 
to be brought about. For instance, our actual knowledge 
of the strength of brick masonry is by no means in the 
shape it might be put if experiments could be made upon 
piers of large area. This would require a testing machine 
of capacity far in excess of anything at present in exist- 
ence. As to terra-cotta, the data of strength cither for 
structural or ornamental work is very meager. Regard- 
ing steel construction, which ought to be most scien- 
tifically exact in its data, there is a large field for 
investigation. We are pretty well posted regarding the 
strength of beams, girders, and trusses, but we know 
comparatively little of how columns will behave when 
loaded to destruction, and no one can say with positive 
conviction what the life of a piece of steel will be when 
a building:, furthermore, we know that under 



some conditions steel will undergo some form of atomic' 
modification, becoming crystalline as a result of repeated 
shocks to an extent which renders it unsuitable for reli- 
ance in building. Here again is a promising direction 
for investigation. Then there is the vast field of acous- 
tics, in which Professor Sabin has labored most indus- 
triously and with most excellent results as far as he is 
able to go. In fact, if it were possible to establish an 
architectural testing laboratory, not as an adjunct of 
some school but to take up the very questions that are 
beyond ordinary school training, and this laboratory were 
endowed with sufficient funds to give it an income of 
forty or fifty thousand dollars a year, every cent of that 
income could be expended in a manner that would be of 
the utmost profit to the profession, that would result in 
more exact methods of construction and a greater degree 
of success in all that has to do with the engineering 
problems of the profession. 



put into a 



OUR attention was recently called to an excellent il- 
lustration of the changes which have come about 
in methods of modern construction. On one side of a 
street a modern, steel cage, eleven-story structure was 
lifting itself by leaps and bounds from the curb level ; on 
the other side an old-fashioned, commercial warehouse, 
after a short but hard life of less than twenty years, was 
being torn down. The work was being done on both 
sides of the street by the same contractor who. it hap- 
pened, erected the old structure some years ago. A dis- 
pute arose as to the necessity of having all the column 
connections in the modern building thoroughly riveted, 
and reference was made to the older building in which 
the columns supporting the floors were made of cast iron, 
and simply placed upon one another without being bolted 
together, or in any way made solid at the joints, notwith- 
standing which the building had stood with perfect se- 
curity and had given reasonable satisfaction during a 
long period of years. If the proof of the pudding is in 
the eating, it could be argued from this that our modern 
methods are unnecessarily exacting, and call fur an 
amount of care in certain details which do not tend t<> 
make the building any Stronger, and which could be 
omitted with profit to the pocket of the owner. Al 
though the tendency of the theoretically scientific con- 
structor is doubtless to over-construct, it is nevertheless a 
safe fault, and though former styles of buildings may 
seem justified by their endurance it is worth something 
to he able t<> construct scientifically and intelligently, and 
to know just what we can count on. There probably 
never was a time when building cost more than it does at 
present; also there has never been a time when, on the 
whole, building's could be constructed so well, so 



68 



TIIK ['.RlL'KBril.DKR 



thoroughly, and so in accordance with known conditions; 
and the fact that the older buildings stood fast without 
the safeguards and wide margins which we now consider 
at least advisable does not prove that they were neces- 
sarily right either in principle <>r in practice, but simply 
that our forbears took risks of which our present scien- 
tific knowledge tells us to beware. 



THE statutes of nearly all our large cities prescribe 
that chimney tines shall be built with walls of a 
minimum thickness of 8 ins., or with 4 ins. of brick and 
a lining of terra-cotta. It is very generally admitted 
that the lining is a great safeguard and makes, in every 
way, a more serviceable tine, but when used in connec- 
tion with fireplaces there is oik- weak point in the con- 
struction which has not received the attention it deserves. 
It is very seldom that the flue linings can be carried 
straight from the top of the fireplace to the roof without 
a bend. At present these bends have to be made by cut- 
ting and fitting more or less awkwardly the lengths of 
line lining; also, it is not practicable to carry the lining 
down to the firebox of the fireplace. The side walls 
above the throat have to be drawn in gradually, with the 
result that at the point where the combustion creates the 
greatest heat the walls of the chimney are generally only 
4 ins. thick, the lining beginning at some distance above 
the throat. If the 4-in. walls are properly cemented 
on the inside the construction is of course reasonably 
safe; but some enterprising terra-cotta manufacturer 
ought to be ready to put on the market a form of throat 
which would carry the lining clear down to the firebox, 
and would also allow of certain latitude in the way of 
bends by which the lining would be complete from the 
damper to the chimney top. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

There is still some discussion and difference of opinion 
as to whether consolidation has benefited New York. It 
is safe to say that when the question was presented to 
the people tor ratification the prevailing and predomi- 
nating influence which secured that result was one of 
sentiment. The idea of bigness was attractive, and prob- 
ably little thought was given by the majority of voters to 
any other consideration. In the light of experience we 
are obliged to admit some serious defects and objections, 
most of which can be remedied, the most serious being 
the large increase in taxation upon the island of Man- 
hattan, amounting to about $6,000,000, and caused mainly 
by the substitution of an expensive form of government 
for the suburban boroughs instead of the simple form 
heretofore prevailing. However, the city is well off 
financially, and these matters will adjust themselves in 
time. 

The event of the month just passed was the official 
beginning of the great underground rapid transit tunnel 
in New York City, which is to cost $,55,000,000. An 
elaborate ceremony marked the digging of the first 
spadeful of earth by the mayor, which took place in 
City Hall Park before a vast crowd of enthusiastic New 
Yorkers. The park was gaily decorated in honor of the 



event, bands played, and speeches were made. "To 
Harlem in fifteen minutes" is the watchword, and the 
impression given by the press comments would lead one 
to believe that in the consummation of that worthy 
object lies the key to New York's future prosperity and 
success. It certainly will greatly facilitate the comfort 
of those unfortunates who now live in Harlem, or be- 
yond, and who are dependent upon the elevated roads. 
One of the most difficult problems which the contractor 
will have to solve is the building of the loo]) around the 
post-office. This is one of the busiest and most Con- 
gested of the city's thoroughfares, and in spite of the 
great width of Park Row the building of the tunnel 
will have to go on without disturbing the surface traf- 
fic. The magnitude of this undertaking will be real- 
ized when one considers that the tunnel will be made 
deeper here than in any other part, as room must be 
made for two layers of tracks, one over the other, and 
-real care must be taken not to weaken in any way the 
foundations of the sky scrapers adjoining, one of them 
being the famous Park Row Building, the tallest office 
building in the world, which will be within forty feet of 
the tunnel. 

The thirteenth annual exhibition of the Chicago Archi- 
tectural Club, which was formally opened at the Art Insti- 
tute on Tuesday evening, March 20, was in several 
respects the best one yet held by that vigorous organiza- 
tion. The union of architectural clubs in the newly 
formed league enabled the local club to exhibit an inter- 
esting lot of foreign drawings and photographs secured 
for the circuit of exhibitions; and owing to the activity 
of the Improved Housing Association, in conjunction 
with the club, Chicagoans had the privilege of studying 
a remarkably complete and comprehensive exhibition, 
setting forth the housing problem as it exists in the prin- 
cipal American and European cities to-day, and showing 
how and to what extent it has already been solved. 
Other special and noteworthy features were plans, draw- 
ings, and photographs of several social settlement build- 
ings in Chicago; a new type of church planned as a 
social, educational, and recreative, as well as a religious 
center; a series of designs for modern farmhouses, and a 
model, furnished, full-sized tenement house interior of two 
rooms, built and completely furnished by the Arts and 
Crafts Society. The exhibition was catalogued in the 
" Book of the Exhibition of 1900," which marked the 
beginning of a new departure in architectural catalogue 
publication. The heavy expense of publishing this richly 
illustrated volume was met by subscriptions from a large 
number of patrons, and all advertising matter was elimi- 
nated. Room was thus made for a number of short 
articles on the most virile problems confronting architects 
in American cities at the end of the century, and with 
particular reference to the needs of Chicago. 

To attempt to describe in detail the exhibit, or even a 
single room, in this brief notice, would be scarcely fair to 
the dozens of well-known designers and skilful draughts- 
men whose works made the- principal rooms a glow of 
rich color. 

While for purposes of reproduction perspective draw- 
ings in line or monochrome will always be made in con- 
siderable numbers, we are ''lad to note that there is an 



THE BRIL'KIU'ILDKR 



69 



ever-growing use of color as a medium for expressing 
architectural ideas. 

It is to be noted with pleasure in view of the excep- 
tionally practical bearing of the special features of this 
exhibition upon problems of immediate and deep public 
concern that the attendance during the two weeks was 
large. .Such an opportunity for studying the problems 
of better housing and other important civic improvements 
is not likely to occur soon again, particularly as it was 
offered in connection with the series of conferences held 
during the first week in Fullerton Hall under the auspices 
of the Chicago Improved Housing Association. 



BRICKEUILDER COMPETITION. II. 

COZY CORNER AND FIREPLACE IN THE LI- 
BRARY. 

PROGRAM. 

A FIREPLACE is to be built at one end of a library, 
the room itself measuring approximately 16 ft. 
wide and 20 ft. long, the whole of one end being given up 
to a chimney corner. The chimney will be on the out- 
side of the house and may project into the room, or be 
made flush with the plastering, as preferred. Windows 
may be in the end wall on either side of the fireplace, Or 
on the right wall facing the same, as desired. The height 
of story in the main room is assumed to be 10 ft., 6 ins. 
in the clear. This height may be reduced in the chimney 
recess. It is proposed to provide seats on each side of 
the fireplace, with bookcases over the same built into the 
wall, and the opening of the fireplace itself should be not 
less than 4 ft. wide and 2 ft., 6 ins. high. The main walls 
of the library are to be finished with a paneled dado 
carried to a height of 4 ft. and a molded wooden cornice 
measuring X ins. on the wall and 12 ins. on the ceiling, 
the remaining wall space being covered with leather. It 
is further assumed that the finish throughout will be of 
dark-stained oak. The floor will be of quartered oak. As 
the owner of the house is supposed to be Bohemian by 
inclination, a picturesque rather than a set treatment is 
desired, and there should be ample opportunity tor dis- 
play of mugs, pipes, rare volumes, etc. The fireplace, 
the facing, the hearth, and the mantel are to be designed 
for the use of brick and terra-cotta. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED: A perspective sketch de- 
sign, in one corner of which on the same sheet is to be a 
sketch plan not necessarily to scale. The drawing is to 
be in black ink with no wash work, upon a sheet measur- 
ing 15)0 ins. wide by 10 ins. high. Each drawing is to 
be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying 
the same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume 
on the exterior and containing the true name and address 
of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered, flat, at the office of Tin 
Brickbuilder, 85 Water Street, Boston, on or before June 
1, 1900. For the three designs placed first. The Brick- 
bi ii.dkk offers prizes of twenty-five, fifteen, and ten dol- 
lars, respectively. All premiated drawings are to become 
the property of The Brickbuilder, and the right is re- 
served to publish any and all drawings submitted. Mr. 
George D. Mason, of Detroit, has kindly consented to 
judge and criticize this competition. 



THE TOWN OF POZZUOLI, NEAR NAPLES. 

AMONG the many fascinating localities which border 
on the wonderful Hay of Xaples. none possess more 
historical interest than the town of Pozzuoli, distant about 
eight miles from Naples itself. In ancient times the 
place was known as Puteoli, and is mentioned in the 
New Testament as the spot where St. Paul landed in 
Italy after the eventful voyage in which he was ship- 
wrecked. It is doubtful if its general appearance ismuch 
different now from what it was at that time. The houses 
arc of the white, square, flat-topped architecture familiar 
to Mediterranean travelers, and border on narrow and 
excessively dirty streets filled with a dense population, 
which under the brilliant Italian sky and mild southern 
climate cooks, eats, performs its toilet, and all but dwells 
entirely on the rough pavement. 

Beggars swarm in unexpected hordes even in that 
land of recognized mendicancy, and the writer recalls 
that during his visit he was followed by a procession of 
suppliants which at no time numbered less than fifteen 
men and boys, until one was engaged at a definite salary 
to drive the others away. 

The view taken from the rising ground to the north- 
west of the town shows in the foreground the remarkable 
ruins of the ancient, so-called, Temple of Serapis, which 
may, however, have been a market hall, like the Macellumat 
Pompeii. The three standing columns belong to a portico 
which originally had six, carrying a splendid frieze. 
There was also a square court enclosed by forty-eight 
massive columns, in the center of which stood a circular 
temple, the pillars of which have been transferred to the 
palace at Caserta. The most interesting fact about the 
ruins is the unusual experience which they have under- 
gone. Originally, of course, the temple stood on solid 
ground at some distance from the water's vd'^v, which 
the ancient water marks show to have receded consider- 
ably. Subsequently, an eruption of the Solfatara buried 
the lower part of the edifice to a depth of 13 ft. Then l>v a 
subsidence of the earth's crust the entire region sank for 
centuries below the level of the sea. During this period 
a species of shellfish attacked the exposed middle por- 
tions of the columns, while the bases covered with rubbish 
remained intact. These borings are plainly visible on the 
columns and indicate that the sea level at one period 
must have been at least 20 ft. higher than at present. 
By another convulsion the territory was again upheaved 
from the sea, and the ruins are now, as the view shows. 
at an apparently safe distance inland, though it is said t he 
ground is again gradually sinking. Within the enclosure. 
the soil of which is still wet and treacherous, are collected 
a large number of antique fragments. The view also 
shows the remains of the ancient mole built by the 
Romans. 

Pozzuoli is further distinguished by possessing a 
Roman amphitheater of the first order, 369 ft. long, which, 
although having had the upper portions dismantled, still 

exhibits the underground arrangements for gi ving specta- 
cles, and the dens and air holes for the animals, in a better 
state of preservation than any other amphitheater. By 
means of a water conduit the arena could be flooded and 
naval combats could be represented, and during the 
gladiatorial contests it is said that Nero himself entered 
the arena here. 



the brick bti li) er 



The Brickwork of Southern France. 



BY WALTER H. K1LHAM. 



sake of seeing the famous cloisters, which arc notable 
not only for their curious and remarkably carved capitals 
and refreshing greensward, but for the fact that the walls 



TI1I{; architectural traveler on the road to Spain, who 
reaches the frontier by the main line of railway 
passing through Bordeaux, will miss a series of inland 
towns containing an interesting lot of brick buildings, 
which, while they do not compare in point of delicacy or 
refinement with those of northern Italy, yet present manv 
points worthy of observation, if not of study. Leaving the 
main line and traveling via Perigueux, Agen, Moissac, 
Toulouse, and Pau, this brick region lying in the valley 
of the Garonne will be traversed and a good deal of re- 
markable natural scenery encountered as well. In fact, 
the bit of country through which the railway passes from 
Perigueux to Agen, along the valleys of the Dordogne, 
Vezere, Lot, and Garonne, is about as picturesque as any- 
thing that could be conceived, and appears to be utterly 
unworked by the photographer. 

The line follows the river valleys between high cliffs 
of limestone worn into all sorts of curious shapes. The 
hillside villages, with clusters of low-roofed houses and 
square campaniles rising in the midst, are exactly like the 
hill towns of Italy, except that frequently there are little 
ton relies or steep gables which add a dash of French 
piquancy to the level eave lines of the buildings. 

Agen, a sleepy southern town of twenty thousand in- 





COl RTYARU OF HOTEL D ASSEZAT, TOULOUSE. 

habitants, with grass grown squares and deeply arcaded 

streets, oilers no great architectural attractions; but 
Moissac. a little further on, is well worth a stop for the 



COURT OF LYCEE, TOULl 'I SI . 

are of brick with molded brick arches. The cloister dates 
from 1100 iioS, and is one of the finest in France. The 
arches, which are very slightly pointed, rest alternately 
on single and clustered columns, the capitals of which are 
embellished with scenes explained by inscriptions as well 
as by foliage and carved animals. The church is also 
of brick, and the cavernous portal conceals an interesting 
and elaborately carved doorway of the twelfth century. 
Moissac is a hot, dirt} - little place, with diabolical pave- 
ments of sharp stones and old. square, Italian-looking 
brick or plastered houses, with widely projecting eaves, 
a paradise for a colorist, for the red brick has everywhere 

aged to a most gorgeous hue. 

This part of Languedoc appears to be about the only 
section of France where the use of stone is almost com- 
pletely lacking in the buildings of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, the architects of which employed 
it only for mullions, columns, and trimmings. Besides 
the buildings at Toulouse. Viollet-le-Duc cites the bridge 
at Montauban, the Cathedra! of Albi. the churches of 
Moissac and Lombez, the tower of Caussade, etc. The 
bricks are of rather large size and almost square, meas- 
uring some 9 by 1.5 ins. The beds of mortar in the older 
work are frequently nearly as thick as the bricks. 
Molded brick was not employed to any great extent, as 
the brick of Languedoc being rather soft, the builders 
preferred to cut it, or they obtained their effect by differ- 
ent modes of placing the square edged bricks. 

The bridge at Montauban. not far from Moissac. is 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



7i 



really one of the finest Gothic monuments ever done in 
brickwork. It was commenced in [303 under Philippe le 
Bel who had come to Toulouse to settle some feudal 




CLOISTER OF THE MUSEUM AND OLD BRICK TOWER, 
TOULOUSE. 

quarrels. In according a subvention to the consuls of 
Montauban, he imposed the condition that they should 
build on the bridge three good and strong towers " of 
which he would retain the ownership and keeping. " Two 
of these towers were at the extremities and the third in 




noN 1 



the middle, which also contained a chapel dedicated to 
St. Catherine. The bridge was also furnished with a tilt- 
ing timber which carried an iron cage for plunging blas- 
phemers into the waters of the Tarn. The great height 
(54 ft.) and length (over 750 ft.) of this structure make it 
one of the most important remaining monuments of its 
time. The three towers have disappeared, but its seven 
sturdy arches still carry the traffic of the city as well as 
ever. The bridge is built entirely of bricks of dimensions 
somewhat larger than those given above. 

Toulouse lies flatly in the valley of the Garonne. 
Baedeker announces gloomily that its excessive heat and 
violent winds make it a fatiguing place to visit. The 
streets are generally badly paved and tortuous, but it lias 




1 ■ |_ 



DE I \II.S OF CL0IS I Ms \ I MOISS \< . 



CHURCH DOOR, loll 01 SE. 

one fine thoroughfare, the Rue Alsace- Lorraine, which 
has exactly the appearance of a section of Paris trans- 
ported bodily to the Midi. Good hotels at least are found 
at Toulouse, and form an agreeable innovation, for the 
"vielles auberges </< France," which thrive in the 
smaller towns, though picturesque, are generally more re- 
markable for their surprising accumulations of dirt than 
for any particular attention paid to the traveler's comfort. 
Toulouse is a Large place, and reminds one somewhat ol 
Milan without having as amusing a population. Besides 
its splendid church of St. Sernin, so well known to archi- 
tectural students, it lias a good many old brick mansions, 
with courtyards and arcades quite in the Italian manner. 
Such is the Hotel d'Assezatof the sixteenth century, with 
its rows of arcades and corner stairway tower, another 



THE HRICKIU'ILDER. 



Tolosan peculiarity. Another very interesting featureof 

the Renaissance work at Toulouse is the employment of 
caryatids around the windows, both on the frames and 
mullions as in the court of the Hotel dll Vieux- Raisin. 
A vein of Spanish or even of almost Moorish feeling ap- 
pears to run through some of the earlier work, such as 
the facade of the Lvcce and the church portal shown in 
the illustration with their enclosing borders; while the 
early Renaissance details of the court of the Lvcce bear a 
very close resemblance to the corresponding work beyond 
the Pyrenees. This building is interesting as having 
been the house of Bernuy, a Spanish merchant, who 
guaranteed the ransom of Francis I. for two millions of 
francs after his capture at the battle of 1'avia. 

The Hotel de Ville, or " Capitole," as it is called, is a 
building of brick and stone, in the styles of different per- 
iods, of no great merit as a whole, but with occasional in- 
teresting details. In addition to providing accommoda- 
tions to the municipal government, it is the seat of the 
Acad/mie des Jeux Floraux, a literary institution dating 
from i,;. 1 ,:;. which annually distributes flowers of gold 
and silver to its laureates. 

The distinctly Tolosan style of architecture is shown 
in the octagonal brick towers built toward the end of the 
thirteenth century, which consist of several stories of tri- 
angular, not circular, headed openings. These openings 
may be said only by courtesy to be arched, as the bricks 



one shape of bricks and was not able to have radial bricks 
made for the arches. It appears, however, that the colon- 
nettes at the corners of the towers are cylindrical and 





FACADE OF LYCEE, ["OULOUSE. 

are simply set in rows and leaned together, without radial 
joints. It is evident that this arrangement was brought 
about by the material available. The architect had only 



WINDOW s OF HOTEL IM \ I E 1 X RAISIN, TOULOUSE. 

that the bricks were molded expressly for them, and some 
of the towers possess also small circular arches molded 
and with radial joints. These towers were not commonly 
crowned with a tleche. The tympanums of the arches 
are pierced with lozenge-shaped openings. The gargoyles 
and capitals are in stone. The towers are generally 
rather thick for their height, and diminish slightly story 
by st<>ry, and are not ineffective, though the style would 
scarcely be thought agreeable enough tor general adop- 
tion. 

St. Sernin itself possesses a line tower of this type, 
210 ft. high, consisting of five stories of arcades, sur- 
mounted by a spire. Only the two upper stories have 
triangular arches, the others being more nearly Roman- 
esque in detail. Although this church is built largely of 
brick, it cannot be classed exactly as a type of brickwork, 
because most of the detail of the building proper is done 
in stone. 

The museum of Toulouse, which occupies the old 
Augustine Convent of which the cloisters are shown in 
the accompanying photograph, is one of the fullest collec- 
tions in France, and is especially rich in antiquities and 
pictures. Altogether the old city with its exciting history 
of civil and religious struggles extending over two thou- 
sand years has a distinct individuality which manifests it- 
self as clearly in its peculiar architecture, as it docs in the 
habits and institutions of its people. 



T II E B RI C K B U I L I) E R 



73 



Brickwork in the Royal Chateaux of 
France. I. 



KV WILLIAM T. PARTRIDGE. 



IN a series of small chateaux it was not difficult to trace 
those differences in form and detail that the changes 
in taste and in methods of living from period to period 




CHATEAU 1)E GIEN. 

demanded. Such a series, when arranged chronologi- 
cally, is seen to form a sort of evolution, each type 
retaining some form or characteristic — some- 
times merely as ornament — of an earlier 
period. 

To illustrate: The corner towers of the 
fortress were retained in the chateau, but be- 
came in time little corbelled turrets useful 
only as lookouts or posts for sentries — a sort 
of rudimentary feature. In most instances 
each of these corner towers contained a square 
room, — square, that is, on the interior for 
some constructional reason, although it was 
circular without. Later, this square form 
appeared on the exterior as well. The square 
corner tower developed along two distinct 
lines. In the one case it diminished to a 
small turret or a low wing; in the other it 
grew into a hio'h-roofed pavilion. 

Now, where the building is for the most 
part the work of a single mind and was con- 
structed with little or no delay, all such fea- 
tures can be traced easily. When, however, 
the period of construction covered a consider- 
able space of time, as in the case of the larger 
chateaux, the wings and additions built at 
different periods and of different materials 
show ^reat variations in style, and were in- 
fluenced in design by the irregularities of site. 
Therefore, it becomes difficult in this present 
survey to trace the development of any par 
ticular feature. 

Of the larger chateaux Gien is the only 



one built of one material and completed in its present 
form under one builder. The material is brick. The 
other large chateaux employ brick in a wing or gallery 
only. Of the earlier royal chateaux, tor example, Blois 
and Fontaineblean have each a wing and gallery. St. 
Germain-en- Lay shows some exposed brickwork on the 
exterior and a great amount within. Versailles, of later 
date, was built by Louis X I 1 1 . entirely of brick and 
stone, but it was altered bv Mansard. (lien, 
entirely of brick, and Maintcnon, with brick 
wing and tower, employ the largest amount 
of that material. Of these Giefl has been 
mentioned in a previous article as illustrating 
the great variety of diapers and patterns in- 
troduced in the brickwork. 

Though never an actual abode of royalty, 
this chateau, Gien, can be classed as a royal 
chateau if only in point of size. Indeed, it 
is the largest brick construction among them. 
Its length is over 250 ft. 

Gien was built in the latter part of the 
fifteenth century. In plan it is the shape of 
the letter L — doubtless replacing an older 
building, the thick walls of which still remain 
in the interior. 

Modern alterations have somewhat changed 
the plan, but the genera] type of a Gothic 
palace is still traceable. 

A series of rooms connected by corridors 

is interrupted by a large hall or guard room. 

Staircases at the extremities of the corridors give access 

to the stories above. The corridors are enclosed, a fact 




loiki 1 \i \ni, 
i 11 VPEt 01 1111 CHATEAl DE BLOIS. 



74 



T II E B RICKIsrilJ) E R 



which leads us tu suppose that a courtyard was not con- 
sidered in the original plan; for in nearly all buildings of 
this period an open arcade is used as a communication on 
the court side. 

The composition of the imur one cannot say "the 
court" facade is very simple. The main interest is 
concentrated on the staircase towers, which are most 
picturesque. 

Some idea of the great variety of diaper ornament. 
as well as other forms used here, can be seen upon the 
smaller angle tower. Triangles, squares, and circles run 
rim over the facade and give an air of gaiety which no 
other material than brick permits. 

If Gien barely deserves a place among tin- royal 
chateaux, Blois is. on the contrary, the most famous of 



brick court but a fragment remains, a gallery on the side 
of the chapel. Mansard destroyed the rest. The general 
motive, an open gallery terminated by staircase towers, 
Louis XII. preserved in the court side of his wing. The 
best view of this part of the chateau is obtained from the 
end of the court. The material, brick, contrasting with the 
stone, and the concentration of ornament in certain bands 
and spots are so effective that the adjoining elaborate 
staircase and facade of Francis I. suffer in comparison. 

The architectural problem of the builders was t<> con- 
struct a series of rooms between two existing buildings, 

and to penetrate this group with an opening large enough 

to admit a mounted escort. 

The solution was to unite the series by means of 
a gallery on the first floor open to the court, and to super- 




FACADE, CHATEAU DE BLOIS. 



them all. It was the last royal palace in its style, and 
the best. 

The influence of Italy had shown itself some time 
before this, but the conservatism of Anne of Brittany is 
said to have resisted the employment of workmen trained 
in that school. Certainly, there is less detail of the 
Renaissance in the wing built by Louis XII. than in any 
of its contemporary buildings. It stands quite free from 
classic traditions and represents the highest point of 
Gothic domestic work. 

This brick wing was built in the latter part of the fif- 
teenth century in order to unite the chapel of the chateau 
and the sallc dt'S Mats, a large council chamber. This 
construction continued the brick building of Charles VIII., 
and made three sides of the court a dark setting for the 
elaborate stone facade of Francis I. Of two sides of this 



impose a closed corridor. The staircases terminating this 
construction on the court side give access to the different 
levels. 

The entrance is in plan a transverse gallery consider- 
able off the center of the wing. Its position is due to 
the existence of an old vaulted Salle des gardes, to the left, 
from the court side. The gallery is marked on the 
court side by the increased width of the Opposite arcade. 
This facade on the court is one of the most attractive 
compositions in French architecture. 

The rich, horizontal bands of cornice, sill-course, and 
string-course are penetrated not broken by the verti- 
cal members or pilasters extending from the capitals of 
the arcade piers to the cornice. Every alternate bay 
formed by these vertical members is penetrated by a 
mullioncd window in the second story and crowned by a 



T II E BRICK H U I L D E R . 



75 





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T II E B R I C K 15 l' I L I) KR 




COURT FACADE \NI> STAIRCASE TOWER, CHATEA1 DE BLOIS. 

dormer above. The lines of the mullion and jamb are- 
carried down, literally through the sill, 
for they penetrate it, and die in 
the steep, pitched surfaceof the string- 
course. A small traceried balustrade 
runs between the gabled dormers. The 
entrance arch scarcely disturbs the 
equal divisions of the bays, its extra 
width is so cleverly adjusted. 

The principal staircase tower is 
most picturesque. The little staircase 
turret adds much to this quality; it 
gives access from the attic of the 
main building to a kind of secret 
chamber in the roof of the tower. 

The brickwork of this part of the 
court adds the great charm of color to 
a most interesting composition. It is 
laid in Flemish bond in the body of 
the building and in alternate courses 
of leaders and stretchers in the tower. 
The panels of the vault of the tower, 
the background of the arcade, are also 
in brick. 

The exterior facade is formed into 
a series of large, nearly square panels 
by the intersections of cornice and 



string-course with vertical pilasters. These 

pilasters are a logical expression of an inner 
wall, a kind of tlat buttress in fact. They are 
spaced about equal distances apart; but foT 

some unknown reason, not a single bay of 
windows occupies the middle of a space, 
though where they break through the roof the 
dormers are nearly equal distances apart. 

For those endeavoring to find some solu- 
tion to this perplexing combination, a win- 
dow obliterated by the restorer, Duban, is 
dotted on the photograph shown here. The 
classic mind is shocked by a buttress's coming 
over an opening; without doubt Duban im- 
proved the facade when he walled it up. 
Happy privilege to better an original! 

If the entrance 011 the interior is skilfully 
concealed, it is here as strongly emphasized. 
A portion of the old salle des gardes, dictating 
its one-sided position, is seen to the right of 
the picture. The recessed niche and rich 
canopy, the small door for foot-passengers , 
the balcony and little window below, though 
irregularly placed, are so entrancing individ- 
ually that a criticism of their combination is 
impossible. 

The brickwork on the exterior is laid with 
a diaper pattern in darker brick; the broad 
wall surfaces give masses of splendid color. 
The bond is laid with headers except for two 
stretchers in a diaper, as can be seen on close 
inspection. So happily have brick and stone 
been used here at Blois that the chateau has 
set a precedent for all lands. Some of the 
most attractive houses in this country owe 
their real charm to the architect of this last 
and may we not say best - Gothic chateau. 




(II mm- 1 ol I UK CHATEAU DE 1:1 OIS. 



T II E B RICK BUI LI) E R . 



/ / 



Church Architecture in Materials of 



CI 



ay. 



SO far, the examples of church architecture, with which 
we have sought to illustrate this subject, have been 
confined to work of a Gothic character. There are many 
others that would have served equally well as types of 




FIG. 19. 

the class to which they belong, which must, at present, 
remain in abeyance. One of these was built some ten 
years ago under rather iinfavorable auspices, and so 
cannot be judged by the high standard that now prevails 
in work executed by those who have, at least, learned to 
avoid the errors of their predecessors. In it, the tracery 
windows — of which there are a great number — were 
made in two thicknesses, with a joint at the glass groove, 
the two halves being cemented together after burning. 
This, be it remembered, was not the work of an amateur, 
but of one from whom better things might have been ex- 
pected had not egotism and perversity rendered him 
intolerant of every opinion save his own, and hostile to 
every suggestion that did not originate with himself. 
Yet, next to patience and perseverance, experience is 
perhaps the most valuable commodity in the entire stock- 
in-trade of a terra-cotta manufacturer. The crude, un- 
workmanlike method of procedure just referred to would 
not have been tolerated by the architect had he insisted 
upon knowing the whys and wherefores of such an expe- 
dient. Double-faced work had often been made in the 
solid without special difficulty, and this, we believe, has 
long been the rule rather than the exception among com- 
petent clay-workers. The few illustrations of similar work 
that have been given prove conclusively that it was quite 
unnecessary; further, that instead of effecting any saving 
it must have greatly increased the cost of manufacture. 

Turning to Fig. 19, a window similar in design to some 
of those in the building alluded to, is jointed in what we 



take leave to call a more rational manner. In stone 
tracery the interior half of the bar is often left plain; or, 
if molded, some of the members cut on the outside are 
omitted on the inside with a view to economy. In terra- 
cotta this consideration would hardly apply; or, if it did. 
it would lead to a distinctly opposite conclusion. Leav- 
ing the bars plain on the inside, or molding them to an 
apparently less expensive section, would certainly in- 
crease rather than diminish the cost of production. Sepa- 
rate models and molds would then be required lor nearly 
all the pieces in the window above the springing line, 
an exception to this being the six central pieces, which 
would follow each other around without having to he 
reversed. All the others, however, would become right 
and left counterparts, thus creating double the number 
of different shapes, no two of them being interchange- 
able. In stone, when' all the moldings must be cut by 
hand, this diversity of shape would not greatly matter, 
and the simpler profile on the inside would, of course, 
entail less labor. Hut in terra-cotta these conditions are 
reversed; for the duplicated profile admits of the 
same mold being used for double the number of 
pieces. For example, if left plain on the inside this 
window would require thirty-four distinct shapes, above 
the springing line, out of a total of thirty-nine pieces. 
With the same section on the inside these shapes would 
be at once reduced to sixteen, from which number of 
molds perhaps fifty complete windows could he pressed 
without the need of a single alteration by hand. There 
is matter here for the behoof of architects, who, frightened 
by the cost of stone tracer}', rush to the equally needless 
extreme of a painted imitation in wood. 

A very attractive church was erected a few years ago 
at the junction of Throop Avenue and Thornton Street, 




in,. 20. ALL SAINTS (R. C.) CHI Kill, I Ilk • WIAI E, 

I'.KUiiKH \, \. V. 
Schickel & DHmare, Architect! 



T II E H RICK BC I L I) E R 




FIG. 21. JUDSON MEMORIAL CHURCH, WASHINGTON 

SQ1 VRE, NEW VORK. 

\I. Kim, Mead 8 White, Architects. 

Brooklyn (Fig. 20). School buildings have since been 
added, and a rectory now under way may be noticed to 
the extreme left of the church. This building, when 
completed, will be worthy of adequate illustration, as a 
good type of city residence in which the detail indicates 
its ecclesiastical character, as an adjunct of the church to 
which it belongs. As one portion of the block is vacant 
and another occupied by frame dwellings of no great 
importance, it may be inferred that additional buildings 
are contemplated. A speckled buff brick with buff terra- 
cotta of a slightly lighter tint have been used so Ear, and 
the same combination is likely to be adhered to in subse- 
quent operations. Whatever doubts may have been en- 
tertained on this point while the project was still on 
paper, there is now little room for misgivings in view of 
what has been accomplished. Thus we have in this 
center of life and activity another proof that the choice 
of burned clay is no longer regarded as an architectural 
experiment. 

The question of window tracery, to which special at- 
tention is directed in a previous paragraph, has in this 
case been settled by compromise. The more important 
windows are executed in terra-COtta, while those of aisle 
and apse are filled temporarily, we hope with wood. 
Beyond this, however, there is but one feature that is 
really open to adverse comment, that being confined to 
the framed and slate-covered spire. Had it been carried 
up in brick with terra-COtta quoins and terminal as in the 
case of the tower and turrets below, the result would 
have commanded unqualified approval. So far as can 
be seen the foundations were equal to the extra load, 
and the COSt of a brick Spire need not have exceeded tin- 
sum spent on one that seems out of character with an 
otherwise fine building. The brick spire, illustrated in 
the second paper of this series (Brickbuilder, Vol. VIII., 
page 50), is a convincing example of what can be done 
in that line at comparatively small outlay, one which 
we hope to see followed more frequently in future. 



The last remark applies to village and suburban 
churches rather than those situated in the crowded 
thoroughfares of great cities where the church spire has 
lost its original significance. We could mention a score 
or more of famous churches in the Eastern cities, the 
pride of more than one generation, which have suffered 
a total eclipse, their spires disappearing from view as 
each succeeding builder tries to pee]) over the shoulder 
of his neighbor. The spire of Trinity, once a landmark 
on Manhattan Island, has ceased to cast its shadow 
around that section of the city in which the business 
habitations of man have soared from seven to an extreme 
altitude of twenty-nine stories. Since Stanford White 
posed Diana on his revised version of the Giralda, the 
owners of uptown property have vied with each other in a 
display of the loftiest aspirations. But two blocks distant 
a well-known church has been hemmed in on two sides and 
dwarfed into comparative insignificance by a towering 

office building destined, at no distant date, to swallow the 
site on which the church now stands. In a little time it will 
be elbowed or induced to sell out, and follow those who 
have moved farther afield. In the building and rebuilding 
of modern cities, even the most sacred institutions are 
forced into the all-pervading struggle for existence. Spire 
and campanile can no longer compete with their secular 
surroundings, and it remains to be seen whether they can 
be adapted to their environment without loss of dignity. 
Something of this kind is suggested by a view of the 
Judson Memorial Church (Fig. 21), in which every Boor 
of the campanile below the belfry Stage is made habit- 
able. That was not so in the Christian basilicas, of' 
which this dignified edifice is a reminder; but there is no 
law, civil or canonical, against a practice of which this 




WEIGH HOUSE CHAPEL, DUKE STREET, LONDON, 

ENGL VND. 
Alfred Waterhouse. K. A.. Architect. 



T II E IIRICKIUMIJ) E R 



7') 



one may be instanced as a precedent. The situation in 
this ease is unusually favorable, there being an uninter- 
rupted view across Washington Square, with, as yet, no 

very high buildings in close proximity. 

The architecture of this church is peculiarly appropri- 
ate to the neighborhood in which it is situated; for the 
population is largely Italian and French, with not a few 
nondescript wayfarers from southern Europe. To many 
of these any form of religions observance must be an al- 
most forgotten memory. But with this bit of Roman 
architecture in view they will have a reminder that may 
appeal to their national if not to their devotional sympa- 
thies. That fine campanile must be familiar to all 
Italians, especially those acquainted with Rome and 
Florence. One thing they will miss: the vacant putlog 
holes in which some of our most eminent architects have 
discovered certain beauties that were never thought of 
by those who forgot to fill them before the scaffolding 
was removed. The scars of age or honorable service 
most people can admire, but these should not be eon- 
founded with mere oversights in an incompleted build- 
ing, due to wars, revolutions, a depleted treasury, or 
the waning enthusiasm of successive builders. 

This, moreover, is a brick and terra-cotta church, such 
as is common in Milan, Bologna, and most towns of 
northern Italy. Even the shape and size of the bricks 
are " Pompeiian," a further compliment to the buried 
suburb at which many of the patricians resided, and the 
resting place wherein their remains mingle with mounds 
of volcanic ashes. The terra-cotta, however, is a light 
gray, instead of the red that prevails in Italy, but it is 
used in much the same way as the marble at Siena, 
OrvietO, etc. The group to the right, built of the same 
unexceptionable material, is an integral part of a very 
harmonious establishment. The horizontal bands that 
alternate with brick coursing in the basement have, 
perhaps, a little too much projection, while the slight sur- 
face guilloche on the face might have been more pro- 
nounced. The joints in the raking cornice of gable are 
made vertical, instead of being at right angles to the 
pitch of roof, an innovation for which there may have 
been ample justification. With these comparatively 
trivial exceptions, the J nelson Memorial may be set down 
as one of our most successful examples of church archi- 
tecture in materials of clay. 

Among nineteenth century adaptations of late Nor- 
man and Romanesque architecture, the Weigh-house 
Chapel, Duke Street, London (Fig. 22), is entitled to 
more than the passing notice which, however, must now 
suffice. A general view of this vigorous picturesque 
composition appeared in connection with other notable 
examples of terra-cotta designed by Alfred Waterhouse, 
R. A. (The Brickbuilder, June, i8 y 6, page 144). With 
the exception of the Steps leading to the several en- 
trances, this church is brick and terra-cotta throughout; 
so also is the groined vestibule and much of the interior. 
There are many features in the design that are strikingly 
characteristic of the distinguished architect under whose 
direction it was erected. Studied to the minutest detail, 
it affords abundant proof of his close acquaintance with 
the material which he had intended t<> use in its construc- 
tion. Not only is this true of that which has been done, 
but equally so of many things that have been deliberate]} 




FIG. 23. CHRIS! CHURCH, 7 1 SI STREE1 Wl> BROADWAY, 

NEW \ o R K . 

C. C. Haight, \n hitect. 

avoided. These negative qualities may not catch the 
eye of a casual observer, but they must be very obvious 
to those who have had much to do with the manipulation 
of clay for architectural purposes. They show that his 
conception of an architect's duty is not merely that of an 
imaginative draughtsman whose pencil follows where 
fancy points the way, without serious thought as toconse- 
quences, financial or otherwise. To an undoubted genius 
as an artist, he has harnessed experience on the one side 
and common sense on the other. a somewhat rare com- 
bination, but one that enables him to spend his clients' 
money to advantage, and at the same time retain the 
good opinion of reputable contractors, none other being 
entrusted with the execution of his designs. 

Another very pleasing, though altogether different 
rendering of Romanesque has been selected from a 
number, all of them worthy of illustration (Fig. 23). 
It happened to be built about the time when so main 
American architects were following the lead of the late 
II. II. Richardson, with varying success ; yet it is not at 
all typical of the style which he had sought to introduce. 
This is a frank and. on the whole, successful adaptation 
of mediaeval architecture from northern Italy, doing 
duty under less favorable conditions as to site and sur- 
roundings. Suggestions from Chiaravalle and San Got- 
tardo blend admirably with rounded apse and turrets 
from Pavia, but not so with their neighbor to the right ; 

which, however, being the home of the Colonial Club. 

can show an equally valid title to existence. About the 
oid_\- thing in common between these two buildings oc- 
cupying the same block is that burned clay enters largely 
into both; but even here we have a distinct "color line" 
which renders them irreconcilable. The latter is cream 
white; while the church is buff brick and red terra cotta, 
to which dark chocolate roofing tiles ;^iir ;i remarkably 
effeel ive sky-line. 



So 



T II E P> KICK IU T 1 LD E K 



A CORRECTION FOR CALCULATING DIRECT 
RADIATION. 

(HEATING \M> vk.N I'll ATING OF SCHOOLHOl sis.) 
The Brickboilder lor March, igoo. 

IN stating the rule for computing the amount of direct 
radiation required for the heating of halls a divisor 
of a portion of the results was omitted. The rule as 
stated reads: " Estimate the area in square feet of the 
exposed wall surface including windows, of this take one 
fourth, add to the result the area of glass surface in 
square feet and three times the volume of the hall in 
cubic feet." This last line should have read, " three fifty- 
fifths times the volume of the hall in cubic feet." 

The correct statement of the rule would consequently 
be as follows: — 

Estimate the area in square feet of the exposed wall 
surface including windows, of this take one fourth, add 
to the result the area of glass surface in square feet and 
three fifty-fifths the volume of the hall in cubic feet. 
The radiating surface should equal in square feet one 
fourth the last result. 

A few remarks might be made regarding this rule. 
The rule is founded on the results of scientific experiment, 
and when stated as a formula would be in general as 
t'i illi 'ws: 

R= ' 4 (G + ' 4 W + «C), 

5 5 
in which R equals radiating surface in square feet. 
G equals i^'lass surface in square feet. 
W equals exposed wall surface, including windows, in 

square feet. 
C equals cubic contents of the room in cubic feet. 
// equals number of changes of air in a room per hour. 

For halls. // is usually to be taken as 3, for living rooms 
on first floor as 2. and for sleeping rooms in residences on 
the higher floors as 1. The rule is founded on an average 

of a large number of experiments made in heating differ- 
ent characters of buildings to 70 degs. in zero weather. 
It is t<> be considered as giving average results for usual 
conditions, and is to be increased or diminished if rooms 
arc especially exposed to high winds, or on the other hand 
are well sheltered. The rule applies to good building 
construction, and is subject to modification by variation 
in building conditions. 

In the rule for capacity of a ventilating fan it might 
he remarked that this rule applies to fans as ordinarily 
proportioned for ventilating work in which the width is 
practically one half the external diameter of the fan 
wheel, and the inlet opening about 60 per cent, of this 
quantity. 

R. C. C VKl'KNTER. 



Fire-proofing. 



Nothing but the old traditions of the American house 
builder in favor of wood have kept that material in use so 
long tor what arc called fire-proof buildings. It is an 
anomaly, a monstrous piece of careless indifference, that 
even in so-called fire-proof buildings there should still be 
wooden doors, wooden door trims, wooden window sash, 
wooden paneled backs, wooden dadoes, and wooden floor- 
ing, together with all the outfit of furring strips, stops, 
grounds, and loose moldings which are needed to com- 
plete the job. 



••AN UNSCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY INTO FIRE 
PROOF BUILDING." 

MR. RUSSELL STURGIS has a very timely and 
interesting article in the Architectural Rec- 
ord, which he modestly entitles " An Unscientific En- 
quiry into Fire-proof Building." He presents a very se- 
vere and, it must be admitted, perfectly justified arraign- 
ment of our lack of real thorough fire-proofing, and he 
makes the statement that although in this country we 
have wealth at our disposal and absolutely unlimited 
choice of material, there are not twenty buildings in New 
York in which one may sleep secure. We burn each 
other alive in large, elegant, and costly modern hotels. 
As compared with this he cites for example Paris, where 
in the large majority of houses there is so little combusti- 
ble material that when fire catches on waving curtains, 
or a bit of wooden finish, it burns itself out with a flame 
as brief and hardly hotter than that which one could 
make from a pile of newspapers. This is without forget- 
ting the lessons of the tire in the Theatre Francais, which 
created a good deal of damage, and yet those of our 
readers who have seen photographs of this very building 
taken since the fire can appreciate how slight was the 
loss as compared with the results of a lire in a building- 
like the Windsor Hotel. New York. It seems as if all our 
efforts have been expended in the endeavor to devise a 
system of construction which was absolutely weak in 
certain essential structural points as regards resistance to 
fire, and that instead of making our lines of development 
proceed from the employment of material which of itself 
would be incombustible, we continue to use what we 
know will not stand fire, and then express astonishment 
that our fire bill is so large. 

Mr. Sturgis very justly queries, What is the utility of 
the resisting powers in the framework of a modern steel 
structure, if the building, apart from the framework, is 
so combustible as to be destroyed, or its costly outside to 
be hopelessly defaced, by a not very formidable confla- 
gration, such as might be caused by the destruction of a 
building of the old type directly across the street. It is 
certain that the possibility of a furious and very hot fire 
attacking such a building from the outside has still to be 
reckoned with, and against this danger there is nothing 
to be set up except the substitution of that material 
which minds heat but little for those materials which 
cannot resist it for any length of time, together with the 
substitution inside the building of stuff which will not 
burn for that which will. The inside finish of our mod- 
ern fire-proof building is the vital defect which has made 
possible some of the tires which we have had to encounter. 
Our windows, our floors, and stairs are often of a kind 
utterly unsuited to resist even a small local fire, and it 
has been shown again and again that it is in these direc- 
tions that tire will spread throughout what we classify as 
a fire-proof building. Mr. Sturgis truly says that when 
one has spent two successive winters in an apartment un- 
conscious of the fact that not a square foot of plank ex- 
isted, and then finds to his surprise that underneath the 
carpets and rugs there is everywhere mosaic, terrazzo, 
earthen tile or cement, then he makes progress in the 



THE H R I C K 15 T I L I) E R . 



knowledge of interior fittings. And we have no right to 
eall our buildings fire-proof until we are permitted to 
leave out of their construction everything which will burn 
or be influenced by heat to any appreciable extent. 

We cannot fully agree with all Mr. Sturgis recom- 
mends to fire-proof the conditions. We have yet to find 
a property owner who is not convinced that an attempt 
to close the shutters of his offices every night would ruin 
the building, and of all awkward and unaccommodating 
forms of shutter, to our mind, the rolling or coiling shut- 
ter which Air. Sturgis seems to favor is the least promis- 
ing and the least satisfactory. Wire glass, which he ad- 
vocates, is an excellent possible help in checking the 
rapidity with which fire will spread in a large building. 
Mr. Sturgis, however, strikes a responsive chord when he 
says that the only thing we know which we have aright to 
call in ordinary parlance proof against fire is burnt clay. 
He particularly argues against a combination of stone 
and brick, as there is no reason in the world why terra- 
cotta should not be used for sills, lintels, jamb-blocks, 
quoins, architraves, archivolts, coping, pilasters, string- 
courses, parapets, and the rest, just as much as for the 
body of the wall. And he does not ignore the artistic- 
side of the question, and claims that there is no fear that 
a city built entirely of brick and adorned with brick and 
terra-cotta will be monotonous or ugly. If the people of 
our time were to brag that they proposed to leave New 
York a brick-built town, whereas they had found it mainly 
of marble and brownstone in its exterior aspect, they 
would be posing wisely. Nor should the owner of a new 
and costly office building be satisfied unless his architect 
can say to him, when the last workman leaves the build- 
ing, "There is not in the building itself, its walls, floors, 
or fittings of all sorts, as much wood as would make a 
lead pencil." That is the standard which, in spite of the 
assurances of a wood which will not burn, each owner and 
architect should set up for himself. 

Mr. Sturgis's plea for the abandonment of wood is 
one which we all indorse. There have been many devices 
for rendering wood fire-proof, and while some of these 
seem to answer every purpose there is a question as to 
whether they are really reliable. Mr. Sturgis wisely 
says that wood should be prohibited by law, and should 
have been banished long ago by our architects, our con- 
tracting builders, and our owners of property, all acting 
together in harmony. 

It is but fair to the building products which this 
journal peculiarly represents, to acknowledge that the 
majority of the changes which Mr. Sturgis suggests in 
his article arc such as are based upon the employment of 
burnt-clay products, and have been accepted by many of 
our leading architects as the best methods for construct- 
ing a fire-proof building. But, as he very truly says, the 
trouble in introducing any improvement in building in 
this direction is the queer superstitions about dignity and 
stateliness which possess the popular mind. And it must 
be observed that the popular mind is that of the mil- 
lionaire property owner, or millionaire donor of buildings 
to public institutions, fully as much as it is the mind of 
the man who rents a small dwelling house. To an archi- 
tect of rationalistic tendencies there is nothing more 
comical than to reflect upon the sayings of his clients 
with respect to the superior dignity of stone as a facing 



of their walls, and the profound contempt oi those same 
clients for brick. If. under the stress of the architect's 
personality and knowledge, the owner gives a half smil- 
ing assent to pleas for the value of brickwork, the con- 
tempt underlies this assent, and is in full force again in 
another instant. As a matter of fact, however, the stern 
practical necessity that has presided at the inception and 
development of the modern commercial building has 
toned both architect and client into the acceptance of 
brick and terra-cotta for the outside of every building 
which is intended to be absolutely lire-proof, though the 
extension of the same ideas to other buildings equally 
important progresses but slowly. We are not sure that 
we should care to see the whole of New York recon- 
structed of brick. We sometimes appreciate a brick 
front all the more by seeing how a neighbor misapplies 
granite or marble, and as for the old-fashioned iron fronts, 
which, to judge from Mr. Sturgis's eulogies thereon, de- 
serve at least a measure of grateful remembrance, they 
are quite beyond the pale of artistic admissibility. Still, 
there are locations and conditions under which the advis- 
ability of extreme precaution may have to he considered, 
and in such instances we would not question the choice 
of material other than brick and marble, though we limit 
the choice of absolutely fire-proof structures to one single 
material, namely, burnt clay in its various modifications, 
and surely for the class of buildings such as the Windsor 
Hotel. 



LAST month we had to report the burning of the 
Theatre Francais, in which at least one person suf- 
fered loss of life. We have just received the reports of a 
fire in Philadelphia in which a hotel burned while the 
guests slept. The Lorraine Hotel and apartment house 
on Broad Street, at Fairmount and Ridge Avenues, 
caught fire in the kitchen, apparently through neglect of 
the employees, and what promised to be a serious con- 
flagration was held within very slight hounds because of 
the excellence of the fire-proof construction. Though 
the fire had quite a start before it was discovered, and 
was then first seen by a passer-by. the total damage was 
only in the vicinity of $500. The building was fire- 
proofed by the Faweett Ventilated Fire-proof Building 
Company, and is the third lire that has occurred in hotels 
where their system has been used and where there has 
been little or 110 expense for repairing doors after the 
fire. 

Similar conditions accompanied a lire in the thirteen- 
story Condict building on Bleecker Street, New York. 

which stands on the site of the old bleecker Street Bank 
and the De Soto House, which were ruined by the con- 
flagration on election night five years ago. The ion 
struction of this building was very carefully thought out 
by the architect. Mr. Lyndon 1*. Smith, and was espe- 
cially planned to prevent the spread of tire, including 
the very desirable provision of iron enclosures lor w in 
(lows and freight elevator openings, and a separate hall 

for passenger elevator and stairs. The fire demonstrated 
the possibilities of fire-proof construction, as it was con- 
fined entirely to the section of the building in which it 
started, and the firemen had to break open the lire-proof 
doors of three floors before they could discover where it 



82 



T II E B RICK BT I L I) E R . 



Selected Miscellany. 



NOTES FROM NEW York. 

We are glad to be able to report that the general con- 
dition of business is very ^< >< »d, and the outlook for the 
summer promising. There are a number of unusually 
large and important building operations either under 
way or being seriously talked of. The latest one is the 
building for the Chamber of Commerce, and this being 
one of the city's best established and wealthiest organiza- 
tions it is sure to be carried out. The members have 
generously contributed towards the building fund, and 
Si. 000,000 has already been raised. The president, 



about $50,000. Clinton & Russell have planned a brick 
and stone dispensary building for St. Bartholomew's 
P. E. Church On 4_h1 Street. COSt about Sjs.ooo. Charles A. 
Rich has planned a nine-story hotel and studio building 
to be built at Sixth Avenue and 40th Street. The same 
architect has planned a brick parsonage for All Angels 
P. E. Church, cost $30,000. Cady, Berg& See will build 
a brick and stone addition to the Miinn Avenue Presby- 
terian Church, EastOrange, X. J.. eost$4o,ooo. McKim, 
Mead & White have prepared plans for the Hall of Fame 
for the University of New York at Morris Heights. 
This structure will be 500 ft. long and will connect the 
Hall of Languages with the Hall of Philosophy. The 
same architects are preparing plans for a fine brick and 
stone residence for Mr. 1'. A. Rollins, to be built at Madi- 




HOUSE A I RROOKLINE, M ISS. 



Mr. Morris K. Jesup. has appointed a committee of three 
to report upon a suitable site and to procure plans. 

The very interesting tenement house competition, 

recently held under the auspices of the Charity Organiza- 
tion Society, resultedas follows: First prize, R. Thomas 

Short; second prize, Israels & Harder; third prizes, 
Joseph Wolf, Covell & Smith, and Israels & Harder. It 
is understood that the winners of both first and second 
prizes have been commissioned to build. 

It is gratifying to note that there is some easing off 

of the prices of building materials. During the past 
week there has been a drop of fifty cents in bricks, fifteen 
to twenty cents in cements, and fifteen cents in lime, also 
some reduction in the price of lumber. These are due to 
natural causes, but materials will have to come down still 
more to make a boom. 

Here are a few items of new work in brick and terra- 
cotta, etc. C. P. H. Gilbert has planned a four-story 
residence for Mr. S. Rossin. to be built on (>2(\ Street, cost 



son Avenue and 78th Street. Percy Griffin is the suc- 
cessful competitor in the competition for the Charlotte 

Williams Memorial Hospital, to be erected at Richmond. 
Ya. 



NOTES FROM CHICAGO. 

Mr. F. J. Fitzwilliam, a former pupil of D'Espouy & 

De Monclos in Paris, and of Masquerayin New York, has 
opened in the Auditorium Building a school for instruc- 
tion in architectural composition and presentation to be 
known as the Atelier Fitzwilliam. 

The sub-committee of the industrial commission, 
which has been investigating labor troubles and labor 
conditions in Chicago, has concluded its hearings, in the 
course of which much evidence has been given on both 
sides of the controversy, all tending to show the existence 
of a very grave state of affairs in Chicago, particularly as 
regards the building industries. 

At a dinner given at the Marquette Club on March 3 1 . 



THE BRICK BUI LI) KR 



83 




PART OF ENTRANCE, SPANDRELS 
RESIDENCE VI NEWPORT, R. I. 

Executed by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta 

Company. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

B'' one of the vice-presidents of the Ameri- 

can Federation of Labor apologized in the 
following words for organized labor as 
represented by the present demands of 
the Building Trades Council: "Chicago 
people have come to have a bad opinion 
of the labor unions of this country. The Chicago Build- 
ing Trades Council and a few labor leaders have been 
responsible for this opinion. I, as an officer of the 
national labor body, ask you not to judge the labor 
unions by the Chicago Building Trades Council. We are 
as much opposed to some of their rules and to the action 
of certain of their members as are many of the citizens 
of Chicago." 

In a recent lecture on " The Renaissance of Civic 
Beauty," given by Professor Zueblin of the University of 
Chicago, the great necessity for a municipal plan was 
pointed out. Foreign cities, notably Paris, Edinburgh, 
and Carlsruhe, were cited as examples of cities built upon 
a broad, comprehensive plan. In these and some other 
foreign cities, as well as in our own national capital, the 
advantages of a grand plan are manifest. Never was the 
need more pressing for a united effort on the part of 
the city officials and the organizations interested in 
municipal improvements to get together and arrange for 
such action as will lead to the solution of the difficult 
problem in planning the newer and better Chicago, which, 
it is to be hoped, will replace our vast mushroom growth, 
which has inadequately provided for the business to be 
done by land and water, and which has proceeded from 
the beginning with no large thought of system or civic 
beauty. 

The interests of thirty-six of the leading manufac- 
turers of common brick in Chicago and Cook County have 
been consolidated through the organization of the Illinois 
Brick Company, capitalized at $9,000,000, $4,000,000 of 
which is 6 per cent, preferred stock. The officers of the 
new company are : President, Leonard II. Harland ; vice- 
president, D. V. Purington; secretary, W. E. Schlake; 
treasurer, C. D. B. Howell; auditor, Charles B. VerNooy. 
Mr. D. V. Purington, vice-president of the new company, 
is quoted as saying that they will try to fix the price oi 
common brick at $6. 50 per thousand. The total output 



<>f common brick last year in Cook County was estimat( '1 
at .3,000,000, with a total capacity for the sixty common 
brickyards in the country when all arc in full operation 
of 1.000,000,000 bricks per annum. 

As the National Convention of the Architectural 
League of America is to he held in Chicago in fune and the 
Chicago Architectural Club is to be host of many visitors, 
the executive committee of the club has decided upon the 
immediate improvement of its club rooms in the most 
artistic manner possible. To this end a competition for 
this improvement, open to all members, is being held. 



NOTES FROM ST. LOUIS. 

Work opens up very slowly, and anticipated labor 

troubles become another factor in the delay of a long- 
hoped-for revival of business. 

Weber & Groves are the architects for Charles ('.. 
Stifel's five-story office building on 4th and Locust 
Streets, which will cost $90,000, and for the Benoist 
Building on 7th Street and Clark Avenue, a warehouse 
that will cost $40,000. 

Barnett, Haynes & Barnett are building a hospital and 
asylum tor St. Ann's Society, which will cost $200,000. 
It is to be in English Gothic, and is located on Union 
and Page Avenues. The same architects are also putting 
up a fire-proof office building on Grand Avenue and 




RESIDENCE 1 ok MRS. SHEPARD, EAS1 (>; I II STRE1 
YORK 1 ITY. 

1 Ire pm., 1, .1 by the National Fir* Proofing 1 ompany 
1 laydel <*v Sh« p. ml, &.rchit< 



« s 4 



Til E B RICK P.T I L I) E R 



Olive Street for the Olivia Building Company. Cost 

$60,000. 

(.'<>pc & Stewardson have been selected as the archi- 
tects for the new buildings of The Mary Institute on 
Lake Avenue, near Delmar Avenue, 
and Louis Mullgardt as architect of 
the Field Club Building. 

The new Centenary Hospital, on 

Chestnut Street, near 30th Street. 
will cost $250,000. J. B. Legg is 
the architect. 

At the annual meeting of the St. 
Louis Architectural Club, held April 
4, the following officers were elected 

for one year: — 

President, Edward G. Garden; 
first vice-president, William I!. 
Inner: second vice-president, Ern- 
est Ilelfenstellar, Jr.; secretary, 
Frank A. P. Burford; treasurer, 
Ernest J. Russell. 




5EAL 01 1 UK CITY OF NEW YORK. POl 
HON 01 PANEL USED ON SCHOOL 



NOTES FROM PITTSBURGH. 

The Park Building, one of our 
largest office buildings, has lately 

been treated in a manner which can hardly be described 
as anything else but disgraceful. One of the first-story 

stores was rented to a concern which has started a Moor- 
ish Cafe. Not content with deco- 
rating the interior and filling one 
of the large front windows with a 
sort of Moorish fretwork, they 
have painted the exterior granite 
work of their portion of the build- 
ing in alternating bands of the 
most vivid red and yellow. Im- 
agine a fourteen-story office build- 
ing with one corner done in red 
and yellow bands. It is hard to 
understand how an owner would 
allow such a thing even to obtain 
a long lease tenant. 

This year we are fortunate in 
not being troubled by strikes in 
the building trades. The con- 
tractors and unions have come to 
an agreement on wages and have 
decided on an eight-hour day. 

The competition tor the Alle- 
gheny High School has been de- 
cided in favor of F. |. Osterling. 

A competition is being held 
for a library building given by 
Mr. Carnegie to the city of Mc- 
Keesport, I 'a. 

Alden & Harlow are preparing 
plans for a twelve-story office 
building to be built on the corner 

of Fourth Avenue and Smithfield 

Street. They are also at work on 



mil dim,-. 

Executed by the New York Architectural Terra-C 
Company. 
C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 




a library building to be built at Duquesne, Pa., to cost 

§300,000; and one to be built at Steuben villc. Ohio, to 
cost S75.000. 

It is reported that the prices of steel and iron have 
started downward, and that the steel 
companies are already making large 
cuts in private contracts. 

In a large office building now 
going up. we have an instance of 
how some contractors do work. It is 
of brick, and the walls were com- 
menced at several different stories; 
but instead of so laying out the work 
that the brick would come together 
perfectly at these different levels, or 
making the joint at a belt course, no 
attention seems to have been given 
to this point, and when the walls, 
started at the ground, reached the 
fifth floor there was about an inch to 
spare. Now we have a course of 
chips of brick laid in ••any old way" 
around the two street fronts of this 
building. 

The director of public works is 
buying up odd pieces of land here 
and there in the city with the intention of making them 
into small parks. Now let us have a few park shelters 
such as they have been building in New 
York. ' 



1 VRYATID, W \ l<\ l.k 
BUILDING, run \ 

DELPHI \. 

Executed by the Conkling-Arm- 

strotig Terra-Cotta Company. 

C. W. Bolton, Architect. 



NOTES FROM SAX FRANCISCO. 

The Extension of Golden date Park 
•• Panhandle" is already an assured fact; 
while architect Cahill's scheme for the 
rearrangement and embellishment of 
Market Street in the neighborhood of 
the City Hall is finding much favor with 
architects and those having the artistic 
welfare of the city at heart. 

The original designs of M. Benard, 

which won first prize in University of 
California Competition, cannot be carried 
out for less than $Xo,ooo,ooo, an amount 
entirely out of all proportion to the need 
or financial ability of the State. It is 
now decided to have the buildings cost in 
all about $15,000,000, an average of about 
$400,000 for each. The sketches for this 
simplified scheme are promised early in 

April and final drawings by October. M. 
Benard is not expected to take charge of 
the work, but will probably turn over his 
designs to the University Regents, who 

will doubtless employ local talent to carry 
them out, as is being done in the case of 
the Stanford University. 

Messrs. Albert I'issis and George \V. 
Percy, two prominent architects, together 
with Mr. Joseph Rowell, librarian of the 
State University, have been appointed 



•/ 



PA NEI . EN 

I l< \ \ C E , 
W II I I 1 I S 

I \ I I HOTEL, 
NEW N o U k 

tin. 

Executed by the At- 
lantic Terra-Cotta 

t lompany. 
Barney & Cha 

Architects. 



THE BRICK BUI LI) E R 



85 




Z 






c 



X 1 






y< 



86 



Til I-: B R I C K IU' I L D E R 




CI I \ HALL, E \s I S I . LOUIS, III.. 
Veneered with impervious white-coated brick, manufactured by the Hydraulic-Press Bi 

K. C. JanSSeil, Art Intent 



judges of the Oakland Fret' Library Competition, made 
possible by the $50,- 
000 gift of Andrew 
Carnegie. 

Mr. Carl Werner, 
a San Franciscan, is 
to have the honor of 
having his drawing 
of a project for a 
Trophy Building ex- 
hibited at the Paris 
Exhibition, it having 
won first prize at the 
Institute of Technol- 
ogy, Boston. 

A new Custom 

House, costing $3,- 
000,000, is oneoi the 
]> s s i h i 1 i ties, the 
present one being a 
disgrace and an eye- 
sore to the city. 

There is a happy 

tendency in the bet- 
ter residence districts 
to build in brick and 
terra-cotta, and sev- 
eral substantial 

dwellings are being erected in these materials. For 
moderate size residences •'clinker" brick is much in 
vogue. Dp to four 
years ago a brick resi- 
dence was an excep- 
tion here, but owners 
are slowly awakening 
to the beauty of this 
building m a t e ri a 1. 
This with a disposi- 
tion to leave off the 
hideous bay windows 
that so mar the archi- 
tecture of San Francisco will tend to raise the standard 
to where it oughttobe. Reid Brothers have twoquarter 
million dollar residences nearing completion, one is wholly 
of cream c 1 re d 
terra-cotta above the 
basement, the plain 
surfaces being faced 
with slabs 12 by 1 (> 
ins. This is the first 
building erected here 
entirely of this ma- 
terial. 

Architect A. C. 
Schweinfurt, late of 
San Francisco, is at 
present studying the 

ruins of the " Par- 
thenon. " 

G. W. Percy, as- 
sociated with Willis 



'oik, is architect for the Alvin/.a Hay ward office build- 
ing. It is to be 
eleven stories high 
and completely fire- 
pro o f, marble and 
metal t akin g t h e 
place of wood 
throughout. It will 
contain 250 offices 
with stores under- 
neath. Brick a n d 
terra-cotta will b e 

used for the exterior. 




VRCHl I R WE CROWN. 
Executed by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company 

John Mauser. Architect. 



CURRENT [TEMS 
OF INTEREST. 

(i. Fred < >sgood, 
architect, 156 Tre- 
mont Street, Boston, 
Mass., would be glad 
to receive manufac- 
t u re r s' catalogues 
and samples. 

T he (' e 1 ad o n 
Terra-Co 1 1 a Co m- 
pany, Ltd., are sup- 
plying their tiles on 
t h e following new 
contracts: Church at Cohasset, Mass.; hotel, |8th Street 
and Seventh Avenue, New York City, Barney & Chap- 
man, architects; coun- 
try house at G 1 e n 
Eyrie, Col., T. Mac- 
Laren, architect; La- 
clede ( las, Light, and 
Coke Company Build- 
ing, St. Louis, Mo. ; 
high school, Rockford, 
111., I). S. Sehureman, 
architect. 




in ,(.1 I I .\ \l\ ERS OFFICE IU [LDING, ST. 
Roofed with Ludowici koofinj; Tile. 
I ,ii. T.ii lor, \" hitect 



The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company have been 
awarded the contract to furnish their enameled bricks for 
the State Capitol at St. Paul, Cass Gilbert, architect. They 

will furnish also the 
brown pressed brick 

to be used in the new 
depot at I >es Moines. 
I o w a. Frost & 
( Granger, architects ; 
also their e n am e 1 
brick for the new 
depot at Rock Island. 
I 1 1., W al ter T. 
K rausch, architect. 



Fiske & Co.. Los- 
ton, representing the 
L u d o w ici Roofing 
Tile Company, have 
closed contracts for 
roofing the summer 



oris, mo. 



Til E B RICK BUI LI) E R 



87 




CAPITAL FOR RESIDENCE VI CHICAGO. 

Executed by the Northwestern Terra-C<>tta Company. 

Frank L. Wright, Architect. 

residence of Herbert Dumerasq, Esq., near Weirs, N. II., 
Harry J. Carlson, Boston, architect; also roofing of the 
new library at Sunderland, Mass., W. Leslie Walker, 
New York, architect. In both these buildings their 
Spanish Roll pattern of double interlocking 
tiles is used. These tiles are laid without the 
use of elastic cement, and make a most per- 
fect and lasting roof. Upon the Sunderland 
Library a dull green glazed tile is used, which 
presents a novel and artistic appearance. It 
is interesting to note the great increase in the 
use of tile for roofing purposes in this market. 
They are fast being recognized as the best of 
all roofing materials. 

Henry Maurer & Son, 420 East 23d Street, 
New York City, manufacturers of the "Her- 
culean " terra-cotta arch, which was described 
at some length in the March number of The 
Brickbuilder, have issued a pamphlet which 
covers more thoroughly the details of con- 
struction of this arch. It will be sent to any 
one upon application to the company. 

The Grueby Faience Company, Boston, 
announces the removal of its city office to 2 A 
Park Street, where samples of tiles and archi- 
tectural enameled work, both plain and orna- 
mental, may be seen, and estimates given. 
English ceramic mosaic for floors, walls, and 
ceilings have recently been added to the 
Gruel)}- materials. 

Facilities at the kilns have been greatly 
improved, which enables the company to exe- 
cute special work with far greater accuracy 
and promptness than lias been possible here- 
tofore. A skilful mason is associated with 
them. Among the buildings in which enam- 
eled work made by the Grueby Faience Com- 
pany has been used are the following: 

The Tremont Temple Baptistery, Boston, 
Blackball & Newton, architects; Adams House 
Annex, Boston, W. Whitney Lewis, architect; 



new Reynolds House grill room, Boston, Arthur Vinal, 

architect; smoking room, Terminal Station, Boston, 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects ; Moorish smoking 
room. Colonel Winslow's house, Leicester. Mass., John 
Lavalle. architect; Church of the Sacred Heart, Newton 
Centre. VY. II. McGinty, architect; stable tor Mr. A. C. 
Burrage, Boston, Frederick W. Reed, architect; house 
of Mr. A. C. Burrage, Boston, Charles Brigham, archi- 
tect; stable tor Mr. Dumaresque, Boston, Winslow & 
Wetherell, architects; subway for Jordan, Marsh & Co.. 
Boston, Winslow & Wetherell, architects; Boston Sub- 
way, Howard Carson, chief engineer; house for Mr. 
Howard. Montclair, X. J., John Galen Howard, archi- 
tect; house in Xew York City, Philip Hiss, architect; 
Mr. Warren's house, Cambridge, II. Langford Warren, 
architect; interior May Memorial Chapel, Rose Hill, 
Chicago, J. L. Silsbee, architect; Scroll and Key House, 
Xew Haven, Ernest Flagg, architect; vestibule, Detroit 
Opera House. A. W. Chittenden, architect. 

At the last meeting of the Architectural League, New 
York, the question of the licensing of architects was dis- 
cussed and aroused considerable enthusiasm. The prin- 
cipal advantages to be derived, according to the speakers, 
are that such a recognition of the profession of archi- 




ll 1 



IKS PARK BUILDING, PEARI VNDSTATl STREETS, NEW M>Uk MIS 
liui 1 1 oi 1 ican. white hriiks, manufactured by tin- Powhatan 1 llay Manufai luring Companj . 
Clinton & Russell, \ri hiti 



88 



T II E B RICK BU I L I) E R 



tecture by sta t u t e 
would undoubtedly 
raise the standard of 
the profession; that 
such a measure was 
not now an experi- 
ment, as it has been 
in satisfactory oper- 
ation in Illinois for 
some time, and the 
question is now be- 
ing agitated in New 
Jersey and ( >hio. A 
committee was ap- 
pointed to consider 
the matter and re- 
port. 

A contemporary 

calls attention to a 
f o r m of Gre-prooi 
construction which 
has somewhat alarm- 
ing possibilities, the 
construction being made of a mixture of Portland ce- 
ment, concrete, and coal ashes, or at least such was the 
claim, though investigations showed that a considerable 
proportion of coal screenings was mixed with the ashes. 
with a result that under some extreme conditions the 
fire-proofing could actually burn. On the face of it this 
seems like an absurd contradiction, but we have seen re- 
peated cases of ashes taken from furnaces which would 




COLUMN \\ li CAPITAL. 

Executed by the Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Company 





n 






wm i 



rnsrw 




HOUSE \ I BALI [MORE, MD. 

Brick vised, manufactured by the Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, 

Richmond, Va. 

William M. Ellicott, Architect. 

the selection might not be as rigid as would insure the 
rejection of any ash containing unburn! coal. Indeed. 
one complacent advance agent of a new construction 
smilingly claimed a great superiority for his construc- 
tion because it was manufactured out of a combination of 




HOUSE A I BUFFALO, N. N 

MrKim, Me.nl X White, Architects. 



support a very considerable degree of combustion, and 
with the demand for ashes as a factor in the tire-proof 
construction of large buildings it is quite possible that 



coal screenings and concrete. Verily the difficulties 

which beset the harassed architect in the selection of the 
wherewithal with which to build are without end. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

MAY, 
1900. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY I1V 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March i^. 1892 
COPYRIGHT, 1S93, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 



j>5.oo per year 

50 cents 

JWS.oo per year 



and Canada 
Single numbers ......... 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... 

Subscriptions payable in advani e. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 



page 

Cements I V 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Koofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



WE have received from a correspondent in Atlanta, 
Ga. , a letter, enclosing a circular addressed to 
architects on behalf of the trustees of the masonic hall of 
the city of Augusta, Ga'., inviting plans to be submitted 
under terms which we are sorry to say are not unique, 
but are none the less a reproach to the intelligence of the 
masonic body in whose name the invitation is sent out. 
The cost of the structure is limited to $20,000, including 
architect's fees. The competition is open to every one, 
competitors being required to submit all floor plans and 
sections, together with ^ in. scale details, besides which 
the unfortunate architect, who should be so misguided as 
to consider this as an opportunity for himself, is obliged 
to deposit a certified check for $500, payable to the trustees, 
this check being deposited as a guarantee that the propi >sed 
building can be constructed under the plan of the archi- 
tect within the amount specified by him, including archi- 
tect's fees, and by a builder acceptable to the board of 
trustees, besides which the architect must guarantee that 
the structure shall be completed in each and all its parts 
and details so as to be ready for occupancy Oct. 1, 1900, 
including all such part or parts as are necessary to the 
completed building, whether or not provided for in the 
specification. And as if this were not enough, the board 
of trustees further reserves the right to reject any or 
all plans and bids submitted, and no premium or award 
of any kind will be paid the architects whose plans arc 
not accepted. We cannot imagine any self-respecting, 
professional man lending himself in the slightest degree 



to such an outrageous imposition as is implied in a 
competition of this sort. The function of the architect 
ought to be clearly understood by this time. In all our 
larger cities, and among men of intelligence who have 
made it their business to study the operations of modern 
civilization, the architect is looked upon purely as an 
adviser. He no more undertakes to guarantee the cost 
of a building, nor the quality of the builder's work, than 
a lawyer would undertake to guarantee the outcome of a 
trial or the depositions of the witnesses. We are in- 
clined to believe that a circular of this description is due 
to ignorance rather than dishonesty on the part of who- 
ever is responsible for it. Ignorance is hardly an excuse 
in thes^ days, but the kind of ignorance which this may 
manifest puts a premium upon incapacity and deceit; for 
it is fair to say that if the building committee of this 
masonic temple are as ignorant as the circular might 
imply, it would be a very simple thing for an unscrupulous 
architect to put in a set of plans which were absolutely 
unreliable, which promised more than could possibly be 
carried out, and obtain the commission on the strength 
of these misleading plans, after which he could proceed 
to put up the building in complete defiance of the con- 
tract and specification, and make far more than his regular 
commission out of it, without the committee, in their 
ignorance, being any the wiser. We well recall an 
instance of this sort in the early days of Indiana, where 
a building which cost the county $300,000 gave profits 
of considerably over $200,000, which were divided between 
the architect and the builder. The restriction that the 
cost of the proposed building shall be dependent upon a 
builder acceptable to the board of trustees opens up a 
most wide and promising field for plundering the guile- 
less architect ; while the reservation that the board may 
reject any and all plans or bids submitted might be inter- 
preted to mean that some architect was already selected, 
and that this competition, so-called, is instituted with the 
hope of obtaining some ideas which may be stolen out- 
right. We prefer to believe that the committee is honest, 
but ignorant; that it wants to do the right thing by its 
constituency and get the very best results possible from 
an architectural, structural, and financial point of view. 
It is not to be hoped, after such a circular, that the com 
mittee would listen to any reasonable advice; but the 
only way to accomplish the results we would fain believe 
it has in view would be to make a selection of some one 
competent architect, to employ him as the committee's 
adviser, to pay him the regular rates, and to expect him 
to cooperate with, rather than compete against, the wishes 
of the board. The conditions implied in such selection 
are by no means ICutopian. They are what actually ex- 
ist in cities like Xew York, Boston, and Philadelphia, and 



9 o 



T HE BRICKBUILDE R 



are growing every year to be more and more the rule. 
The t'aet, however, that the architect in Georgia has to 
contend with conditions of this kind furnishes an illustra- 
tion of the uneven terms under which architects are 
obliged to practice their calling. 

We have noted this competition at length, not because, 
unfortunately, the conditions stated .are unusual. In the 
country towns, smaller cities, and districts to which the 
full light of civilization has not yet penetrated we must 
expect these things lor some time to come, and the evils 
thereof can only be mitigated by architects positively 
refusing to enter competitions except under proper and 
well-understood terms. 



work, and give them an opportunity to complete the 
professional subjects in two years. 



TENEMENT MOUSE CONSTRUCTION. 

A BILL has just passed the Massachusetts Senate to 
be engrossed, which contemplates a letting down 
of the bars regarding the construction of tenement houses, 
a change certainly not to be encouraged. The bill has 
been strongly advocated by the Boston Real Estate Ex- 
change, which, by so doing, has put itself on record as 
willing to sacrifice security and proper construction to 
questions of immediate pecuniary gain. It has been 
opposed by the Hoard of Fire Underwriters, by the 
Master Builders' Association, and by the Boston Society 
of Architects. Opposition of this sort ought to be suffi- 
cient to kill the bill. 

The existing laws provide that within certain limits 
of the city all tenement houses shall be of fire-proof con- 
struction. This bill provides that a tenement house may 
be of second-class construction, that is to say, with brick 
walls, but with interior construction not fire-proof, pro- 
vided it is not over four stories high, that not more than 
two families are accommodated above the second story; 
and, provided further, that the plastering is applied over 
some form of metallic lathing. According t<> the letter 
of the new law a tenement house may in first and second 
story be occupied by an indefinite number of families, 
provided there is not more than one family to each 
Upper story. The old idea that height is any measure 
of the neccssitv for fire-proof construction dies very 
slowly. It is the opinion of nearly all experts that 
in the centers of our large cities nothing but fire- 
proof construction ought to be allowed under any cir- 
cumstances, that mere height has nothing to do with the 
question, and that a fire started in a sufficient number of 
four-story constructions can sometimes do more damage 
than a single conflagration in a building twenty or thirty 
stories high. It is sincerely to be hoped that the socie- 
ties which arc opposed to the proposed bill will be able 
to make their influence felt in an unmistakable manner 
and secure its final defeat. 



NFW courses in landscape architecture and architec- 
tural engineering have been instituted in the de- 
partment of architecture at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, to which college graduates and draughts- 
men will be admitted as special students. Summer 
courses in elementary design and shades and shadows 
will begin July 5. 

Proficiency in these subjects will enable draughtsmen 
and students from other colleges to enter third year 



THE CASTELLO DEGL1 ESTE, FERRARA, 

ITALY. 
r, PHE present aspect of the old Italian town of Ferrara 
J. reflects vividly the vanished glories of the famous 
house of Este, which was at the height of its power during 
the golden age of the Renaissance. Splendid picture gal- 
leries, great churches, and wide, straight, grass-grown 
streets remain to indicate the prosperity of the earlier 
days when the court of Ferrara attracted the most 
brilliant poets and artists of the day, and the gorgeous 
halls and salons, which are now seen by few strangers 
except the occasional wandering student, were thronged 
by the wit anil fashion, not only of the Italian peninsula, 
but of all Europe. 

The great castle, which raises its four lofty towers 
and massive brick walls from the center of the old town 
Square, is easily the most conspicuous building in the 
city, and is one of the most picturesque and impressive 
buildings of the kind in Europe. The wide and dec]) 
moat which surrounds it is crossed by bridges which give 
access to the interior, and are furnished with all the 
mediaeval paraphernalia of barbicans, parapets, battle- 
ments, and portcullis. Once within the walls, one will 
not encounter any one more formidable than the dig- 
nitaries of the local government, who now inhabit the 
chambers which once sheltered the powerful and relent- 
less margraves of Este. Many a tragedy has occurred in 
the gloomy dungeons at the base of the towers, one of 
which Lord Byron has commemorated in his poem of 
" Parisina." 

The castle is a most interesting example of the feudal 
architecture of north Italy, with its heavily corbeled 
machicolations, its massive walls, its projecting balconies, 
and gloomy archways. As is common in most of the towns 
of the region, the material is the red brick of the country, 
and there are few buildings in existence which better show 
the imposing effect Of great, broad masses of the material. 
Bertolino Ploti di Novara is credited with being the archi- 
tect, and the date of its construction is put at 1385. 

Ferrara is one of the best of the brick towns of Italy. 
Situated in a marshy plain, the insalubrity of its location 
renders a protracted stay inadvisable, but such buildings 
as the Palazzo Costabili, the Palazzo Diamante, the Cathe- 
dral, and many others render a visit an indispensable part 
of a complete Italian trip, while nowhere will one feel the 
presence of the spirit of the Renaissance more strongly 
than while sipping one's vermouth at a table on the 
sidewalk opposite the walls of the venerable castle. Like 
its neighbor, Ravenna, Ferrara has much of the tomb- 
like feeling of a long since devitalized community which, 
while it is in a way depressing, still perhaps puts one in 
the best mood for studying the crumbling monuments of 
the past. The architectural student will find much good 
detail in Ferrara, not only in brick and terra-cotta, but 
in stone and wood. Many of the palaces contain remark- 
ably decorated ceilings in paneled wood, and the capitals 
and pilasters of the cinquecento have a distinctly 
Ferrarese touch which is full of brilliancy and elegance, 
while in marble and iron the same unusually excellent 
standard is easily attained. 



THE RRICKlUniJ)ER 



9> 



"Progress before Precedent." 

IS THIS MAXIM OF THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA 

FINDING FAVOR WITH THE COMING MEN OF THE 

MIDDLE WEST? 

BY GEORGE R. DEAN. 

THE expression "Progress before Precedent" was 
not used at the Cleveland Convention which re- 
sulted in the Architectural League of America, and to 
my mind does not express the character of the movement, 
if, indeed, by analysis it can be made to express any- 
thing. 

Precedent in architecture has two very distinct and 
entirely different meanings. If that of slavishly copying 
the forms of ancient architecture is meant, let us say 
" Progress without Precedent." If, however, the mean- 
ing is the following of the principles which led the great 
architects to produce monuments of art which we revere 
and fondly worship, let the maxim be " Precedence and 
Progress"; for Progress will follow, and we may hope, in 
the number of years which they required, to develop 
monuments as much greater than theirs as our civilization 
is broader, richer, and more powerful. 

In the matter of construction we have arrived at the 
logical and true limit of our knowledge, and employ any 
and all materials which we find useful. We no longer re- 
fer to the methods of the great builders of ancient times. 
We have passed them. Our results in regard to con- 
struction are immeasurably greater. How did we ac- 
complish this? By continuing to use their forms and at- 
tempting to move larger stones? No! We used our 
science and made stone, larger, better, and more lasting. 
We are able to span our high, thin walls without the use 
of flying buttresses, and we do not hestitate to do so. 
There is then no need of considering the question of con- 
struction, but only of the ornamentation of this construc- 
tion. 

There are those who say that there should be no orna- 
ment except structural ornament. I ask them, why? Is 
not the surface of a slab of verd antique one inch thick as 
beautiful as if it were a block four feet thick? Yes, it is 
until I clumsily try to make you believe it is four feet 
thick, and you feel the insult of my lie. 

Let me show you its thickness, or not mention it in 
my construction, and you will see how fine a material it 
is. Let me in its surroundings delicately suggest to you 
its wonderful markings; let me by studied treatment en- 
hance its depth of color and assist you to discover for 
yourself hues and tints you never dreamed of, and you 
will love that stone. 

There are possibilities in surface decoration different 
and better than any that have ever been accomplished. 
It is preposterous to say that the art of the Greeks, or of 
any other race, cannot be surpassed. Has the human 
mind a limit? Does it in its evolution increase in science 
and decrease in art? If the world had been content with 
the speed of the Arabian horse the telegraph would never 
have been invented. We have taken unto ourselves gods 
of stone, -the Greek and Gothic temples, have wor- 
shiped them and blinded our eyes to the one true god of 
art, that god which, in striving to attain, man worshiped 
when he builded the Parthenon and Notre Dame. We 



have tried for centuries and have not attained these, our 
ideals, but we have approached them; when we approach 
as nearly those Nature-given inspirations, which Hood our 
souls as we ga/.e on her handiwork, we will have an 
architecture. 

I will not repeat the processes by which so great re- 
sults have been accomplished, nor the reasons for our 
shortcomings. There is not a thinking architect but 
knows that the plastering of modern construction with 
stereotyped forms of ornament is an abomination. But 
his mind so long prostituted to many loves is incapable 
of a pure and holy inspiration. I will not carry the simile 
to the architectural professor, hut there is not a thinking 
architect but knows to whom he owes his fall. The 
remedy is not in the reclaiming of the fallen ones, but in 
the rearing of a healthy generation. 

There is, perhaps, only a branch of one art which 
occupies the position of architecture, in which the artists 
play the stock article to empty seats and damn the "in- 
artistic public" the musical drama. If one half the 
inartistic effects and crudities impossible in Nature 
so common in grand opera — were put on the theatrical 
stage, the presentation would lie hissed from the boards. 
It is that lack of the fitness of things, that combination 
of attempted realism and grandiose conventionalization, 
which shocks the discerning mind. In literature we used 
to call it poetical license, but in literature it is no longer 
permitted. 

What the young men of the League desire is an archi- 
tecture free from vulgar importations. The American 
people are no more in sympathy with the modern French 
architecture than they are with the life on the French 
boulevards. < )ur young men are coming from the schools 
of Europe with every natural instinct blasted, and filling 
our cities with monstrosities. We are rearing universi- 
ties, and are proposing to build greater, wherein the 
young minds for generations to come will be instilled 
with the lowest expressions of Nature, misrepresentations 
of plant life, forms incapable of existence, deformities 
grown in poisonous caves, horrors of the animal kingdom 
with vegetable tails. This is no exaggeration ; you may 
see it all about you. It is not architecture: it maybe art 
in caricature, a form of art too low to lie classed with the 
earliest and greatest of all arts. 

The young men of the League do not wish to banish 
from their lives all early architecture. They stand for 
the same methods employed l>v the builders of the vital 
styles, namely, the artistic expression of what is about 
them. They do not believe it necessary to make bad 
drawing because the architects of the Middle Ages could 
not draw. They do not think it necessary to reproduce 
horrid monsters because they were a part of the life of 
the ancients, nor cut in stone vulgar expressions of plant 
forms because they were so cut by degenerate peoples. 
Neither do they sympathize with those who go about with 
complete rules for the production of art. who talk oi 
occult Symmetry, and know not the difference between 
the expression of an emotion and the spacing ol black 

and white. They feel that these matters of rhythm of 
movemenl of upward tendency are matters of small im 
portance compared with the true expression of an emotion, 
that they pertain to the individual, that these things are 
the unconscious ripples in the stream of thought. They 



92 



THE BRICKBUILDKR 



arc the gestures <>f the orator. Too much training in 
these matters, with neglect of the great principles, with 
lack of knowledge and assurance that there is something 
to be said, and the pressure from within which compels 
the saying of it, will result in the sterility of the boy from 
the oratorical school. Not all poets speak in verse, and 
among those that do there may be a Foe as well as a 
Holmes. They desire simply to give expression to their 
interpretations of the higher and nobler phases of Nature, 
and to do it in their individual way. 

The strongest argument against the possibility of a 
national style has always been that it is no longer possi- 
ble t<> keep out influences of a conflicting nature. That 
the Greek architecture was possible because of the 
peculiarly close civilization which permitted of an unin- 
terrupted growth. The coming men propose to keep out 
these influences by mental rather than physical means, 
believing that better results will be obtained. They do 
not hope for immediate results; they realize that few men 
in any generation have the genius for great works. They 
believe that in time these men will appear, and that the 
incapables will be weeded out. That the time will come 
when men will choose the art from their fitness, and not 
hesitate between architecture and medicine as they might 
between dry-goods and groceries. 

In their own work they see their improvement; they 
realize how they are hindered by their early training, and 
they are full of hope. They are at times cast down, as when 
they see such exhibitions as the one at Chicago this year, 
and the book of the exhibition which is worse. But they 
realize that club politics and individual incapacity are 
always rampant, and take new heart. The fact that the 
club was able to produce a book at all without the aid of 
advertisements speaks volumes for those who had the 
work in charge, and shows the interest the people take in 
architecture. 

Not that the exhibition is worse than those which 
preceded it, but the opportunities were greater. The 
Chicago Architectural Club was a prime mover in the 
League, formed, as its constitution says, " To encourage 
an indigenous and inventive architecture, and to lead 
architectural thought t<> modern sources of inspiration." 

The club's action in crowding the exhibition and book 
with the trite architecture of the past to the exclusion of 
the many good things done throughout the West during 
the last year is inexcusable from the Standpoint it has 
itself taken. The club should appoint each year men of 
discernment and innate artistic worth, men capable of 
forming a heart judgment, men who know a good thing, 
whose duty it shall be to search out those things which have 
merit, and on the walls and in the book give them such 
place that the public may feel the importance of the 
movement and know for what the club stands. The 
generosity of the patrons made all things possible ; through 
timidity and fear the club betrayed a sacred trust. 

Whatever disappointment we feel, we must not attach 
too much importance to a slight defeat. The architecture 
has come to Stay. It is traveling faster and witli less 
friction than did the same movement in painting and 
sculpture Upon which we are successfully riding toward 
a high and noble art. 

Those who have felt its force are carried irresistibly 
with it and have no fear in trusting themselves to its power. 



Already the professors in our schools are confessing 
to bad methods and are seeking for better. The archi- 
tectural journals are printing articles they refused a few 
years ago, and best of all the architect finds the American 
artisan capable of perpetuating his thought in lasting 
material. It is safe to say that the number of young men 
in the Middle West who are working on these lines has 
more than doubled in the last year. Many of these, being 
men who in the true sense have never designed, are very 
much at sea, and are simply copying the works of others 
as they copied from older forms. This is to be expected, 
and is to my mind far better than the old way. It will 
correct itself when the people discriminate between the 
original and the copy as well as they do at present 
in painting. 

The following letters were received in reply to a re- 
quest for an expression of opinion upon the general sub- 
ject, considering not only whether the maxim of the 
League finds favor with the coming men of the Middle- 
West, so much as what is the best view to take of the 
subject itself: — 

Robert I). Andrews, Boston. 

In reply to your request, let me say that the maxim in 
question seems to me a very good sort of rallying cry for 
the fighting contingent. Of course we all know that the 
standing ground of progress is precedent; but the ques- 
tion is. In which direction shall a man most turn his face. 

forward or backward? "Progress before Precedent" 
seems to be identical in its sense with Mr. I laic's maxims, 

•' Look up, not down; look out, not in," etc. 

The scientific study of the arts and their laws of de- 
velopment is a wholly modern one. M. (bistave Le lion's 

"Psychology of Peoples" contains much regarding the 

organic history of art that is worth knowing, and I com- 
mend the volume, together with the first chapter of J. A. 

Symond's "Greek Poets," to the attention of Mr. Dean. 

C. II. I!i, VCK \i .1., Bosi ON. 

The maxim sounds good, but like all epigrammatic 
expressions is right or wrong, depending upon its inter- 
pretation and application. To disregard precedent is a 
pretty sure way to progress in the wrong direction. To 

assume that progress and precedent are irreconcilable is 
to be blind to the teachings of all history. To suppose 

that there can be progress without regard to precedent is 

to court a laborious waste of good endeavor, with prob- 
able failure. The right kind of precedent will never 
check progress, and if architecture has reached such a 
condition as has seemed to inspire Ml - . Dean's article, it is 

time to do something besides casting away precedent. 

Rather let us see if we have not been following wrong 

precedents. 

Glenn Brown, W ishing ion. 

Progress has always been founded on precedent. No 
great art movement has grown from nothing. Following 

precedent does not, and should not, mean a slavish copy 
of existing work. It does not mean bodily transplanting 
incongruous elements into a community or location with 
which such elements have no harmony or fitness. It 
does not mean, for instance, the placing of Parisian build- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



93 



ings in communities which are neither Parisian by inheri- 
tance, feeling, sympathy, nor climate. 

Precedence for progress should be guided by the 
principles which governed the design, objects, and ends 
of the original designers, the utility of the building or the 
arrangement of the plan, the masses of the elevation, the 
lights and shadows, not by the mere copying of extra- 
neous and often meaningless and meretricious details. 

Careful study of precedents will lead to a proper and 
progressive advance, while superficial study of precedents 
will usually eventuate in the selection and improper use 
of subordinate features with the mistaken idea that in 
such details consist the broad elements of design. Truth 
and unity, the motto of the American Institute, should 
govern all design, in which case we will have progress 
with precedence. 

Walter Cook, New York City. 

It is fortunate, I think, that the formulating of maxims, 
such as " Progress before Precedent," is usually an en- 
tirely harmless recreation, and exercises no great influ- 
ence upon any individual. We may easily proclaim to 
the world that we are about to be progressive and original ; 
but originality is not so easily attained. In architecture, 
at least, it should be the consequence of new conditions, 
new requirements, and new influences, which force a new 
solution of his problem upon the designer, whether he 
will or no. If the result is beautiful, he has achieved 
originality ; if not, he has achieved nothing. No archi- 
tecture worthy of the name has ever been produced by 
men who proclaimed beforehand that they were going to 
despise precedent and achieve a new style ; and it has 
been said, with both wit and wisdom, that only mediocrity 
is ever wholly original. 

Walter B. Chambers, New York City. 

There is a kind of criticism which we Americans need 
far more than the diluted Ruskinism we are wont to 
serve out to each other. It is that heard so often in the 
Ateliers of the Ecole des Beaux Arts: "Quand c'est bien 
c'est bien, et quqnd ce n'est pas bien ce if est pas bien." 

No people in the world are more easily hoodwinked 
than we are by purposeless, pseudo-artistic theorizing. 
The gravity with which we give it open-mouthed atten- 
tion contributes materially to the gaiety of nations — 
other nations. There's no denying it, we dearly love to 
talk. 

If the energy which we lavish upon a discussion as to 
the real value and proper interpretation of the motto 
"Progress before Precedent" were devoted to a close 
study of architectural problems, viewed in the cold, logi- 
cal light of structural and practical requirements, we 
would be more sure of making the right kind of prog- 
ress, — that based on the same precedents as those 
which have inspired all the great architectural creators, 

sincerity of purpose, horror of sham and pretense, 

contempt for imitation. These are qualities with which 
an artist's mind must first be armed in order to cope 
successfully with the all-engrossing problem of how to 
envelop modern practical ideas in live artistic forms. 

Our greatest need to-day, in the schools and in prac- 
tice, is a proper understanding of the principle that 
honest, practical, and structural necessities are invariably 



the matrices out of which are developed the true solu- 
tions of their artistic treatment. 

Frank Miles I)\\, Philadelphia. 

The value of the expression " Progress before Prece- 
dent" as a working maxim for the architect depends en- 
tirely on the way he interprets it. If by progress is 
meant that true, healthy progress which comes from a 
sane plan, frankly arranged to suit the life of the build- 
ing, and from the growth of this plan into a structure 
which naturally and beautifully expresses that life, then 
by all means let us have " Progress before Precedent." 

If, on the other hand, progress is mistaken to mean a 
mere striving for originality, an effort to say an old thing 
in a new way for the sake of the novelty of that way, 
rather than for the sake of its excellence, then let us ad- 
here to precedent, but even then we must have the dis- 
cernment to distinguish the good from the bad in prece- 
dent. 

Wilson Eyre, Jr., Philadelphia. 

With regard to Mr. Dean's article, which is most inter- 
esting, I would say that I agree with him as to our being 
overburdened with the outcome of education in the 
French schools. Our own schools, however, are growing 
in importance and will soon be all-sufficient, and although 
the French style now in vogue in so many parts of the 
country is not, to my mind, a very sympathetic or lasting 
one, it will be interesting to look back upon as a period. 

I have never felt that influences alter the big motive 
forces in artistic development to any great extent, or for 
any length of time. Schools, fashions, and laws are but 
temporary checks or helps. The work of " the rank and 
file " is dreary enough, given the very best periods, and 
it is only the work of the few that makes the history of 
art. With these the style and influence of their day is a 
secondary consideration. 

Ernest Flagg, New York City. 

I think all such articles do good ; they serve to agitate 
and arouse interest in the subject. They call for thought ; 
and the more properly directed thought which is given to 
our architecture, the better it will be for the art. I hope 
that the more thought that is given to the subject, the 
more clearly it will be seen that what we need most is the 
application of logical reasoning to our designs. I should 
like to see materials used in a logical way, and a tendency 
to abandon the shamp and makeshifts which are far too 
common in American work. As 1 write this I see from 
my window a great galvanized iron cornice with stone 
profiles surmounting a granite building. 

If there is anything to criticize in the article, I think 
it is the strain of too great satisfaction with what we are 
doing, which crops out from time to time. We are too 
well satisfied with ourselves. We would do well to be 
more conservative and not brush aside precedent too 
lightly. I hope for the time when the principles which 
guided in the making of the great designs of the past 
may be sought for and applied humbly to our own work. 
What we need is not servile imitation, we have too 
much of that, but more careful study, and that logical 
and truly artistic use of the material and appliances at 
our disposal which characterizes and makes admirable 
the work of the great architects of the past. 



94 



T 1 1 E B RK'KBUILDE R 



Robert W. Gibson, New York City. 

It seems to me that in their praiseworthy desire for 
active work, the originators of this motto have overlooked 
the meaning which older men would attach to it. and have 
said something they did not intend. As a protest against 
that dull regard for precedent which prevents progress, 
their purpose is laudable, but as a declaration that prog- 
ress is desirable, with little or no regard for precedent, 
the maxim is not only harmful and misleading, but comes 
nearly to being absurd, because the word " progress " itself 
suggests a moving forward by degrees, with growth and 
improvement, all of which involves the idea of precedent 
as a basis for each successive advance. 

So much for the attitude of the League toward the 
world as expressed by its motto. There is another side 
which I think deserves criticism. It is likely that students 
and younger members, who are the people most impres- 
sionable in these matters, will understand the words to 
be a kind of declaration of independence in architectural 
design, and will think that their leaders have resolved 
that variety and change and newness are to be less con- 
trolled than formerly by precedent and established cus- 
tom. I believe that such declarations really do influence 
young people, and in this case I think that the teaching 
most needed is the very Opposite, and that if the motto 
were made to read " Precedent before Progress,"it would 
be more productive of good, but I do not seriously pro- 
pose this, because it is rather an even balance of different 
motives, than the preponderance of any one, which is most 
to be desired. 

Cass Gilbert, New York City. 
I agree with the maxim, " Progress before Prece- 
dent," but with the understanding that the progress 
must be real, intelligent, and forward. There is such a 
thing as progress backward, and such catchy phrases 
are sometimes dangerous. That a knowledge of prece- 
dent does not necessarily impede progress, is self-evident. 
Progress demands both an intelligent knowledge of pres- 
ent conditions and of precedent. The maxim implies 
antagonism between those who believe in progress and 
those who study precedent Such antagonism does not 
exist in reality. 

John Galen Howard, New York City. 

" Progress before Precedent" seems to me a startling 

alliteration based on no real foundation of meaning and 
calculated to do a vast amount of harm to our profession 
if taken seriously by any considerable body of young 
architects. Progress before precedent? Progress from 
or beyond what, pray, if not precedent' Let us have 
progress by all means, but let us base that progress, 
measure it. dignify it, justify it, by that precedent which 
is our indestructible heritage from the great of all time. 
He is a spendthrift and a fool who, on setting sail upon 
the ocean of a career, strips his sheets, chops down his 
masts, and (ires the hold. 

W. I.. I!. Jenney, Chicago. 

Undoubtedly the maxim is a good one. We should 
not be blind copyists. The precedent should be con- 
sidered in its true spirit as Mr. Dean states, whose article 
1 would erenerallv indorse. 



The styles of architecture were influenced by the re- 
quirements, the habits of the people, the material at 
hand, the religion, the precedence in the ueighborhood or 
within reach of the designers. To-day we have materials 
that were but little used in buildings in ancient times. 
Principally steel, which enters so largely into most of our 
commercial buildings, and which, even in a great church, 
or cathedrals, could be used very advantageously, instead 
of the old style masonry. 

Referring to the old rule, ornament your construction, 
but never construct ornament. In this sense ornament 
should be used to accent the construction as well as to 
make it more agreeable to the eye. Another old princi- 
ple, the fitness of things, should be followed conscien- 
tiously. The desire of the League "to free architecture 
from vulgar importations" is certainly highly commend- 
able. The statement that "our young men are coming 
from the schools of Europe with every natural instinct 
blasted, and filling our cities with monstrosities." is cer- 
tainly not true of the best men, who are aiming at quiet 
dignity combined with elegance and beauty. There are 
certainly no want of examples of the " lowest expressions 
of nature, misrepresentations of plant life, forms incapa- 
ble of existence, horrors of the animal kingdom with 
vegetable tails." Exam])les of this can be found in old 
Renaissance work and in the rococo. It, however, be- 
longs to decoration only. 

In regard to the argument as to the " possibility of a 
national style." -that could only be produced by a large 
number of Our best architects working for a long period 
in one direction, each trying to improve, and making the 
style more thoroughly adapted to our requirements. As 
it is, one style after another comes into vogue and good 
work is done, but before the style could with any reason 
be called national it is dropped, and another takes its 
place. 

In the future much must depend upon our schools. 
They are already numerous and in the hands of able men. 
Literature and reproduction of photographs, with appre- 
ciation and justifiable criticisms, are contributing much. 
I agree with Mr. Dean that the number of young men in 
the Middle West who "are working on justifiable lines 
has more than doubled in the last year." 

Clarence II. Johnston, St. Paul*. 

I have scant sympathy for the term. " Progress be- 
fore Precedent." To me it is peculiarly obnoxious; from 
such a sentiment has sprung the architectural aberrations 
of this country. The thought is opposed to reason and 
common sense. 

I cannot conceive of success in an art so difficult to 
master as that of architecture, without the most strenuous 
study of precedent. It is the foundation stone to build 
on. From knowledge only of what past masters in archi- 
tecture have done can progress be made. The broader 
this knowledge is. the keener the insight of principles 
that are sound and vitalizing, the better equipped will the 
artist be for his own work. 

George D. Mason, Detroit. 

To literally adhere to such a sentiment as " Progress 

before Precedent," at least from an art standpoint, is, in 
my judgment, a mistake. 



THE B RICK BU I LI) KR 



95 



The concensus of opinion of a body of educated men is a 
standpoint from which the best of argument can be based. 
The particular kind of "education" referred to com- 
bines the knowledge gained from experience in develop- 
ing the best of the older forms of artistic expression, and 
in the subsequent careful comparisons made, and deduc- 
tions determined upon, when the old and the new are 
placed side by side. 

Art, generally speaking, is not as exact as a science, 
and artistic deductions cannot be arrived at with the 
mathematical exactness that can be obtained from an en- 
gineering standpoint. Reliance must therefore be had 
on the judgment of the artistic minds that have re- 
ceived the commendation of the majority of the men 
who by education, training, and native ability have ap- 
proved of their work. 

The one who is the most successful in combining the 
best ideas from the standard forms of art, as so recog- 
nized, with the multiplex requirements of a modern civ- 
ilization, is in my estimation the greatest artist. We 
must not uphold the one to the exclusion of the other, 
nor feel that the ideas of the present generation of artists 
are the only fountains that pour forth the absolutely pure 
article. We might argiie quite differently from an engi- 
neering standpoint, but with art it is quite a diffei'ent 
matter. 

Robert S. Peabody, Boston. 

It is hardly possible that any designer would find 
fault with most of the general principles that are upheld 
by your correspondent. They do not seem to me new, 
and they are generally accepted. 

But when he objects to the use of those forms of ex- 
pression that have been evolved by many generations of 
artists, and which still are in process of evolution, then I 
hope and believe that nearly all of us disagree with him. 

It does not seem to me to be of the slightest impor- 
tance whether we ever develop a distinctly American 
style in architecture with original and native details. I 
take no interest whatever in that as an end for which to 
strive. It does, however, seem to me to be of the first 
importance for our civilization that our towns should be 
pleasant places of abode, and that our houses and churches 
and public monuments should be dignified, quiet, mod- 
est, interesting, and refined. To my mind, there is a far 
better chance of this being accomplished if our designer' 
humbly works upon forms that have been found good by 
all, and does not endeavor to revolutionize art single- 
handed. In the long run, even thus, we shall have all 
the local expression that is worth keeping. This is the 
course artists worthy of the name have followed hitherto. 

The enthusiasm of youth is such a precious thing that 
few would wish to suppress it, but I think it has, and I 
am sure the work it inspires will have, an added grace 
if it is accompanied with reverence. I do not believe we 
can, with advantage, abandon the use of accepted con- 
ventions in design; and my opinion is that the professors 
of architecture so much criticized by your correspondent 
are doing a much-needed work. 

Irving K. Pond, Chicago. 
One hardly could make any remarks on the general 
subject without taking cognizance of the leading paper 



which in this instance, it seems to me, has "nothing to 
do with the case." As to the application to it. of the 
strictures on the poor catalogue makers, I am in the dark, 
and I am equally blind as to just how nature study is to 
inspire a new architecture any more than it did an old 
(which it never did). Architecture is, and always lias 
been, from within: nature, except human nature, is 
external. As to the meaning of the very general phrase, 
"Progress before Precedent," some few may know a 
little, but many more will care less. Perhaps a " Don't 
Worry Club" would be a good thing among the younger 
architects. Men who have not lived long enough or deep 
enough to have developed rich or lasting sentiments need 
not worry as to what those sentiments may be or how 
they should be expressed. Time will bring to those who 
are worthy a realization of them and of the possibilities 
of their expression. The action of time may be accelerated 
by the advice of experience, which none but a fool dis- 
dains. In any art which means self-expression, or indeed 
in any avocation, we will be, according as we are. and we 
are what the past has made us. This does not argue that 
our future course is absolutely set for us, but that we are 
developed from the past; and what is true of a man or an 
architect, is true of the great body of men or architects. 
No new germ springs into existence, but all is the Logical 
development of the past. Don't worry; the future will 
take care of itself with, or in spite of, us. 

Bruce Prick, New York Citv. 

I could not fall into the vein of the article you speak 
of, tending to anything that I was in sympathy with. 
Men banding and leaguing together never lead to much. 
Of course, in an art such as architecture the individual is 
no more than a grain of corn on the cob; progress and 
beauty in architecture is the result of the combined intel- 
lectual effort of intelligent minds ; no man yet lias risen 
above it. The best work has come in periods of wealth 
and extravagance, forpublic opinion applauds the artistic 
effort, and consequently makes fruitful soil for the growth 
of artistic work. 

The business side, of course, of the League, isanother 
thing, but to bring out beautiful work men must work for 
the love of it, and for the inspiration that comes from a 
congenial undertaking. 

Edgar V. Seeler, Pun vdelphia. 

"Progress before Precedent." The misfortune of 
this recently exploited phrase is undoubtedly that it 
places " Progress and Precedent " in opposition. To di- 
vorce the two is unnatural and unnecessary. Those who 
disregard precedent handicap their efforts to progress 
quite as seriously as those whose sole direction comes 
from a slavish following of precedent. The best thai 
any one can do, whatever its motive, whatever its appli- 
cation, is so slight, so infinitesimal by itselt, that it be- 
comes pure arrogance to attribute to it a place apart, or 
to count it more than a single phase of thegreal develop- 
ment of which precedent is the summation, down to the 
very last previous demonstration. 

A I I RED S l ONE, PROVIDENC1 . 

" Progress before Precedent " is, to the writer's mind. 

an exact reversal of the proper sequence, both as a stab 



9 6 



THE HRR'KIH'ILDKR 



ment and as a Logical evolution in the development of the 

best in architecture. 

A reverent not slavish ■- study of the architecture 
of the ages is as necessary in the training of an architect 
as the study of the literature of the past is a necessity for 
one who would express his thought in the graceful 
imagery of poetry or poetic prose, or in terse and force- 
ful language. No matter how radical the thought or how 
advanced the philosophy, the zvords in which they are 
uttered are not new, and the construction of the sen- 
tences must conform in the main to rules of syntax and 
grammar which arc the growth of centuries, each one of 
which has contributed but few new words to the vocabu- 
lary, and has but slightly changed the method of expres- 
sion. 

In architecture we find the monstrosities which offend 
are more generally perpetrated by those who despise the 
past and are so imbued with the divine afflatus that they, 
out of their own superior inspiration and inward con- 
sciousness, can create in the span of their own short but 
glorious career a new and national an American 
architecture! Pride, which Cometh before a fall, seems 
to be the prominent idea which finds expression in the 
motto, "Progress before Precedent," and smacks little 
of that respect for the great masters of many epochs, 
whose works have survived the test of time and have won 
the admiration of generation after generation of those 
most sensitive to artistic influence. 

With new methods of construction new methods of 
architectural expression will be invented, but only Step 
by step, and many will press for recognition, but few will 
be chosen, and they will be of those who humbly adhere 
to precedent, but at the same time are able t<> engraft 
some new idea upon the old which will fructify and prove 
acceptable and hold its own with that which can never 
die. 

R. ('. Sir ki ; is, BOSTON. 

Mottoes are not, as a rule, of much service, and are 
epiite as apt to be misleading as to help. What is meant 
by " Progress before Precedent "? Who is to judge what 
is true progress? < M'ten true progress seems like a back- 
ward step; often what seems progress is a retrograde 
movement. Precedent is of infinite value and hardly to 
be over-rated, and yet if clung to too closely, it may 
hinder progress, deaden enthusiasm, and kill life. A 
young Englishman recently complained to me quite 
bitterly of a criticism of one of his works which had ap- 
peared in an American magazine. The work in question 
had defied all architectural precedents, and was but a 
forced straining after originality; but the author thought 
that if such original work was not understood and appre- 
ciated there could never be any progress. The best prog- 
ress is that which is founded most clearly on precedent. 

Loiis H. Sullivan, Chic igo. 

In my judgment a maxim or shibboleth, such as 
" Progress before Precedent," is in itself neither valu- 
able nor objectionable. 

The broad question involved in the advancement of 
our art is one that lies specifically with the rising genera- 
tion, and it will answer in its own way, theory or no 
theory, maxim or no maxim. 



If the coming men possess in a high degree the gift of 
reasoning logically and unwaveringly from cause to effect, 
the rest, practically without qualification, will take care 

of itself. 

The present generation does not possess this gift, nor 

does it trouble whether or not ; hence chaos. That the 
younger men have it is, as far as I can observe, quite 
conjectural. Talk and good intentions we have, but talk 
and good intentions do not build beautifully rational 
buildings. Talk may be had for the asking and good 
intentions become pavements here as elsewhere; but 
delicate clarity of insight, sturdy singleness of purpose, 
and adequate mental training are notably so rare in our 
profession as almost to be freakish. We have muddy 
water in our veins. 

I am an Optimist, and live ever in hope; yet what I wish 
and what I see arc by no means identical. Still, doubt- 
less, there is a ferment working that we wot not of. I 
would discourage no one in the belief. 

Finally, when all is said and done, the architectural 
art is a proposition too easy or too difficult, just as you 
choose to regard it. It is an art as yet without status in 
modern American life. Practically, it is a zero. 

Pi i er B. Wioiii , Chicago. 

The Architectural League of America, in adopting its 

motto, evidently intended to epitomize the sentence from 
its constitution which Mr. Dean quotes. The meaning 
of that is plain. But, while all art that is not copied is 
"indigenous," whether it be good or bad, it is question- 
able if it is desirable to put too much emphasis on the 
encouragement of an " inventive architecture." We have 
not only had too much imitation, but too much invention. 
The "modern sources of inspiration, " referred to in the 
second part of the sentence, by which our "architectural 
thoughts" are expected to be led, are the counterpart of 
"precedent." This is only another way of saying that 
true architectural progress is the natural result of evolu- 
tion, and it matters not from what it is evolved so long 
as it is true. I do not agree with Mr. Dean that we have 
arrived at the logical and true limit of our knowledge of 
construction. But it is clear that we have invented some 
new constructive methods, for which we will have to find 
a system of decoration which will least interfere with the 
expression of their proper functions. If progress is 

more important than the following of precedents, we 
will think more of giving expression and external beauty 
to the constructive materials we employ than overlaying 
them with designs taken from the works of the ancients: 
and that seems to be about the whole story. 

Fkwk Lloyd Wright, Chicago. 

George Dean is right. An alliterative slogan is trite 
at best. His feeling against the present hidebound con- 
dition of architecture as a fine art. and his hope for its 
future, are characteristic of a growing group of young 
men in the Middle West, and will be indorsed by thinking 
architects who have trifled with the husk sufficiently and 
are hungry for the substance. 

Regarding the book of the exhibition he is also right. 
As bookmaking, it was bad, and characterized by the 
same desire for quantity regardless of quality that cheap- 
ened the exhibition itself. 



But the book did broaden the basis on which future 
books are to be built. It got itself born without chuck- 
ing the huckster beneath the chin. It carried the work 
into civics. The fact that it inaugurated its civic phase 
in rather blatant fashion was not enough to damn its 
motive, which was good. 

And Dean, —Are you not just a little harsh and un- 
reasonable in calling for fruit from seed planted the day 
before yesterday? 

Wyatt & Nolting, Baltimore. 

A preferable title as a motto would be, "Precedent 
and Progress." Neither the science nor the art of any 
age or people can really progress without the slow and 
careful building on precedent, and the acceptance of 
principles and modes of expression universally accepted 
after centuries of experience and slow growth toward 
perfection. 

A method of construction and design, although suc- 
cessfully meeting the social and commercial requirements 
of a generation and a locality, may not necessarily imply 
progress toward higher planes beyond that, which, rest- 
ing on the " everlasting hills," has been attained by archi- 
tecture and all art over the civilized world, and has met 
with the approval of artistic and cultivated intelligence 
for centuries. This is applicable to either classic or 
Gothic architecture, or any other so-called "style" which 
is the result of the highest human intelligence. For the 
"man of the Middle West" (whatever that may mean), 
to cast aside certain methods of expressing certain facts 
in architecture, which he may learn from the best academic 
teaching, would be veiy much like the orator or poet who 
would throw aside his grammar, or the painter his bri:shes 
and colors, notwithstanding the fact that the "Middle 
West young man " has apparently often done exactly this 
thing. We would suggest that, before writing and theoriz- 
ing more on the subject, he would produce actual work by 
his proposed methods, which will be accepted by the art 
world as superior to that produced by the training of 
either the European or American schools. We think the 
editorial in the American Architect of May 5, on this 
point, covers the ground admirably. 

Thomas C. Young, St. Louis. 

It is difficult to understand exactly what is meant by 
the phrase "Progress before Precedent"; nor does it 
appear to be very clearly defined in the mind of the 
author of the explanatory article. 

I can see no harm in the young men attempting to 
invent a new style. No one has succeeded heretofore, 
but no doubt it can be done if they try real hard. If suc- 
cessful in producing something new and really good, it is 
sure to receive proper recognition, but until this is accom- 
plished it would seem in better taste to speak less dis- 
paragingly of the great men who have accomplished 
something in architecture in the past. I have, as yet, 
seen no indications of a new and brilliant style in the 
Middle West, and yet, on the whole, I think American 
architecture has made quite a healthful progress in I he 
last twenty or twenty-five years, and probably will con- 
tinue to do so for some time to come. 



BRICK BIT I L I) ER. 

Fire-proofing. 



97 



The Second Fire in the Home Depart- 
ment Store at Pittsburgh. 

i:\ PETER 1'.. WIGHT. 

npHE BRICKBUILDER for June, i<s 97 , gave a de- 

X tailed and circumstantial account of a great fire 
which occurred in Pittsburgh on the 2d and 3d of May in 
that year, in which the destruction of a large grocery 
house caused serious damage to three other buildings, all 
of modern construction, and fire-proofed according to 
three different methods. One of these, the large six- 
story department store of Joseph Home & Co., was of 
steel skeleton construction throughout, having an exte- 
rior mostly of brick and terra-cotta, and interior construc- 
tion and protection to the steel frame of hard fire-clav tile 
throughout. It was the severest test of modern steel 
and tile construction on record. It demonstrated that 
hard fire-clay hollow tile, even when used without scien- 
tific application, and in its lightest and thinnest form, was 



CROSS AND LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS OF ^oof 
3v.>.f.»K„.W 



Cf%0S3 ANO LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS OF SuSPENOE.0 CEILINC 




Sections ofFi^epkoof Comst^octioW 



UsE.0 BY THE. E.tv\PIR.E FlKEPKOOFINC, Co . <N 



Jas. HornE. ANti Cos, Stop v e, Pittsburgh. 



SECTION OF~C.lR.OER. . 



ScaU I 1 "T - 



zfc 



sft 




PLA^ OFCOLUMNS 



CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING BURNED IN 1X97. 

sufficient to preserve a steel skeleton of a building from 
destruction, even though it might not preserve its own 
integrity in a burning building. The sequel showed that 
the damage to the steel frame was due to other causes 
than defects in the fire-proofing material used, for, in the 
reconstruction, most of the steel structure was retained, 
the parts that were renewed being those that had been 
either directly or indirectly damaged by the fall of a 
water tank on the roof which had been insufficiently sup- 
ported. Though the stability of the enclosing walls was 
not seriously affected by that fire, a certain amount of 
patching was required, and rather than submit to this 
the owners preferred to rebuild the whole of the exterior 
according to a new design, the former architect having 
died; and Messrs. Peabody & Stearns, of Boston, wen 
employed to reconstruct the building. At the same time 

it was sought to improve the fire-proof work, which, it 

had been demonstrated, could not save itself, and only to 
use such of the perfect lloor-arch material as could be 
saved, in reconstructing the first floor. 1 lence the first 



9« 



T II E B RICK I! U 1 L I) E R 



floor, covering the basement, was built as before, partly 
with the old fire-clay tile and partly with new red shale 
hollow tile of the same sizes. 

'Idle contract for all the hollow tile work (hard tile 
being specified) was taken by the Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta 
I. umber Company. This company is of old standing in 
Pittsburgh, and had contracted for all the fire-proofing 
of the Home office building, which was also partially 
burned in the same tire in 1897. In that building it had 
used its regular article of manufacture, which, when I 
examined it. I pronounced to be a serai-porous terra- 
cotta, made of a red shale clay, which has to be burned 
at a higher temperature than the ordinary red clays, and 
ean be used with a limited amount of sawdust. 'Idle ma- 
terial, therefore, was not what is commercially known as 
porous terra-cotta, but one which is a medium between 
that and hard tile. It possessed the two qualities of 
toughness and strength. In the Home office building, 
it was only in a very few instances that I found an arch 
tile cracked, and the only damage to the tiles was found 
where two faces and a corner were exposed, as in the 
coverings for beams projecting below the ceiling. I then 
pronounced it the best clay fire-proofing material that 
had yet been produced, and think so still. It is. there- 
fore, remarkable that the same owners should have re- 
quired that hard tile be used in the reconstruction of the 
department store, and it is no fault of the contractors 
that it was used. The name of the Pittsburgh Terra- 



- • 




^, v ^w^-V 5PP^ 




■ y y& 



CRQ55 5ECT1QN OF FlOOR CON3 T 5IUCTION 



5ECTicm op Fireproof Construction 

BY TNE /IaTIOIIAL Fl REPROOF I/IGCo^'VIY 

Jm pki Moivie&Co3.5tore Pittsburgh 




plan of column 



CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING BURNED IN 1 <jOO. 

Cotta Lumber Company has been changed since the re- 
construction to the National Fire-proofing Company, and 
I have been informed by the president of that company 
that in making the hard tile for the new work only a small 
proportion, about 10 per cent. , of sawdust was used. This 
explanation is due to the contractors in view of some 
facts which have appeared in the recent lire. 

In the reconstruction, the floor arches of the first 
story were replaced substantially as they had been before, 
the beams being covered independently and showing 
about 7 ins. below the ceiling. The floor arches of all the 
other floors were rebuilt with 9 by 15 in. end pressure 
tiles, each tile having three air spaces in its height and 
two in its width. The outer shell was about "h in. thick 
and the dividing webs ?« in. thick. The bottoms of the 
arches were set 2 ins. below the bottoms of the 15-in. 
beams, and the soffits of the beams were covered with 
2-in. dovetail-shaped tiles hollowed out on the upper side 
for an air space of 1 in., next to the beams. The girders 
throughout were covered very nearly the same as in the 
former work. The soffits were covered with 1 '.--in. tiles, 




FIG. 1. FIRST story LOOKING \o|<ih, SHOWING DAMAG1 

BY SMOKE \M> W \ I KK ONLY. IKK SMOKE AM) HOT 

UF CAME FROM FIRE IN BASEMENT. 

hollowed out >« in. on their top sides, next to the girders, 
and supported by steel clips on both sides to the girder 
flanges. The edges of the girder flanges and soffit tiles 
were then covered by L-shaped tiles 1 ]' z ins. thick, resting 
on the flanges also, and the sides of the girders were 
covered up to the ceiling line with pieces of 3-in. partition 
tiles. The stack of four passenger elevators in the 
center of the long dead wall which forms the east side 
of the building is enclosed with a 6-in. hollow tile parti- 
tion, all the way up. having iron doors, with grills in the 
upper panels. At each end of the stack of elevators is 
an open iron stairway from the first to the sixth floor, 
built against the wall. At the rear or north end of the 
building next to the alley are two freight elevators and 
two iron stairways, all enclosed in 6-in. hollow tile parti- 
tions. The only other partition is that built around the 
kitchen, which was located in the sixth story. The Z-bar 
steel columns, which are continuous from the foundations 




lie. 2. SECOND Mok\ LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING oniy 
SLIGHT DAMAGE BY WATER. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



99 



to the roof girders, are covered with 3-in. hollow partition 
tiles built like partitions, with eight tiles to a course and 
alternately breaking joints. The corners arc angular 
and not rounded, as in the previous construction. These 
column covers are not fastened to the columns or bound 
together, and are built from the top of one girder to the 
bottom of the next one. The column covering is not 
continued above the suspended ceiling of the sixth story. 
The roof, or that part of it which remains, is built with 
10-in. I-beams resting on 20-in. I-beam girders. T-irons 
are set between these, 18 ins. from centers, and 3-in. 
book tiles rest on their flanges. The book tiles carry a 
concrete filling and a weather-proof covering of roofing 
felt covered with i-in. thick tiles laid in Portland cement. 
Thus it will be seen that the columns above the ceiling, 
the roof girders, the roof beams, and the T-irons arc- 
exposed on the under side. In the old construction 
before 1X97 they were also exposed, but the ceiling was 
constructed with i-in. thick porous tiles fastened to sus- 
pended T-irons. The same method was used for the 




FIG. 3. THIRD STORY, SHOWING FOURTH AND FIFTH ABOVE 

AND FIRST STORY BELOW LOOKING NORTH. THIS FLOOR 

ONLY DAMAGED BY WATER. 

sides of the well holes around the skylights. A large- 
part of this ceiling remained intact after the fire, and 
that part of the ceiling and roof that was destroyed failed 
only on account of the falling of the water tank, which 
let the fire in between the ceiling and roof, and parts of 
the front and rear walls were thrown down by the 
expansion of the continuous steel roof girders. 

In the present construction the suspended ceiling 
(what is left of it) is made with angle irons, supported 
from the roof by suspension rods, and plastering on ex- 
panded metal, which is lashed to the angle irons. This 
is all the protection that was afforded to the construc- 
tion above the ceiling line. 

In some other respects the building differed from 
what it had been in i«S 97 . The skylights, of which there 
were eight on the roof, were all glazed with wired glass, 
and the glass now remains, only more or less cracked, in 




FIG. 4. 



FOURTH STORY LOOKING NORTHWEST, 
BURNED OUT. 



1 ONTENTS 



all of them that did not fall bodily with the fall of the 
rear half of the roof.i The large light well in the center 
of the building, from first floor to roof, was enlarged 
by being made longer and having semicircular ends. 
An opening was made in one place through all the floors 
to the basement, about 3 by 4 ft., for a patent conveyer, 
kept running constantly to carry goods up and down. 

The front windows arc smaller than before, reducing 
somewhat the exterior exposure. The rear windows have 
"standard" wooden shutters covered with tin on both 
sides, which were only effective in preventing the firemen 
from playing in water at that end, where the real hot fire 
was. 

This building had a full stock of the goods usually 
found in department stores. The sixth and highest floor 
was used for a restaurant in the front half, and the stor- 
age of extra stock in the rear half. A large kitchen was 

' The large skylight over the light well, of wrought iron and wired 
Xlass, fell bodily during the last fire. 




BURNED 01 1 



IOO 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



situated on this floor <m the west, <>r 5th Street side, 
about halfway between the center and front, and was 
surrounded by a 6-in. hollow tile partition. 

On Saturday, April 7, just before midnight, the light 
of a fire in the building was seen by a policeman in the 
street, though three watchmen were in the building, and 
only learned of the tire by the advent of the fire depart- 
ment. There is a difference of opinion as to whether the 
fire started on the fourth or fifth story. The internal 
evidences seem to show that it started on the fourth floor, 
near the north end of the light-shaft, and licked its way 
over the edge of this shaft to the fifth floor, then ex- 
tended around the fourth floor to the front, while, through 
the draught caused by the central light-shaft, it spread also 
to the sixth floor and enveloped the whole upper part of 
the building. It did not ascend through the passenger 
elevators, for two of them are intact and in use to-day, 
and the stairways do not show evidence of intense heat, 




IK',. 6. FIFTH STORY LOOKING NORTHEAST. CONTENTS 

BURNED OUT EXCEPT ROLLS of CARPE1 NEAR THE 

FRONT. 

for the}- arc all usable. The most intense fire was in 
the rear of the fifth and sixth floors, and the rear stair- 
way and freight elevator shafts must have contributed 
to make a draught. The fire in the contents of the building 
burned itself out in the fourth, fifth, and sixth stories in 
about an hour, and when it was thought to be extin- 
guished, it was found that the basement was on fire. 
The basement fire was not extinguished until ,} A. M. on 
the <Sth of April, when it was discovered that the entire 
contents had been consumed. The first story was only 
damaged by smoke from the basement and small fires 
around the stairway openings and conveyer shaft. The 
second and third stories were not burned at all, and only 
damaged by water. I visited the building on the 8th of 
this month and found business going on in the basement, 
first, second, and third stories, and two passenger 
and one freight elevator running to the sixth floor. On 
the fourth floor, where everything combustible was 
destroyed, much of the plastering, which I was informed 
was done with King's Windsor cement, had fallen, the 
columns and gfirders were intact, and in two small 




FIG. 7. SIXTH STORY LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING 
PART I SKI) AS RESTAURANT. 

patches the bottoms of the 15-in. beam arches had fallen 
off. These were northeast and northwest of the light- 
well, where the fire seemed to have started. The fifth 
story seemed to have been exposed to the most intense 
heat. Here were the furniture and upholstery goods. 
.Most of the wood flooring was completely burned away, 
and in some cases the 4-in. sleepers were burned out. 
Three of the columns on the edge of the light-well were 
completely stripped of their fire-proofing, and two in 
other places were partly stripped, the tiles in the center 
having fallen first. An examination of those apparently 
intact showed that many of them had vertical cracks. It 
was after an examination of the columns on this story in 
all conditions that I came to the conclusion that the 
danger to all columns fire-proofed only by building a 
wall around them is from the crimping of this covering 
by expansion vertically. I have referred to this before 




FIG. .S. SIXTH STORY LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING 
KITCHEN PARTITION WHICH SAVED COOKING AP- 
PARATUS, \NI> CEILING FALLEN ON INK 
LEFT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



101 



in The Brickbuilder, but never before saw it so fully 

demonstrated. There were columns on which the tiles 
were crimped near the center and sometimes on one side 
only, and cracks always ran from the crimping to the top 
and bottom. As has been said above, the column protec- 
tion was built firmly from girder to girder and could not 
expand vertically. In the sixth story, where the columns 
were not entirely destroyed, the covering was all intact, 
because the covering abutted against the yielding ceiling. 
On this fifth story the girders had the severest test, and 
came out unscathed. Here also the greatest damage to 
the hollow tile arches was seen. But it was different 
from that seen in 1897. Where the bottoms came off 
they dropped in fields and not in scattered patches. 
This seemed to show the homogeneity of the bottoms of 
the arches, as the expansion affected great numbers 
where the heat exceeded the limit of resistance. The 
strength of the floors was not affected by this loss, and 
in only one place was there a small hole from the sixth 




FIG. 9. SIXTH STORY LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OVER THE 
PART OF ROOF THAI' FEEL. 

story, where a beam or girder from the roof probably 
struck. In fact, the sixth floor safely withstood the shock 
of the falling roof. 

The loss of the rear half of the roof and ceiling was 
clearly due to the failure of the ceiling, which was plas- 
tered on expanded metal. This ceiling must have had 
extensive openings in it to enable the play of the flames 
from the burning stock room to effect such complete 
destruction of the roof. One of the Z-bar steel columns 
is still standing, but is not seen in the illustrations, the 
top of which hangs down from the ceiling line like a wet 
rag. Fig. 9 shows the steel work of the roof after it fell, 
being taken from the top of the iron stairway which led 
to the roof in the rear. The roof and ceiling and all the 
columns that supported them are entirely destroyed, from 
the north end of the central light-shaft to the rear of the 
building. The top of the rear wall and cornice must 
have been loosened by the expansion of the 20-in. steel 
roof girders before they fell. A large ornamental terra- 
cotta belt course at the top of the fourth-story windows 



on the 5th Street front seems to be badly damaged, which 
was not the case in 1897. The Roman bricks with which 
the walls arc faced arc intact. The suspended ceiling 
still stands in the front part of the sixth story, and is in 
good condition, except where water struck it through the 
windows. This part was furnished with chairs and 
tables, and had no goods in it. The tile partition around 
the kitchen saved the large range, but it was badly 
cracked in some places. Unequal expansion seems to 
have been the cause. Individual tiles were not cracked, 
and no part of it fell, except a few tiles over a large 
door. 

The fire in the basement was remarkable in many 
respects. It was not discovered until the lire in the 
three upper stories had burned itself out or had been 
nearly extinguished. As the main light-well did not 
pass through the first floor, the only way in which it 
could get to the basement was through the conveyer 
shaft and the rear freight elevators. From the fact that 
the most severe fire was in the rear of the basement, it 
must be presumed that burning embers first fell down 
the rear elevator shafts. From the fact that the fire was 
also severe around the conveyer shaft, it must he pre- 
sumed that it acted as a flue from the basement after the 
fire had descended in the rear. The firemen on the first 
three floors prevented it from communicating with those 
stories. The effect of heat on the structural tile of the 
first floor, which was only 9 ins. thick, was much the 
same as in the previous fire. These tiles had two air 
cells. The bottoms fell off in patches where the heal 
was most severe, but in no place did the fire penetrate 
the floor. 

It will, of course, he asked, What are the lessons of this 
second fire test ? Very little can be said beyond what 
has been suggested above. The only burned clay fire- 
proofing in the part of the sixth story that was wrecked 
by the fall of half the roof was the column covering and 
a few partitions. The former went down with the steel 
work. The three steel columns stripped in fifth story 
were not injured by fire, and the 3-in. partition tiles that 
surrounded them must have failed in the last stages of 
the fire, or been knocked off to examine the steel. The 
real cause of the fall of the roof lias been already sug- 
gested. The defects in the system of column covering 
used have also been repeatedly referred to in previous 
issues of The Brickbuilder. That the hollow tile every- 
where protected the steel skeleton is evident. That it 
did not save itself everywhere is due to the fact that it 
was too hard. The loss where it did fail was but a small 
percentage of the part exposed. That the three principal 
floors were saved, and the contents damaged only by 
water, when exposed to fire both above and below, not 
withstanding the existence of a great open light-shaft in 
the center, is evidence that the fire-proofing of the build- 
ing was remarkably effective in performing its office. 

After the above description the illustrations here 
given will be in the main self-explanatory. The half- 
tone pictures show the parts of the building as they 
looked immediately after the lire. When I saw it the 
floors had been cleared of rubbish, and the structural 
steel of the roof mostly removed, and 1 could form a bet- 
ter opinion of the action of tire than from the photo- 
graphs. 



102 



T H E B RICK B U I L I) E R . 



"The Brickbuilder ' Competition. I. 

AX ENTRANCE GATEWAY AND LODGE FOR A 
LARGE ESTATE. 

CRITICISM AND AWARD. 

BY CASS GILBERT. 

I^EW of the minor problems of architectural design 
present more charming possibilities than that pre- 
sented by The Brickbuilder in "An Entrance Gateway 
and Lodge for a Large Estate," and it is a matter of 
regret that none of the competitors have satisfactorily 
solved it. As a whole, the designs submitted are much 
below the average, in composition, style, and presenta- 
tion. 

The design submitted by the insignia of a fleur-de-lis, 
while not in itself particularly interesting, seems to me 
freer from objections and more appropriate in sentiment 



modest lodge that quite lacks expression, and which 
would not command a good view from any one room. In 
a certain sense its modesty is acceptable, but something 
more than this is necessary to make it an attractive gate 
Iodide. 

The design submitted by " hjoo " is the "cleverest" 
of the lot, but cleverness is not good art. The plan of 
the lodge and its connection with the gateway is good, — 
in that respect the best submitted. but the Lodge, set 
back from the highway as it is, does not command a 
sufficient view of the approach. Taken separately, the 
detail is interesting, but the design is pretentious as a 
whole; the proportions are not well studied; both the 
gable over the gateway and the cupola at the apex of the 
roof are out of scale with the lodge itself. But notwith- 
standing its faults, this design is interesting, and its sug- 
gestion of the treatment of brickwork and color is 
especially so. 

The desiern submitted bv " Manor " is well treated in 



[3-.. 






FIRST PRIZE DESIGN. 

Mr. Edward Perrv Dana, Boston, M \ss. 

THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION'. I. AX ENTRANCE GATEWAY AND LODGE. 



for the gate lodge for a gentleman's estate than any of 
the others. The plan is reasonable; the principal room 
commands the approaches; the style is modest and well 
suited to the purpose; but there is a lack of scale between 
the bay window and the lodge, and between the bay 
window and the gateway. This design is distinctly not 
"clever." It has, however, a domestic quality, and a 
certain modesty and simplicity which commends it. I 
fancy that a gentleman would not be ashamed to acknowl- 
edge that this was the gateway to his estate, though he 
would not be especially proud of it. 

The design submitted by " Eagle " presents a rather 
well-proportioned gateway, which is connected with a 



respect to the gateway alone, particularly as to the two 
side entrances; but the location of the lodge, and its 
relation to the wall, makes it the mere appendix of 
the wall rather than a controlling factor in the composi- 
tion. 

The design submitted by " Francois " presents an 
intelligent conception of the location and function of a 
lodge. He has, however, given too much prominence to 
the treatment of his iron fence. It would have been 
better to extend the wall which is to the left of the lodge 
into the center of the composition and recognize it be- 
tween the lodge and the gate. 

In the design submitted by " George," I find a quaint 



THE BRICK BUI L I) K R 



i<M 



conception of the problem. It would look better executed 
than as drawn. It is, however, too naive to be seriously 
considered. At the same time, I think, if executed, its 
modesty and simplicity would commend it. 

I find it difficult to make a choice for first place (not 
that it is an embarrassment of riches), but, on the whole, 
would place first the design marked with the fleur-de-lis; 
second, the design submitted by "iyoo"; third, the 
design submitted by " Eatjle." For the competition the 
following program was announced: — 

PROGRAM. 

It is assumed that a gateway is to be built at the 
entrance to the grounds of a large private estate. A 



to afford space tor a desk and key rack. In the upper 
Story there are to be two small chambers, with bath room, 
etc. The lodge may form, if desired, a part of the en- 
closing wall of the estate. The gateways are to be close,] 
witli iron grilles. The ground is supposed to he level. 
All of the construction is to be such as is adapted to 
materials in burnt clay. 

REQUIRED: A perspective sketch taken from the 
side of the highway diagonally opposite the Lodge, also a 
sketch plan of first floor only at scale of i [6 of an inch 
to the foot, both drawings being in black ink with no 
wash work, upon a sheet measuring 15 C ins. wide by 10 
ins. high. Each drawing is to be signed by a nom de 




SECOND PRIZE DESIGN. 

Mr. James C. Green, Nkw York City. 

'flit: BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION. I. AX ENTRANCE GATEWAY AND LODGE 



wall separates the grounds from the highway, extending 
in a northerly direction ; the entrance is recessed from 
the line of the street, either in a rectangle or semicircle 
as preferred, and provision is to be made for a driving 
gate in the center, 9 ft. wide in the clear, and a foot pas- 
sage each side, 4 ft. wide, though these dimensions need 
not be followed exactly in the design. On the left of the 
gateway, looking from the road, there is to be a gar- 
dener's lodge, containing a small living room, so placed that 
the main highway and the road inside the grounds can 
be visible from its windows, this room being about [6 by 
18 ft. There is to be also a kitchen, 10 by 1 1 ft., a dining 
room, 11 by 14 ft., and a small entrance hall largeenough 



plume or device, and accompanying the same is to be a 
sealed envelope with the 110111 de p/iin/, on the exterior, 
and containing the true name and address of the con- 
testant. 

The drawings are to be delivered, flat, at the office oi 
'I'm': Brickbuilder, 85 Water Street, Boston, on or before 
March 15, k;oo. for the three designs placed first, 'I'm 
Brickbi ij Hi'. r offers prizes of twenty-five, fifteen, and ten 
dollars, respectively. All premiated drawings are to be 
come the property of Tin-. Brickbi m hi r, and the right is 
reserved to publish any and all drawings submitted. Mr. 
Cass Gilbert has kindly consented to judge and criticize 
this competition. 



104 



THE BRICKRUILDER 




-. .. ~^- -.„.*'. »>'l, .-_ 



' N >n 



wwmv*-* ' mot JrW-^if I \ .*&.' ' ^v ii 



THIRL) PRIZE DESIGN. 

Mr. C. A. Mitchell, Montreal, Canada, 

THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION. I. AX ENTRANCE GATEWAY AND LODGE. 










MENTION. 

Mr. Edward F. Maker, Boston, Mass. 

THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION. I. AN ENTRANCE GATEWAY AND LODGE. 



Til E BRICK BUI LD KR. 



io 5 




MENTION. 

Mr. George P. Kiefer, Milwaukee, Wis. 

THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION. 1. AN ENTRANCE GATEWAY AXD LODGE. 







\(X- u -7 












MENTION. 

Mk. Richard Philipp, Milwaukee, Wis. 

THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION. I. AN ENTRANCE GATEWAY AND LODGE. 



io6 



THE P, RICKBUI LDER. 



Selected Miscellany. 



NOTES FROM NEW YORK. 

Satisfaction continues to be expressed with the condi- 
tion and outlook for general business, with considerable 
difference of opinion regarding the maintenance of the 
present high range of prices. Iron manufacturers par- 
ticularly are very loud in their protestations that quotations 
will be maintained, but in spite of that the feeling pre- 
vails that the remarkable boom of last year cannot last 
and prices must drop. 

The most notable single parcel of real estate ever 

disposed of at auction in this city was that containing the 
Fifth Avenue Hotel and the Madison Square Theater, 
sold for the executors of the estate of Amos R. Eno on 
Thursday, April 26, for $4, 225,000. 

Work on the plans for the new Public Library of New 
York is being rapidly pushed by the architects Carrere & 
Hastings, and the foundation for the building will soon 
be put in. Governor Roosevelt has just signed a bill re- 
moving the limit of appropriation to be made by the city 




PILASTER, I \ i* 1 I \l, \ki II, AND SPANDREL, RESIDENCE \T 

NEWPORT, K. I. 

Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

McKim, Mead & Whit. . Architects. 

for the building of the library, which makes the way 
clear for rapid progress. 

On the 30th of April, Mr. Thomas Hastings, of Carrere 
& Hastings, was married at Greenwich, Conn., to Miss 
Helen Ripley Benedict, daughter of Com. E. C. Benedict. 

Mr. Charles F. McKim was best man, and among the ushers 
were Stanford White, Charles Dana Gibson, and R. II. 
Russell. Mr. Hastings is beloved by all who are so 
fortunate as to be associated with him, and by means of 
his undoubted talent and ability is known and admired 
by all his professional brethren. 

It begins to look as though we might hope to see steps 
taken for the preservation of the beautiful Palisades 
before they are completely ruined and obliterated by the 
vandals who for years have been quarrying there, and 
who have blasted away tons of magnificent rock which had 
been landmarks on the Hudson for years. After many 
futile attempts at legislation the governors of New York 
and New Jersey have appointed commissioners, who will 




TERR \ (oil \ PANEL. 
New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

soon confer as to methods for the preservation and beau- 
tification of these magnificent cliffs. 

The following are a few of the important items of 
new work: McKim. Mead & White have prepared plans 
for a brick and stone fire-proof residence, to he built for 
Mr. Joseph Pulitzer at No. 7 East 73d Street; cost, 
$100,000. R. C. Gildersleeve has planned a nine-story 
brick and stone apartment building, to be erected on 
West 45th Street; cost, $150,000. Howclls & Stokes 
have planned a live-story stone and brick club house for 
the American Geographical Society, to he erected on 
Si st Street, near Fifth Avenue. Clinton & Russell have 
prepared plans for a six-story brick and stone department 
store, to be built in Newark, N. J., for Hahne & Co.; 
cost, Si, 000. 000. 



NOTES FROM CHICAGO. 

Chicago building operations for March are the worst 
for any month in twelve years, and show how completely 
building operations have been paralyzed by labor troubles. 
Permits were issued for only three buildings exceeding 
three stories in height, and only sixty-six permits were 
granted for two-story buildings. 

Mr. Harvey L. Page, of Harvey L. Page & Co., archi- 
tects, Chicago, has located at San Antonio, Tex., having 
associated himself with the James Riely Gordon Com- 
pany. Mr. E. Stanford Hall, of Harvey P. Page & Co.. 
will continue the practice of the old firm at 9 1 <S Associa- 
tion Building, Chicago. 

At the regular monthly meeting of the Illinois Board 
of Examiners of Architects, held on April 13, Mr. IP 




rYMPANUM l\ ENTRANCE m VPARTMEN1 BUILDING 

CHIC VGO. 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, makers. 

Sidney Lovell, Architect. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



to: 




PEDIMENT OVER WINDOW ON CURVED BAY, OFFICE BUILD- 
ING, HARTFORD, CONN. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 
William C. Brocklesby, Architect. 

William Kirchnerof St. Louis and Mr. R. Clipston Sturgis 
of Boston were examined by exhibits and granted cer- 
tificates entitling them to a license. 

There could be no higher proofs of the deep esteem 
in which the late Dankmar Adler was held by his fellow- 
architects than the following resolutions, adopted by the 
Illinois Chapter of the American Institute of Architects 
at their last meeting: — 

" Wishing to record its sense of loss in the death of 
Dankmar Adler, one of its members, hereby expresses its 
profound grief that one of the noblest among men in our 
chosen profession should so suddenly be removed by an 
all-wise yet inscrutable Providence. 

" Possessing a character making for all that is earnest, 

honest, and 
H.O..H 1......J1 lootbool 7 | fearless; of a 

mind richly en- 
dowed and ben- 
eficially used; 
of a personality 
cordial, gener- 
ous, and kindly, 
he stood 
thro ti g h the 
years, not only 
an index of 
thos e ideals 
that we cherish, 
but notably as 
one living close 
to them in all 
sincerity. 

" B r a d in 
his sympathies 
and w i t li o u t 

HOUSE AT WYOMING, N. J. ^ t hjs j,,. 

(Illustrated from photo m plate form.) . 

j. W. Dow, Architect. terests seemed 




especially to have been centered in the welfare of his pro- 
fessional brethren of the West, and it is to his matured 
and reliable judgment, his forceful and convincing ad- 
vocacy, that the profession in the Mississippi Valley is 
largely indebted for the recognition of its high standing. 

" His departure at the comparatively early age of fifty- 
five, when it would seem, in the natural course of events, 
that many years of usefulness remained before him, can- 
not fail to impress us with a peculiar sense of shuck. ( )ur 
profession lias been much ennobled through his acts oi 
devotion, and in proportional keenness must his loss be 
felt. As a man, an architect, and an exemplary citizen, 
his memory will remain long cherished by his colleagues. 

"The secretary is instructed to record in the books "t 
the Chapter the sentiments above expressed, as the 
unanimous and heartfelt sense of the meeting, and to for- 
ward a copy thereof to the bereaved family, in token of 
its respectful sympathy and condolence. 

" (Signed) 

"Samuel A. Treat, President. 
" Georgi Beai mont, Secretary." 



IN GENERAL 



It is announced that the Cincinnati Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects has officially joined the 
Architectural League of America, and will send one <>r 
more delegates to the convention tc> be held in Chicago 
in June. 

On April 12 a farewell dinner of thirty-five covers 
was given in the rooms of the T Square Club, in honor 
of Mr. James P. Jamieson, upon his departure from Phil- 
adelphia to assume the position of superintendent of the 




I |i, I RE <'\ Ik IN I R VN< E, Ml hit 11 ( IIIKI RGll \l HOSP1 I \l . 
PHI! Mill PHI \. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, mal 
I [ermati Miller, An Ivi 



i oS 



Til E BRICK BU I L I) !• R . 




BROWN BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Built of impervious white-coated brick, manufactured by the Hydraulic-Press B 

Company. 
11. E. Roach & Son, Architects. 



the city of New York, and 
their success has been the 
inspi ra tion which has 
brought about this com- 
mittee. The field is so 
new and so comparatively 
untouched that it seems 
desirable to outline in a 
few words what the pur- 
pose i s, and how inti- 
mately the work may be 
associated with the munic- 
ipal life of our cities. 

The results aimed at 
by this committee are to 
be obtained by their giv- 
ing advice to municipal- 
ities or corporations with- 
out charge or fee, travel- 
ing expenses, of course, 
excepted. The committee 
is made up of the follow- 
ing representative men: 
Cass ( rilbert, chairman. 
Xew York and St. Paul; 
II. K. Bush-Brown, New 
York; Paul A. Davis, 3d. 
Phil a d e 1 phia; Dwight 
Ileald Perkins, Chicago; 
Edwin Henri Oliver, New 
Orleans; George Carey, 
Buffalo; Noel Wyatt, Bal- 
timore: Charles M. Rob- 
inson. Rochester; Fred- 
erick William Striebinger, 
Cleveland. 



new University Buildin 

son, to lie erected in St, 



s, designed by Cope & Steward - 
Louis, Mo. 

On Wednesday evening, April [8, an unusually large 
attendance gathered to decide the final competition in 
the T Square Club series for the season. Mr. Lloyd Titus 
won first mention for the year's work, and there- 
by receives the Traveling Scholarship Fund. 
Mr. Richard Watmough was second, and An- 
drew Saner third. The meeting recommended 
among other things that its delegates to the 
Chicago Convention of the Architectural 
League of America should use all their efforts 
tosecure the third annual convention for Phila- 
delphia. 

It is a satisfaction to announce the appoint- 
ment by the president of the Architectural 
League of America of Mr. Cass Gilbert of 
Xew York and St. Paul to the chairmanship of 
the National Committee on Civic Improve- 
ments. As every one knows, Mr. Gilbert is a 
very able and successful architect, and by 
special studies is well qualified to develop to 
great efficiency this department of work which 
this new organization has undertaken. 

The Architectural League of Xew York 
has already accomplished much in this field for 



u IMioU COLUMN, 
\ i' \ i< r M E n 1 , 
NEW York. CITY. 
New Jersey Terra- 
Company, 
makers. 
M. Bernstein, Archi- 
tect. 



The second annual convention of 
the Architectural League of America 

will be held at the Art Institute in Chicago, June 7, 8, and 9, 
1900, under the auspices of the Chicago Architectural Club. 

The Architectural League is composed of the princi- 




B MOW IN HOSPIT \I., col IMI.I s. 0UI0. 
Built of lighl :<>>1(1 mottled " [ronclay " brick, furnished by tin- Columbus Pae 

Company. 
Richards, McCarty & Bulford, Architects. 



Urii-k 



T II E B R I C K BU I LDKR. 



109 




ALBION BUILDIXO, M I X NK.\ ['( 1 1 Is, MINX. 
Terra-cotta furnished by the American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Com- 
pany. Brick furnished by the Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta 
Company. 
E. Kennedy, Architect. 

pal architectural clubs of the United States and Canada 
and its object is the promotion of American 
architecture and the allied fine arts. Pertinent 
questions and subjects of interest to architec- 
tural clubs and societies engaged in the promo- 
tion of municipal art will be discussed, and a 
cordial invitation is extended to all such socie- 
ties to correspond with the secretary, H. W. 
Tomlinson, with the object in view of being 
represented at the convention. 

The Washington Architectural Club, see- 
ing in the movement promulgated by Mr. 
Franklin W. Smith, to erect a group of build- 
ings illustrating the history and development 
of architecture, a means for furthering the ob- 
ject for which the society was established, has 
adopted the following resolutions: — 

"That we extend to Mr. Smith an expres- 
sion of our good will by indorsing the move- 
ment initiated by him, and declaring our belief 
in the immense amount of good such a scheme 
will ultimately accomplish by popularizing the 
study of architecture, and by object lessons, 
creating a just appreciation of it. 

" That we believe the expenditure of money 
required is proportionate to the benefits to be 
derived, and that we urge Congress to take 
some definite action on the subject." 

The first annual exhibition of the Detroil 



Architectural Club, held at the Museum of Art, April 29 

lo May 12, met in the fullest degree the expectations of 
the committee having the affair in charge. The cata- 
logue, which did not depart much from the usual type, 
was interesting; especially interesting, no doubt, to those 
who had the management of finances in hand. 



HAND RAILING SIMPLIFIED. Edited by Fred. 
T. Hodgson. Win. T. Comstock, Publisher, 23 Warren 

Street. New York. N. V. Cloth, Si. 00. 

This is the only book published which treats the art 
of Hand Railing throughout on the sectorian system, and 
the work seems to be done thoroughly. 

By this method any good workman who gives an hour 
or two to the study of the subject, as exemplified in tins 
little work, will be enabled to build a fair rail; and it will 
give him such an insight into the scienceof Hand Railing 
that he will have but little trouble in understanding any 
of the more scientific systems, such as are formulated by 
Riddell, Monckton, Secor, He Graff, or Nicholson. 

The terms used are in plain English, and the explana- 
tions are couched in the simplest language possible. 
Taking it all in all, the little work will prove very useful 
as a sort < f primer, or first book in Hand Railing, and is 
sure to become popular with young workmen. 

SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENTS adopted by the 

National Association of Master House Painters and Dec 
orators of the United States. The Painters Magazine. 
100 Williams Street, New York. o. by t2 ins. 60 pp.; 
price, $1.00. 

Painters are not the only ones who should be inter- 
ested in this book. Architects and builders as well are 
frequently called upon to make estimates on the cost of 




PEN 

led with 



NSVLVANIA l\-.llil 11 i"K Mil BLIND, OVERBROOK, PA. 
a lull brown glazed interlocking Spanish tile, mad.- by the Ludowici Roofing 
Company, 
Cope & Steuardson. Architects, 



I l() 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



Wr^ 




iflEWl 








EU i*- -»^» r " BM 




B ■ 1 ~9* je^ ™lJ^ 













HOUSE \T WASHINGTON HEIGHTS, WASHINGTON, 1). C. 
L. Norris, Architect. 

a house, and the book, though concise, is a complete and 
practical work on painting estimates. 

The work consists of a very comprehensive system of 
rules for reducing all the various surfaces, moldings, bal- 
ustrades, and the like to an equivalent number of square 
yards of plain surface, that will represent an equal cost 
to the painter of the same quantity of work required to 
be done. It is therefore necessary only to measure the 
work in accordance with these rules, and apply the local 
price per square yard of plain surface, which is governed 
by cost of material and labor, to be able to correctly esti- 
mate the most complicated job of painting. In addition 
to the rules, there is an excellent glossary of architectural 
terms. 



SUNDRIES. 



Mark H. Whitmcyer, architect, has opened an office 
at 15 North Vermilion Street. Danville, 111., and would 
be glad to receive manufacturers' catalogues and samples. 

Beaumont, Jarvis & Co., architects, of Toronto, have 
opened a branch office at 39 Sparks Street, Ottawa, On- 
tario, Canada, where they desire manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples. 

Rolland Adelsperger has been appointed supervising 

architect oi the Department of Charities and Hospitals at 
Havana, Cuba. Catalogues and samples of American 
manufacturers are solicited. 

Carl E. Xystrom, architect, has Opened an office at 
Laurium, Mich . and would be glad to receive manu- 
facturers' catalogues and samples. 

William Homes. Boston, who recently retired from 



the firm of Biske, Homes & Co., 
to establish a general building 

material business, has disposed of 
his new business to Fiske & Co., 
successors to his old concern. 

Waldo Bros.. Boston, have 
closed several contracts for the 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany, among them being Park 
Brewery, at Providence, R. I.; 
academy at Milton, Mass., Win- 
slow, Wetherell <.V- Bigelow, archi- 
tects; residence at Beverlv, Mass.. 
Little & Brown, architects. 

The Hartford Faience Com- 
pany, Hartford, Conn., are putting 
on the market several new tcrra- 
vitne tile in dull finish and rough 
exterior. Samples sent on applica- 
tion. 

In connection with the illustra- 
tion of the Liggett & Myers 
Company's office building made in 
The Brickbuilder for April, it 
should have been stated that glass 
tiles made by the Ludowici Roof- 
ing Tile Company were used in 
the roof in place of the ordinary 
skylight. The design of this glass 
tile is such that it acts prismatic- 
ally on light, transmitting several 
times more light than the same 
area of plain glass. The avoid- 
ance of skylight frames accomplished by the use of 
j^lass tiles, thus maintaining the roof lines unbroken, is 
aesthetically a distinct advantage. 



DROPS UNDER 
BRACKET, LENOX 

HO 1 EL, 1:0s 1 o\. 
Atlantic Terra-< 
Company, makers. 
A. II. Bowditch, 
Architect. 




HOUSE AT TROY, X. V. 
H. Langford Warren, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

JUNE, 
1900. 




ENTRANCE GATES, 



GEORGIAN COURT," LAKEWOOD, X. J. 
Bruce Price, Architect. 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water vStreet, Boston, Mass. . . P. (). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BV THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 
and Canada ........ 



Single numbers 

To countries in the I'ostal Union 



JS5.00 per year 

50 cents 

$6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 

by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: 



Agencies. — Clay Products . 

Architectural Faience . . 

„ Terra-Cotta . 

Brick 



PAGE 
. . . II 
. . . II 
1 1 and I ! I 
. . .Ill 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



„ Enameled Ill and IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 

THE CONVENTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL 
LEAGUE OF AMERICA. 

WE present with this issue of The Brickbutlder a 
very complete report of the proceedings of the 
Architectural League of America, which held its annual 
convention in Chicago during the past month. We also 
have given up a very large portion of our space to the 
presentation of several of the papers which were read at 
this convention, believing that they are of sufficient value 
to the profession to warrant all the space we have given 
them, and believing also that they will be of very general 
interest to our readers. 

The keynote of this convention was the enthusiasm 
of the delegates. The papers present different points of 
view of the subjects under discussion, and without under- 
taking to express our editorial opinion as to the points oi 
view or the lines of discussion, we feel quite convinced 
that the degree of enthusiasm which these papers and 
this convention represent is sure to result in some de- 
cided growth in the profession of architecture. The ex- 
act direction this growth will take remains to be seen, 
but no one who attended the convention could for a 
moment question the earnestness of purpose, nor the 
clearness of intent on the part of the architects who made 
this meeting so decided a success. There can be nothing 
like stagnation where such virile sentiments abound, and 
the whole country can certainly unite on the broad prin- 
ciples which the Architectural League represents, of 



fostering the best and most perfect growth of architec- 
ture in America, and for the American people. We may 
differ as to ways and means, but the aim of both East 
and West is the same, and we are glad to recognize and 
to welcome the boundless hope and irrepressible desire for 
progress which the Architectural League thus far has 
made so prominently manifest. 



THE last decade has witnessed the realization of sev- 
eral opportunities which have exerted an enormous 
influence upon architecture in this country. The ex- 
position buildings at Chicago, Buffalo, and Omaha, the 
Court of Honor at Philadelphia, and the Dewey Arch at 
New York have been examples of constructions which 
have been so purely ephemeral in their nature that they 
afforded architects opportunities for experiments such as 
would hardly have been dared in buildings of a more 
permanent character. We all have ideals. Few of us 
quite dare to put them in execution in solid materials, 
but these creations in plaster allow a vast latitude, and 
have undoubtedly been the means of imparting an enor- 
mous impulse to pure design in architecture throughout 
this country. On the whole, the structures to which we 
refer have been eminently successful. The architects to 
whom they have been entrusted have taken the bit be- 
tween the teeth, and have made most glorious spurts, 
realizing in a perishable material the dreams of the mag- 
nificence of the ancient art capitals. We have no classicism 
to fall back upon in this country, and in default thereof 
the architectural lessons of these temporary structures 
have presented themselves before us in such manner that 
we cannot fail to profit thereby; and the opportunities to 
let the imagination play, to develop the capacity for de- 
sign, without having to pay the tremendous bills, is 
something quite unique in the history of the world, and 
will undoubtedly result in a degree of magnificence in 
our permanent Structures, which would have been im- 
possible without these, so to speak, preliminary attempts. 
It maybe said that among the best of our architects there 
is no lack of ability to design and carry out any archi- 
tectural program, but our failing lies rather in the cour- 
age of our convictions. We are too apt to be restricted 
by considerations of cost, to forget that we are building, 
perhaps, lor all time rather than to please our clients, and 
to consider questions of utility before pure art, with the 
result that our buildings do not always represent our 
highest capacities. It has been very truly said that the 
first requisite for success in art is the ability to sec the 
defects in our productions; second, the eon scion sness t hat 
we can make them right, and third, a determination that 
they shall be made right. Courage of one's convictions 
is, after all, a very large element in architectural success. 



I I J 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



SECOND ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE 

ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA. 

HELD AT CHICAGO, JUNE 7 9. 

THE Second Annual Convention of the Architectural 
League of America came to a close after the ban- 
quet, held at the Auditorium Hotel. Saturday evening, 
June 9. It is with the memory of this inspiring farewell 
fresh 111 your correspondent's mind that the following 
is written. 

He went to Chicago anticipating little more than a 
commonplace reunion of draughtsmen and embryo archi- 
tects, at which there would doubtless be considerable 
riotous enthusiasm, due principally to youthful unre- 
straint and mutual admiration. 

He had not expected the profound ami stirring ad- 
dresses that were made, nor could any have looked for- 
ward t<> the results that actually took place. As the two 
hundred delegates rose from the banquet and clustered 
together for a few last words before separating, the scene 
was really solemn; every one was wrought up to a high 
point of tension, and while all looked pleased and satis- 
fied, there was no demonstration, no hilarity, no shout- 
ing and singing such as often occurs at the close of an 
entertaining banquet. 

Instead, old and young went about, quietly grasping 
friends and new acquaintances by the hand, with the 
general fervor that only takes possession of men when 
they have been truly and deeply moved. 

The convention was called to order at 10 a. m., on 
Thursday, June 7, President Kelsey in the chair, and the 
meeting was opened by an address of welcome by |. C. 
Llewellyn, president of the Chicago Architectural Club, 
in which he expressed the conviction that the newly 
formed League was of real service to the profession. 

President Kelsey, of the League, in responding, said. 
among other things: — 

"One year ago, thirteen diverse architectural societies 
sent delegates to Cleveland for the purpose of holding a 
general conference, but with little thought of permanent 
organization; to-day, the Second Annual Convention of 
the Architectural League of America opens with over 
one hundred more registered members than were in 
attendance at the first reunion. 

" The time has been short, and the distance separating 
us has been too great to enable your executive committee, 
in whose care the affairs of the society were entrusted 
pending permanent organization, to do much more than 
hold the ground gained at Cleveland, and keep alive the 
spirit of that new intimacy which brought us so suddenly 
together; nor has it been able to accomplish all that has 
been planned; but, nevertheless, it has succeeded in hav- 
ing the newly formed League recognized by some of the 
leading architectural bodies on both sides of the At- 
lantic. 

'• A communication recently received from London 
invites our members to attend a Congress of Architects, 
to be held in that city, under the auspices of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects, during the present month. 
A letter from the president of ' La Socicte Acadcmique 
d'Architeeture de Lyon,' France, has requested informa- 
tion in regard to the practice of architecture in the 
tTnited States, from the officers of this society, to be used 



at the Fifth International Congress of Architects, at 
Paris, which has been forwarded. 

" Further recognition has been accorded us by that 
department of the French government having ' Inter- 
national Congresses ' in charge, and your president has 
been appointed one of the four architects to represent 
the United States upon the Committee of Patronage. 
Last, but not least, the president of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects has requested that a special committee 
from the Architectural League of America be appointed 
to confer with a committee from that body upon " The 
Code Governing Competitions in Design." and other 
matters of mutual interest. 

" In view of these friendly greetings, it is most impor- 
tant that we recognize the dignity of our position and the 
new responsibilities they involve, and as a matter of 
courtesy, let alone as a matter of incalculable advantage 
to the League, we should respond heartily to these over- 
tures, and I would suggest that if any of our members 
happen to visit London or Paris during either of the con- 
ventions, that he or they be instructed to attend and 
officially represent the League. 

"At present this is a referendum of diverse architec- 
tural societies. Each organization is free and indepen- 
dent, and, if expedient, o:\ce a year they send their 
delegates to a general conference. These conferences 
may consider all matters of mutual interest, and may 
alter the policy of the League from year to year to con- 
form with contemporaneous needs; we form no entang- 
ling alliances, and we commit ourselves to no principles 
alien to the production of rational architecture. 

" But as it is easy to foresee that from different causes 
and from different quarters much pains will be taken to 
establish a firmer footing for the League than it at 
present enjoys, I would strongly recommend you not to 
make it a binding federation for the following reason: 

" First, because even the least restraint and the 
smallest obligation uniformly imposed upon a number of 
diverse architectural societies is apt to lead to discord; 
and, secondly, because it would at once narrow down our 
possible sphere of influence. 

•• As a referendum, a society may change its individual 
policy and still retain its affiliation with the Architectural 
League of America. A Chapter of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects may send its delegates to our conven- 
tions without altering its allegiance to that distinguished 
body; and thus our annual convention will continue to be 
thoroughly representative, and a broader sense of profes- 
sional fellowship and responsibility must result. 

•' It is important, likewise, that every delegate should 
feel that, in attending the annual convention of the Archi- 
tectural League of America, he appears before a court 
of appeal that is free from needless formality and waste- 
ful delays. 

"There is a false impression that the Architectural 
League of America has been formed in opposition to the 
American Institute of Architects; our attitude towards 
that body should be one of deference and respect, and it 
is gratifying to report that the older organization has 
already extended us the hand of friendship. Some have 
resented the appeal to young men to join that body, 
because the Institute has failed to bring about certain 
reforms it stands for. 



Til E H R I C K HU I L n E R . 



"3 



" We stand for architecture itself before the practice of 
architecture. We stand for ' American Architecture as 
Opposed to Architecture in America,' and we have the 
strength of our convictions. 

"I must personally account for 'Progress before 
Precedent.' It was used because it seemed to indicate 
the sentiment of the Cleveland Convention. It may not 
clearly express our forward policy, but Mr. Robert I). 
Andrews, in his letter recently published in The Brick- 
builder, made clear our meaning by saying that it seemed 
to be identical in its sense with Mr. Hale's maxims: - 

•• • Look up, not down : look out, not in,' etc. 

" We are alive to the possibilities of relating architec- 
ture more closely to the people, and, whether ' Progress 
before Precedent ' is adopted or repudiated, is of little 
consequence. 

" Should any one admit that architecture lias lost its 
grasp upon life because the French have perfected a svs- 
tem whereby any problem may be rationally designed' 
Truly a marvelous system, which is so general that it 
must influence the architecture of the world, and yet it is 
only a system. We are seeking something deeper, and 
that is, expression. When our architecture obtains that 
quality, it will strike root in reality, and then, and not 
until then, will we have a living architecture." 

The Committee on Municipal Improvements was un- 
able to make a report, owing to the short time since its 
organization. Mr. Cass Gilbert, the chairman, however, 
sent the following recommendations for this branch of 
the League's work : " That this committee would find a 
field of action in every city in the United States ; in 
many of our cities there are already organizations having 
similar objects in view, civic leagues, municipal improve- 
ment societies, and the like; communication should be 
established with these societies, and cooperation secured. 
It is believed that the League, as a national body, can 
work more effectively through local societies already estab- 
lished than by independent effort, and in return can give 
moral support and effective aid and assistance to the ef- 
forts of such societies. I recommend," his letter went 
on to say, "that we seek the cooperation of labor organiza- 
tions, as we find in them a great body of citizens who 
would most directly share in the movements we favor, both 
in the work incident to the improvements and in their en- 
joyment afterwards. Such improvements work espe- 
cially to their benefit, and they could not be slow to ap- 
preciate this fact." Mr. Gilbert further said that a spe- 
cial effort should be made to encourage the development 
of municipal improvements in cities of moderate size. 
This might be done by inviting the special study of the 
plans of such cities with papers, and plates, or sketches, 
showing what might be done at reasonable expense, how 
natural beauties could be preserved, and local points of 
interest be created, how a development could be intelli- 
gently wrought out along the natural lines of growth of 
the place in question. 

Mr. Harder made a most gratifying report for the 
committee upon "The Code Governing Competitions in 
Design," showing that quite a number- of new societies 
have adopted the code during the past year. 

Thursday evening an Open joint-meeting was held in 
the Art Institute under the auspices of the Architectural 



League of America and the American Park and Out- 
door Art Association. Two papers upon municipal im 
provement were delivered, both profusely illustrated by 
stereopticon views; the first by Mrs. Edwin I). Meade, of 
the Twentieth Century Club, of Boston, and the second 
by Mr. Albert Kclsov. Mrs. Meade's paper considered 
the subject from the layman's point of view and from 
the view-point of the tax-payer; while Mr. Kelsey's ad- 
dress was more technical, and sought to generalize Upon 
the underlying principles which must govern the organic 
development of American cities. 

At the second day's session the delegates took up the 
matter of general business and the reading of reports by 
delegates relating to the activity of individual clubs. 

Mr. Wm. C. Hay's address upon Philadelphia's travel- 
ing scholarships was allied to these reports, and imme- 
diately followed them. It set forth the terms under 
which the two scholarships arc awarded annually and the 
work which they bring forth. He called special attention 
to the '1' Square Club's experiment in this line, of award- 
ing the scholarship for the best average obtained from a 
series of related competitions forming the work of the 
entire year. 

< )ne of the most noteworthy addresses delivered before 
the convention was that made by Mr. Elmer Grey. It 
was one of the first papers read, and this was the more 
fortunate because Mr. Grey struck the keynote that 
aroused an enthusiastic spirit early in the convention, an 
interest, moreover, which was sustained to the hour of 
adjournment. 

His paper was well studied, broad and lucid in con- 
ception, and thoughtfully worked out. There were no 
reiterations and no extravagant assertions. He aimed to 
show how architectural evolution takes place, and how 
style is unconsciously called forth. 

At the conclusion of the reading of Mr. Grey's paper; 
the chairman asked Mr. Louis II. Sullivan to express his 
views upon the subject. 

Mr. Sullivan said that he had devoted years to study 
(and these since he left the Ecole des Beaux Arts); that 
anything he might say would be fragmentary, as he had 
gone to the bottom and worked up only to a certain 
point, but that in beginning at the bottom, and by relating 
architecture and its development to the organic growth and 
unity of all things, he was sure he was right. Everything, 
he said, is either in a process of growth or decay, and along 
these lines for half an hour he held the audience to a man, 
in rapt attention. I le never raised his voice, used no super- 
latives, and indulged in no clever clap-trap phrases to com- 
pel attention. Slowly, quietly, and surely he gained the 
attention and eager interest of every one in the room. 
While not a believer in books and schools, he admitted 
their usefulness as an agent in mental discipline, and it was 
mental discipline, the learning how to think rationally 
and quickly, that hi' talked of most. In referring to those 
who produce beautiful buildings by the use of a pencil in 
one hand and a photograph in the other, he simply called 
his hearers' attention to the fact that a man could not give 
his undivided mind to his work, could not pour his heart 
out unrestrained when compelled to seek inspiration from 
any source other than the actual conditions presented by 

the problem. Hi- made no unpleasant references to the 

servile copyists, but, in alluding to their work, merely 



ri 4 



T HE BRICK B UILDER 



said. "Francis I. is dead; all the people of that period 
are dead, — and they will stay dead!" Drawn, as we 
were, irresistibly, to his point of view, the analogy was 
pat and convincing. So he talked on without hitch and 
without losing the continuity of his remarks, and always 
following along the lines of his own philosophy. 

Mr. Frank Wright, who followed with a carefully pre- 
pared paper entitled "The Architect." began by paying 
a graceful tribute to the preceding speaker, in which he 
said he feared that his hearers, having listened to the 
words of the master, would find those of the disciple but 
weak. 

He devoted himself to questions of professional prac- 
tice mainly, and did not spare the plan-factory magnate, 
the shyster, and the charlatan. He hit from the shoulder 
and hit hard. His paper was full of Hashes of wit, which 
carried home to his hearers the points on which he dwelt. 
The man of " eminence " he showed up in his true colors, 
and he made a strong plea for the man of obscurity striv- 
ing after an ideal other than money and a large practice. 
His paper was a fearless and outspoken utterance on a 
subject of moment t<> every person interested in archi- 
tecture. 

Prof. Alex. I!. Trowbridge, of Cornell University, 
sent a paper entitled " The Education of the Architec- 
tural Student": a sober, sensible outline from the peda- 
gogic standpoint, voicing the prevailing sentiment in the 
best architectural circles; and, doubtless, had Professor 
Trowbridge been present, he would have added to the 
value of his paper by the defense of his position in cer- 
tain open questions. 

After the adjournment of the morning session, a spe- 
cial train took the convention to Jackson Park where six- 
horse coaches awaited them, and the afternoon was spent 
in driving, viewing the park system, monuments of in- 
terest, etc. Supper was served in Bismark Garden, ac- 
companied with orchestral music, songs, speeches, and 
general hilarity. At its close the convention returned 
for the night session. The principal business transacted 
at this session was the consideration of the new constitu- 
tion. Report was received from Mr. Harder, of New 
York, who was chairman of the special committee ap- 
pointed at the convention of the previous year to draught 
a permanent constitution to take the place of the pro- 
visional constitution adopted at that time. 

The committee had draughted an excellent constitu- 
tion, and after a debate of two hours it was adopted with 
a few slight modifications. 

The most noteworthy feature of thepermanent consti- 
tution is that which provides for the election of the 
president only by the convention, he then appointing a 
cabinet for one year, of men residing within 300 miles of 
his city. 

At the Saturday morning session the first paper read 
was by W. Dominick I'.enes, of Cleveland, entitled "Our 
Duty." It called attention to the responsibility of the 
position that an architect occupies in his community, and 
emphasized the fact that he is looked up to as a leader in 
many matters bearing directly on the public welfare, and 
that to command respect an architect should be a man of 
irreproachable character and public Spirit as well as 
thoroughly versed in the science of his profession. 

Following this, a paper was read by the secretary from 



Ernest Flagg on " American Architecture as Opposed to 
Architecture in America. ' Looking to the development 
of native expression in our architecture, Mr. Flagg is 
far from wishing to gallicize our architecture, but is em- 
phatic in his belief in the importance of thorough training 
from the very beginning. 

In the absence of Mr. A. ( ). Elzner, of Cincinnati. 
Mr. G. \V. Drach read his paper upon "The Licensing of 
Architects." This proved tobe a most opportune topic, 
and developed lengthy discussion. It will be remembered 
that the practice of architecture in the State of Illinois 
for the past two years has been governed by law, and 
that a State Board of Examining Architects, examines all 
new candidates for the profession. As the operation of 
this law has proven a most decided success, it was some- 
what of a surprise to learn that the Cincinnati Chapter 
was opposed to having a license law passed in the State 
of Ohio. Professor Ricker, of the University of Illinois, 
and several other gentlemen of that State, pointed out 
numerous advantages which had already accrued under 
the present system, without, however, convincing Mr. 
Drach that the same advantages were to be obtained by 
its means in other States. Moreover, he pointed out 
with reason that an architect with a widely scattered 
clientele would be kept constantly busy passing exami- 
nations to keep up with his practice in the various States. 

The next subject announced on the program was a 
paper upon the irrepressible maxim, " Progress before 
Precedent." Mr. Harder's profound contempt for tin- 
phrase, which had been used as the rallying-cry of the 
League, led him to treat the subject briefly and without 
written notes. Every one admitted that the phrase was 
open to misconstruction, and his denunciation stimulated 
others to suggest amendments of which •• Progress and 

Precedent " was the most satisfying. After some little 
discussion it became evident that it was the sense of the 
meeting that the Architectural League, of America, was 
progressive enough, and sufficiently indebted to the past 
to get along without any motto at all. and upon vote it 
was so ordered. Nevertheless, to the bitter end this 
corpse was disinterred, and the two words "progress" 
and " precedent " were constantly introduced in opposi- 
tion to one another, and in accord with each other, much 
to the amusement of all present. 

It was decided among Other things that it was unad- 
visable for the League to recognize any publication as its 

official organ, and a vote of thanks was tendered Mr. 
Kelsey for his efforts to promote the League in thepages 
of the Architectural Annual. 

In selecting the place for the next convention there 
were but two societies soliciting the Opportunity to enter- 
tain the League. These were the T Square Club, of 
Philadelphia, and the Toronto Architectural Club, and 
upon a vote it was decided to go to Philadelphia. 

The election of a president for the ensuing year was 
contested with much enthusiasm and good-nature, Mr. J. 
C. Llewellyn, of Chicago, being elected. This formally 
closed the business of the convention. 

At <s o'clock a reception and banquet was given in 
honor of the visiting delegates at the Auditorium Hotel. 
by the Chicago Architectural Club. Mr. Daniel II. Burn- 
ham acted as toastmaster, and the new president was the 
first speaker. He outlined the duties confronting his 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



"5 



administration, and promised to keep his committees 
busy during the coming year. Adin B. Lacey, of Phila- 
delphia, spoke upon the Architectural Club as a factor in 
public affairs. Arthur I). Rogers, of Boston, responded 
in a felicitous address to the text, "Are architectural 
societies and the Architectural Press fulfilling their mis- 
sion 5 " and was several times applauded. A solo fol- 
lowed, and then Mr. Louis H. Sullivan read a serious 
paper upon "The Young Man in Architecture." Mr. 
Sullivan was listened to witli the closest attention, and 
many present must have returned to their homes 
strengthened and stimulated by his earnest words. 

The toasttn aster next called on Mr. Oscar Enders, of 
St. Louis, for one of his clever and original architectural 
songs, which Mr. Enders sang greatly to the amusement 
of all present, being accompanied in the chorus by the 
entire St. Louis delegation. The concluding address was 
delivered by Mr. Dwight Heald Perkins, in which he 
summed up the sentiment of the convention. 



THE YOUNG MAN IN ARCHITECTURE. 

ADDRESS DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE 
ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE or AMERICA, AT CHICAGO. 

in- I, oris H. SULLIVAN. 

IT is my premise that the Architectural League of 
America has its being in a sense of discontent with 
conditions now prevailing in the American malpractice 
of the architectural art; in a deep and wide sense of con- 
viction that no aid is to be expected from the generation 
now representing that malpractice; and in the instinctive 
feeling that, through banding together, force, discretion, 
and coherence may be given to the output of these feel- 
ings which are, in themselves, for the time being, vague 
and miscellaneous, however intensely they may be felt. 

I )id I not believe that this statement substantially 
represents the facts, I should be the last to take an in- 
terest in your welfare; I would be indifferent concerning 
what you did or what you did not. 

That you have abundant reason for discontent needs 
no proof. Let him read who runs through the streets. 

That you have cause for discontent is evident. That 
you should feel discontent gives one a delightfully cynical 
sense of shock, and a new-born desire to believe in the 
good, the true, the beautiful, and the young. 

American architecture is composed, in the hundred, 
of ninety parts aberration, eight parts indifference, one 
part poverty, and one part Little Lord Fauntleroy. Yon 
can have the prescription filled at any architectural de- 
partment store or select architectural millinery estab- 
lishment. 

As it is my desire to speak from the view-point that 
architecture should be practised as an art and not strictly 
as a commercial pursuit, and as I am assuming that you 
agree with me in this respect, we may now pertinently 
inquire, Wherein does this American architecture differ 
from the architecture of the past? 

It differs in little, if in anything, provided we except 
the few great epochs. 

Human nature has changed but little since the time 
man was the slaughterer or the slaughtered of the great 
white bear. 



Seldom, in the past, has man thought of aught but 
war, which menaced his life; religion, which menaced 
his soul; hunger, which threatened his stomach; or love, 
which concerned his progeny. 

From time to time this tempestuous human sky has 
calmed, for a divine moment, and the glory of man has 
shone forth upon a fertile land. Then came again the 
angry elements, and the sun departed. 

This, in brief, is the recurrent history of man from 
the beginning. You may change the values in the 
formula to suit the epoch, the century, or the generation. 

Ninety-nine years of the hundred the thoughts of nine 
hundred and ninety-nine people of the thousand are 
sordid. This always has been true. Why should we 
expect a change? 

Of one hundred so-called thoughts that the average 
man thinks (and thus he has ever thought), ninety-nine 
are illusions, the remaining one a caprice. 

From time to time in the past, these illusions have 
changed their focus and become realities, and the one 
caprice has become an overwhelming desire. 

These changes were epoch-making. 

And the times were called golden. 

In such times came the white-winged angel of sanity. 

And the great styles arose in greeting. 

Then soon the clear eye dimmed. 

The sense of reality was lost. 

Then followed architectures, to all intents and pur- 
poses quite like this American architecture of to-day: 

Wherein the blind sought much discourse of color. 

The deaf to discuss harmonics. 

The dry heart of twaddled about the divinity of man. 

The mentally crippled wrought tierce combats in the 
arena of logic. 

And so it has come about that the white-winged angel 
has been on a far journey these six hundred years. 

Now, insisting for the moment, in spite of the hier- 
archy, that this white-winged absence is of gentle sex, I 
entreat your close attention: 

Let radiant and persuasive Youth lure her back again 
to earth ! 

For that she hovers in the visible blue of your firma- 
ment, I can prove to you beyond a gossamer of doubt. 

That she awaits with eager ear the spring-enthralling 
voice of adolescence, the clear, sweet morning-call of a 
pure heart, the spontaneity and jocund fervor of a bright 
and winning mind, the glance of a modest and adoring 
eye! 

That she awaits. 

That she has so long awaited. 

That she cannot make herself first known to you, 

Alas, 'tis of her enchantment th.it she is invisible and 
dumb! 

Perhaps this is enough of poesy. 

Let us say, enough likewise of the prevailing cacho- 
phony; of 

The howling of the vast and general horde of Bed- 
lamites. 

The purring of the select company of Ruskinites. 

The gasping of the Emersonites. 

The rasping of the Spencerites. 

The moaning of the Tennysonites. 

The whimper of the asthctes. 



n6 



T 1 1 E B RICK B UILD E R 



The yowling of reformers. 

The yapping of strenuous livers. 

The rustle of the rustlers. 
Tlie hustle of the hustlers. 
The howl of the tax-payers. 
And the clang of the trolley ear. 
All, "signs, omens, and predictions 



ot our civiliza- 



tion. 



We are commanded to know that there is much of 
mystery, much of the esoteric, in the so-called architec- 
tural stvles. That there is a holiness in so-called "pure 
art," which the hand of the modern may not profane. 
So be it. 

Let us he the eat. 
And let the pure art lie the king. 
We will look at him. 

And we will also look at the good king's good chil- 
dren, the great styles, 

And at his retinue of bastards, the so-called "other 
styles." 

There is, or at least there is said to be, a certain 
faculty of the mind, whereby the mind or the faculty, as 
you choose, is, on the one hand, enabled to dissolve a 
thing into its elements, and. on the other hand, to build 
Up these or similar elements into the same or a similar 
thing. This process is, 1 believe, called logic. The first 
Operation going l>v the name, analysis, and the second, 
synthesis. Some men possess the half-faculty of sepa- 
rating; others, the half-faculty of upholding. When the 
whole faculty exists in one man, in a moderate degree, 
he is said to be gifted. When he has it in a high degree, 
he is said to be highly gifted, and when in tin 1 highest 
degree, he is called a genius or a master-mind. When a 
man has neither the one half-faculty nor the other half- 
faculty, he is mentally sterile. 

1 fear lest the modern architect be placed in this cate- 
gory, by reason of his devious ways. 

Let us suppose ourselves, nevertheless, moderately 
gifted, and apply our analysis to the great styles: 

Presto, dissolve! 

We have as residuum two uprights and a horizontal 
connecting them. 

We have two bulk)' masses and an arch connecting 
them. 

Revolve your arches and masses, and you have a 
dome. 

Do the trick a few times more with a few Other 
"styles," and von have the Elements of Architecture. 

We approach in the same way a master-mind, and 
all speedily disappears, leaving insoluble desire. 

The architectural elements, in their baldest form, the 
desire of the heart in its most primitive, animal form, 
are the foundation of architecture. 

They are the dust and the breathing spirit. 

All the splendor is but a gorgeous synthesis of these. 

The logic of the books is, at best, dry reading; and, 
moreover, it is nearly or quite dead because it comes at 
second hand. 

The human mind, in operation, is the original docu- 
ment. 

Try to read it. 

If von find this for the moment too difficult and ob- 
scure, try to stud_\- a plant as it grows from its tiny seed 



and expands towards its full fruition. Here is a process, 
a spectacle, a poem, or whatever von may wish to call it, 
not only absolutely logical in essence, because exhibiting 
in its highest form the unity and the duality of analysis 
and synthesis, but which is of vastly greater import, 
vital and inevitable ; and it is specifically to this phenom- 
enon that I wish to draw your earnest attention, if it 
be true and I sincerely hope that such is the fact that 
you wish to become real architects, not the imitation 
brand. For I wish to show to you, or at least to intimate 
to you, how naturally, and smoothly, and inevitably the 
human mind will operate if it be not harassed or thwarted 
in its normal and instinctive workings. 

Some day, watch the sun as he rises, courses through 
the sky, and sets. 

Note what your part of the earth does meanwhile. 
Ponder the complex results of this simple, single 
cause. 

Some year, observe how rhythmically the seasons fol- 
low the sun. Note their unfailing, spontaneous logic; 
their exquisite analyses and syntheses; their vital, inevi- 
table balance. 

When you have time or opportunity, spare a moment 
to note a wild bird flying; a wave breaking on the shore. 
Try to grasp the point that while these things are com- 
mon they are by no means commonplace. 

Note any simple thing or act whatsoever, provided, 
only, it be natural, not artificial ; the nearer undisturbed 
Nature the better; if in the wilderness better still, be- 
cause wholly away from the perverting influence of man. 
Whenever you have done these things attentively and 
without mental bias or preoccupation, wholly receptive 
in your humor, there will come to your intelligence a 
luminous idea of simplicity, an equally luminous idea of 
a resultant organic complexity, which, together, will con- 
stitute the first significant step in your architectural 
education, because they are the basis of rhythm. 

There will gently dawn in your minds an awakening 
of something vital, something organic, something ele- 
mental, that is urging the things about you through their 
beautiful, characteristic rhythms, and that is holding 
them in most exquisite balance. 

A little later you will become aware with amazement 
that this same impulse is working on your own minds, 
and that never before had you suspected it. This will 
be the second step in your architectural education. 

Later you will perceive with great pleasure that there 
is a notable similarity, an increasing sympathy between 
the practical workings of your own minds and the work- 
ings of Nature about you. 

When this perception shall have grQwn into a definite 
clear-cut consciousness, it will constitute the closing of 
the first chapter, ami the opening of all the remaining 
chapters in your architectural education, for you will have 
arrived at the basis of organized thinking. 

Vou will have observed, doubtless, that thus far, 
while endeavoring to lead you toward a sane and whole- 
some conception of the basis of the architectural art, I 
have said not a word about books, photographs, or plates. 
1 have done this advisedly, for I am convinced beyond 
the shadow of a doubt that never can you acquire from 
books, or the like, alone, even a remote conception of 
what constitutes the real, the living, architectural art. It 



T II E B RICK BUI LD E R . 



117 



has been tried for generations upon generations with one 
unvarying result,— dreary, miserable failure. 

To appreciate a book at its just value, you must first 
know what words signify, what men signify, and what 
Nature signifies. 

Books, taken in their totality, have one ostensible ob- 
ject, one just function: namely, to make a record of man's 
relation to his fellow-men and to Nature, and the relation 
of both of these to an all-pervading, inscrutable spirit. 

To these relations, mankind, in its prodigious effort 
to define its own status, has given thousands upon thou- 
sands of names. 

These names are called words. 

Each word has a natural history. 

Each word is not the simple thing it appears, but. on 
the contrary, it is a highly complex organism, carrying 
in its heart more smiles, more tears, more victories, 
more downfalls, more bloody sweats, more racial agonies, 
than you can ever dream of. 

Some of these words are very old,— 

They still cry with the infancy of the race. 

Therefore, should I begin by putting into your hands a 
book or its equivalent, 1 would, according to my philoso- 
phy, be guilty of an intellectual crime. 

I would be as far from the true path as I now most 
heartily regard most teachers of the architectural art to 
be. 

I would be as reckless and brutal as my predecessors. 

But I would not be as unconscious of it as they appear 
to be. 

Therefore, I say with emphasis, begin by observing. 

Seek to saturate your minds by direct personal con- 
tact with things that are natural, not sophisticated. 

Strive to form your own judgments, at first in very 
small things, gradually in larger and larger things. Do 
not lean upon the judgment of others if it is reasonably 
within your power to form your own. 

Thus, though you may often stumble and wander, 
such experiences will be valuable because personal ; it is 
far better that they occur in youth rather than in maturer 
years. Gradually, by virtue of this very contact with 
things you will acquire that sure sense of physical reality 
which is the necessary first step in a career of independ- 
ent thinking. 

But strive not, I caution you, after what is called 
originality. If you do. you will be starting in exactly the 
wrong way. I wish distinctly to impress upon you, that 
what I am advocating, and what I in turn am striving to 
point out to you, is. the normal development of your 
minds. That if the mind is properly nurtured, properly 
trained, and left free to act with spontaneity, individual- 
ity of expression will come to you as naturally as the 
flower comes to the plant, for it is Nature's law. 

When you begin to feel the glow and stimulation of 
mind which are first-fruits of wholesome exercise of the 
faculties, you may begin to read the books. Read them 
carefully and cautiously, not superciliously. 

Bear in mind that books, generally speaking, are com 
posed mainly of sophistries, assumptions, borrowings, 
stealings, inadequate presentations or positive perver- 
sions of truth. 

The author, too frequently, is posing, masquerading, 
or ambuscading-. His idea is to impress you. He him- 



self wells knows how little he has to say that can in 
strictness be classed as truth in his possession only. 

Y<>u will soon have no trouble in discerning the ex- 
ception, and the exceptions, by their value, will conclu- 
sively prove the rule. 

Later you may turn from the documents called books 
t<» the documents called buildings, and you will find that 
what I have said of books applies with equal force to 
buildings and to their authors. Soon you will be enabled 
to separate the wheat from the chaff. 

Thus, one after the other, you may pass in review the 
documents called Musie, Painting, Sculpture, Agricul- 
ture, Commerce. Manufactures, Government, etc. 

Vim will find them, for your purposes, much alike. 

You will, ere Long, acquire an inkling of the fulness 
and the emptiness of these documents, if, as 1 advise, 
you keep closely in touch with Nature. 

When you know something more of the working of 
the human mind than you now know (and the day will 
not be long in coming, if you follow the program I am 
indicating), you will not be greatly surprised, when tak- 
ing a backward glance, that those in high places to-day 
seemingly believe, or profess to believe, that the fruit 
need bear no relation to the tree. 

You will be no more amused than I am at the psycho- 
logical irony presented by the author of a callously, 
illogical building, declaring in solemn tones that it is the 
product of a logical mind. 

You will smile with wonderment when you recall that 
it is now taught, or appears now to be taught, that like 
does not beget like, whereas you will know that Nature 
has for unnumbered ages and at every instant proclaimed 
that like can beget nothing but its like: 

That a logical mind will beget a logical building. 

That an illogical mind will beget an illogical building. 

That perversity will bring forth perversity. 

That the children of the will mind reveal the parent. 

You will smile again when you reflect that it was held 
in your youth that there was no necessary relationship 
between function and form. That function was one 
thing, form another thing. 

True, it might have seemed queer to some if a pine 
tree had taken on the form of a rattlesnake, and. standing 
vertically on its tail, had brought forth pine cones; or, 
that a rattlesnake, vice versa, should take on the form ol 

a pine tree, and wiggle along the ground, biting the heel 
of the passerby. 

Yet, this suggestion is not a whit queerer than are 
some of the queer things now filling the architectural 
view: as. for instance, a steel frame function in a masonry 
form. 

Imagine, for instance 

I [orse-eagles. 

Pumpkin-bearing frogs. 

Frog-bearing pea vines. 

Tarantula potatoes. 

Sparrows, in the form of whales, picking up crumbs 
in the streets. 

[f these combinations seem incongruous and weird. 1 
assure you, in all seriousness, that they arc not a whit 
more so than the curiosities encountered with such fre- 
quency by the student of what nowadays passes for 
architecture. 



n8 



tup: brick bui ldkr 



With this difference only, that, inasmuch as the 
similarity is chiefly mental, it can produce no adequate 
impression <>n those who have never felt the sensitizing 
effect of thought. 

You will remember that it was held that a national 
style must be generations in forming, and that the 
inference you were to draw from this was that the indi- 
vidual should take no thought for his own natural de- 
velopment because it would be futile so to do, —because, 
as it were, it would be an impertinent presumption. 

1 tell you exactly the contrary : Give all your thought 
to individual development, which it is entirely within 
your province and power to control; and let the national- 
ity come in due time as a consequence of the inevitable 
convergence of thought. 

If any one tells you that it is impossible within a life- 
time to develop and perfect a complete individuality of 
expression, a well-ripened and perfected personal style, 
tell him that you know better, and that you will prove it 
by your lives. Tell him with little ceremony, whoever 
he may be, that he is grossly ignorant of first principles, 
that he lives in the dark. 

It is claimed that the great styles of the past are the 
sources of inspiration for this architecture of the present. 
This, in fact, is the vehement assertion of those who 
" worship " them. 

Would you believe it"- Really, would you believe it? 

So it appears that like can beget its unlike after all. 
That a noble style may beget, through the agency of an 
ignoble mind, an ignoble building. 

It may be true that a blooded male may beget, 
through a mongrel female, a cur progeny. But the 
application of this truth to the above instance, wherein 
occurs the great word, INSPIRATION implies a brutal 
perversion of meaning and a pathetic depravity in those 
who use that word for their sinister ends. 

For inspiration, as I conceive it, is the intermediary 
between God and man, the pure fruition of the soul at 
one with immaculate nature, the greeting of noble minds. 

To use this word in a tricky endeavor to establish a 
connection legitimizing the architecture of the present as 
the progeny of the noblest thought in the past is, to my 
mind, a blasphemy, and so it should appear to yours. 

In truth, the American architecture of to-day is the 
offspring of an illegitimate commerce with the mongrel 
styles of the past. 

Do not deceive yourselves for a moment as to this. 

It is a harsh indictment. 

But it is warranted by the facts. 

Vet let us not be too scwere. Let us remember and 
make what allowance we may for the depressing, stulti- 
fying, paralyzing influence of an unfortunate education. 

After all, every American man has had to go to 
school. And everything that he has been taught over 
and above the three R's has been in essence for his mental 
undoing. 

I cannot possibly emphasize this lamentable fact too 
strongly. 

And the reason, alas, is so clear, so forcible, so ever- 
present, — as you will see. 

We live under a form of government called Democracy. 
And we, the people of the United States of America, 
constitute the most colossal instance known in history of 



a people seeking to verify the fundamental truth that 
self-government is Nature's law for man. 

It is of the essence of Democracy that the individual 
man is free in his body and free in his soul. 

It is a corollary therefrom, that he must govern or 
restrain himself, both as to bodily acts and mental acts; 
that, in short, he must set up a responsible government 
within his own individual person. 

It implies that highest form of emancipation, — of 
liberty, physical, mental, and spiritual, by virtue where- 
of man calls the gods to judgment, while lie heeds the 
divinity of his own soul. 

It is the ideal of Democracy that the individual man 
should stand self-centered, self-governing, an indi- 
vidual sovereign, an individual god. 

Now who will assert, specifically, that our present 
system of higher architectural education is in accord with 
this aspiration' That the form. Education, bears any 
essential relation other than that of antagonism to the 
function I )emocracy? 

It is our misfortune that it does not. 

We, as a people, are too youthful. We are too new 
among the world forces. We are too young. We have 
not yet had time to discover precisely the trouble, though 
we feci in our hearts that something is amiss. We have 
been too busy. 

.And so comes about the incongruous spectacle of the 
infant Democracy taking its mental nourishment at the 
withered breast of Despotism. 

To understand it from our point of view, examine. 
These are the essential points: 

We are to revere authority. 

We are to take everything at second hand. 

We are to believe measurements are superior to 
thought. 

We are advised not to think. 

We are cautioned that by no possibility can we think 
as well as did our predecessors. 

We are not to examine, not to test, not to prove. 

We are to regard Ourselves as the elect, because, for- 
sooth, we have been instructed by the elect. 

We must conform. 

We are not to go behind the scenes. 

We are to do as we are told and ask not foolish 
questions. 

We are taught that there is a royal road to our art. 

We are taught hero worship. 

We are not taught what the hero worshiped. 

We are taught that Nature is one thing, man another 
thing. 

We are taught that God is one thing, man another 
thing. 

Does this conform to the ideal of Democracy ? 

Is this a fitting overture to the world's greatest 
drama ? 

Is it not extraordinary that we survive it even in 
part. 

Is it a wonder that our representative architecture is 
vapid, foolish, priggish, insolent, and pessimistic ! 

Manifestly, you cannot become truly educated in the 
schools. 

Ergo, you must educate yourselves. 

There is no other course, no other nope. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



"9 



For the schools have not changed much in my genera- 
tion; they will, I fear, not change much in your genera- 
tion, and soon it will be too late for you. 

Strive! strive, therefore, while you are young and 
eager to apply to your mental development the rules of 
physical development. 

Put yourselves in training, so to speak. 

Strive to develop in your minds the agility, flexibility, 
precision, poise, endurance, and judgment of the athlete. 

Seek simple, wholesome, nourishing food for the 
mind. 

You will be surprised and charmed with the results. 

The human mind in its natural state, not drowsed and 
stupefied by a reactionary education, is the most marvel- 
ously active agency in all Nature. 

You may trust implicitly in the results of this activity, 
if its surroundings are wholesome. 

The mind will inevitably reproduce what it feeds 
upon. 

If it feeds upon filth, it will reproduce filth. 

If it feeds upon dust, it will reproduce dust. 

If it feeds upon Nature, it will reproduce Nature. 

If it feeds upon man, it will reproduce man. 

If it feeds upon all of these, it will reproduce all of 
these. 

It will reproduce infallibly whatever it is fed upon. 

It is a wonderful machine; its activity cannot wholly 
be quenched except by death. It may be slowed down 
or accelerated; it cannot be stopped. 

It may be abused in every conceivable way, but it 
will not stop, even in insanity, even in sleep. 

So beware how you tamper with this marvelous 
mechanism, for it will record inevitably, in all its out- 
put, whatever you do to it. 

The human mind is the summation of all the ages. It 
holds in trust the wisdom and the folly of all the past. 

Beware what you do to it, for it will give you bad for 
your bad, good for your good,— 

It is a mechanism of such inconceivable delicacy and 
complexity. 

Man through his physical infancy is most carefully 
nurtured. 

His delicate and fragile, helpless little body is tenderly 
watched with all the solicitude of parental affection. 

Indeed, under the law he is still a child until the age 
of twenty-one. 

But his mind! Who cares for his mind? 

After he has passed from the simple, beautiful minis- 
trations at his mother's knee, who guards this ineffably 
delicate, impressionable organism ? 

Oh, the horror of it ! 

Oh, yet gods! Where is justice?' where is mercy? 
where is love? 

To think that the so-called science of political economy 
is so futile, so dragged with feudalism, that it has not 
noted this frightful waste, this illogical interruption of 
the happiness of the human family, this stark, staring in- 
congruity in our education. 

That it does not perceive, in its search for the sources 
of wealth, the latent richness of the human mind, its im- 
mense wealth of practical possibilities, the clearly marked 
indications of enormous productiveness, a productive- 
ness sane and of vital consequence to the public welfare. 



So much lor a science which regards man as a mechani- 
cal unit. 

It is typical, in a measure, of the learning we have 
donned as a misfit garment. 

You have every reason to congratulate yourselves that 
you are young, lor you have so much the less to un- 
learn, and so much the greater fund of enthusiasm. 

A great opportunity is yours. The occasion confronts 
you. The future is in your hands, will you accept the 
responsibility, or will you evade it 5 

That is the only vital question I have come here to 
put to you. 

I do not ask an answer now. 

I am content with putting the question. 

For it is the first time that the question ever has been 
put squarely to you. 

1 ask only that you consider this: 

Do you intend, or do you not intend, do you wish or do 
you not wish, to become architects in whose care an un- 
folding democracy may entrust the interpretation of its 
material wants, its psychic aspirations. 

In (lite time, doubtless, you will answer in vourown 
way. 

But I warn you the time left for an answer in the 
right way is acutely brief. 

For young as you are, you are not as young as you 
were yesterday, 

And to-morrow? 

To-morrow! 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE AS < >PP< >SED TO 
ARCHITECTTRk; IX AMERICA. 

PAPER READ BEFORE THE SECOND VNNUA1 CONVENTION OF 
THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE of AMERICA, AT CHICAGO. 

BY ERNES I II \i.(,. 

AT no time since the Europeans first began to build 
in America has there been anything which might 
properly be called an American style of architecture. 
There have been American ways of building, as, tor in- 
stance, our high buildings with the skeleton construction, 
and the cast-iron fronts of thirty or forty years ago, but 
the decorated features have been used in accordance with 
passing fashions, supposedly modeled on European us- 
age, with no such modification as would stamp them with 
what might be called an air of nationality, or else they 
have been extraordinary attempts by individuals at origi- 
nality. None of these attempts have met with popular 
favor. 

All the so-called " Styles " of the past have been 
treated by a slow system of evolution from what has 
gone before, accomplished by the combined effort of all 
the minds engaged, working along the same lines, each 
one contributing his infinitesimal share to the never-end- 
ing process, a process which is precisely similar to that 

which produces our fashions in dress. No one knows 
exactly who is responsible for the change, but we can see 
that change is always in progress; to the uninitiated it 
may not seem very apparent from year to year, but if we 
compare the fashions in dress at intervals of ten or fifteen 
years, the change is Striking enough for any one to dis- 
tinguish. So it is in architecture, though, owing to the 



120 



THE BRICK BUI LI) E R 



nature of the materials used, change occurs more slowly. 
If we study the history of architecture in Europe, we 

shall find that, from the tenth century, all the great 
changes in style were simultaneously common to all the 
countries. Thus we find in practically all European 
countries at about the same epoch the styles which are 
classified in a general way as Romanesque, Gothic, 
Renaissance, Rococo, etc., but in each country or prov- 
ince, soon after their introduction, they assume a dis- 
tinctive local character. We also find that some one 
country is in advance of the others, and that every great 
change spreads rapidly from the place where it was first 
developed to all the other countries, hut that the minor 
changes do not spread rapidly, and are confined generally 
to the different localities where they originate, and go to 
make the local or national distinctions of the general 
Style. It is natural that, as communication becomes 
more rapid between different sections, these local differ- 
ences should disappear, and this is exactly what we find 
has happened. In France, for instance, during the 
Gothic epoch, we find distinct local characteristics in the 
different provinces, thus the Burgundian, Aquitanian, 
Touranian, those of the Isle de France, etc.. while to- 
day the style is national, or. we may say, Parisian. 

Now it seems not at all unlikely that the causes which 
have led to the breaking down of the barriers between 
the different provinces of one country will in future 
operate to break down the barriers between the different 
countries; that local characteristics will become less 
and less pronounced, and that even the minor changes in 
the fashion of building will tend to become more world- 
wide. 'Phis is exactly what has occurred in the fashions for 
dress. Local distinctions are rapidly passing away, and 
a dress that is fashionable to-day in Paris is also fashion- 
able in New York, Berlin, Rome, St. Petersburg. Lon- 
don, and in every other civilized capital. If Prance leads 
in this respect, and the others follow, it must be because 
there is in the French mind a quality which fits it to lead 
in such matters, for the bondage of the other nations is 
entirely voluntary. 

Owing to the peculiar situation of America, and to 
the natural independenci and lack of reverence of the 
American mind, the course of architecture here has pre- 
sented an anomaly in the development of style, and rules 
which apply elsewhere do not seem to apply here. Never- 
theless, it is very certain that the process of development 
which works everywhere else will, in time, be found 
working here; indeed, it becomes more evident daily that 
this process is already well under way. The foundation 
for any such development must necessarily begin with 
the schools. In every European country we find that, 
before the young men begin to build, they undergo a 
long process of training, cither in schools or as appren- 
tices, to fit them for the work. In the past we have 
thought such preparation unnecessary. Almost every 
young American, as soon as he is able to draw a straight 
line, has felt himself competent to undertake any work of 
architecture, and not only that, but he has found that 
most people have been ready to agree with him in this 
way of thinking. People having large sums to invest, if 
not willing to entrust them to him at the start, have been 
willing to do so after a lew years, when he is supposed to 
have had the necessary experience, These methods still 



hold true in many places to-day. Physicians, engineers, 
lawyers, and other professional men must have been 
properly trained before they are employed; not so with 
architects. Most employers, indeed, feel that they are 
very good architects themselves, and few have any dis- 
tinct notion of what constitutes an architectural train- 
ing. 

This is an entirely unnatural state of affairs, and no 
one who understands the American mind can believe 
that it will last. Indeed, there is, at the present time, 
every indication that it will not last. Schools of archi- 
tecture multiply on every side; young men Hock abroad 
to seek architectural training, and the results of this 
movement are already beginning to be apparent in our 
architecture. Fortunately, this force is a unifying one. 
I say fortunately, though I doubt if it could be otherwise. 
The great majority of our students are thinking and 
working in the same style, though this can by no means 
be said of our practising architects. They are for the 
most part still borrowing from any epoch of antiquity, or 
designing in a style of their own invention, as the fancy 
sei/.es them. They deprecate what they call the " French- 
ifying" of American architecture, as if there were any 
such thing as American architecture in the hodge-podge 
which we see about us. 

In the mean time, the French influence is slowly but 
surely predominating. < )ur young men go to Paris and 
become convinced of the wisdom of the French methods. 
Prom the great masters of the French school, under 
whose influence they are brought, they imbibe such logi- 
cal, reasonable, and convincing instruction that I do not 
believe it possible for a young man, anxious to learn, to 
come away unconvinced. The converts which these men 
make after thev return, among the young men who 
themselves arc not able to go abroad, are as ten to one. 

A revolution is in full progress among us. and it is 
beginning just where it ought to begin, that is, with the 
students. Pet no one mistake the introduction of what 
appears to be modern French architecture as only a pass- 
ing fancy to go the way of the " Richardsonian Roman- 
esque," "Queen Anne." and "Italian Renaissance." It 
is an entirely different affair. It means much more than 
appears on the surface. The French resemblance is only 
an incident; it may, indeed, soon pall and pass away, 
but the movement means that the principles which the 
French use are being introduced here, and these will last 
because they are founded on good taste, guided by com- 
mon sense. Henceforth. American architects are to be 
properly instructed before they enter upon their duties. 
American architecture is not to be " Frenchified," unless 
France can dominate the fashions of the world in build- 
ing by her taste and skill, as she has dominated them in 
dress. The movement means that our architects of the 
future will apply to the art in this country the same 
Logical reasoning, and that they will have the same care- 
ful preparation for the work that helps the Frenchman 
to lead the world in the fine arts. It also means that, in 
the future, the whole body of American architects are to 
work together along the same lines- to think in the 
same style. Thus we are about to enter upon a course 
which will make possible the evolution of a national 
style of our own, or perhaps enable us to set the fashion 
for the world. 



THE B R I C K B U I L I) E R . 



i j i 



INDIGENOUS AND INVENTIVE ARCHITEC 
TURE FOR AMERICA. 

PAPER READ AT THE SECOND ANNUM. CONVENTION OF I Ml 
ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA, AT CHICAGO. 

BY ELMER GREY. 

ONE of the purposes of this organization, as ex- 
pressed in your constitution, is '-to encourage 
an indigenous and inventive architecture, and to lead 
architectural thoughts to modern sources of inspiration." 

In commenting upon the manner in which such pur- 
pose shall be attained, in the hope that my point of view- 
may not be without some value, I shall assume that the 
indigenous and inventive qualities in our architecture 
will, when obtained, appear in its style. Next, I propose 
to indicate, as clearly as I am able to, the nature of this 
quality called style; and then I shall take up the words 
"indigenous" and "inventive" in their order, and 
attempt to show how, in my opinion, we can best go 
about to attain to an "indigenous and inventive archi- 
tecture " in America. 

The nature of an architectural style is closely akin to 
the nature of the personal style of an individual. In the 
case of the individual it is, of course, the result of his 
continued endeavors to improve his character. In doing 
so he does not ape some one else, neither does he discard 
the example of heroic types that have lived before him, 
or who arc living in his own time. He attempts to dis- 
cover the laws which ruled or rule such lives, and 
endeavors to follow similar laws in arranging his own 
conduct. 

In much the same way is style in architecture evolved. 
We are not to copy past styles, neither are we to consider 
them useless as modern sources of inspiration. We are 
to try to discover the laws which governed their success, 
to discern how those laws should be modified to suit 
existing conditions, and then to apply them in the solu- 
tion of our own problems. The result will be beauty, 
the exact nature of which we may not be able to define, 
but, like the quality in a man of which he is unconscious, 
but which others feel to be his personal atmosphere or 
style, it will be all the more vital and all the more pre- 
cious because defying analysis. 

In attempting to discern the modifications to be made 
to the laws which governed the success of past styles, we 
are to consider, first, our increased complexity of mate- 
rial requirements over those of past ages, as are brought 
about by an advanced social condition; and the means 
of satisfying such increased demands afforded us in 
improved methods of construction and in new forms of 
building material. We are also to consider that in all 
ages artists have drawn upon the work of their prede- 
cessors in seeking for inspiration, and that we are par- 
ticularly fortunate in having more of such precedent to 
draw from, and in being provided, through the art of 
photography and through facilitated travel, with much 
readier means of success to it. 

These are some of the considerations that should he 
incorporated as modifications of the laws which governed 
the success of past styles, and of the laws which we are 
to apply as aids in evolving a style of our own. 

Now, how can we best go about to attain to an " in 



digenous " architectural style in America? What should 
be our sources of inspiration in aspiring to it? Are we. 
in seeking for them, to expect that they will appear only 
in things which refer to a building's external adornment? 

And even so, would we, in an appreciation of the beauty 
oi all the architectural ornament of other times, and of 
our many facilities for enjoying it, he likely to express 
such appreciation in our art did we reject as sources of 
inspiration all things not American? Surely not. The 
sources of inspiration for an indigenous style of American 
architecture are not thus limited. Style is not the external 
adornment of a building: it is the vital quality of it which 
has resulted from conditions inherent in its making, and 
which include situation, cost, material requirements, the 
constructional means available for meeting those require- 
ments, and the ornament with which it was thought fit- 
ting to clothe it. 

And the modern sources of inspiration for an in- 
digenous style of architecture in America lie in a percep- 
tion of the possibilities of the sites of our structure, in a 
knowledge of the most advantageous method of dispos- 
ing the money available for their erection, in the insight 
which shall discern the vital offices buildings should ful- 
fil, and the manner in which they should fulfil them, in 
the familiarity with the building methods and building 
materials best adapted to accomplish such fulfilment; 
and finally in all things which suggest the forms of 
ornament most fitting for the purpose of adorning our 
structures. 

And now how can we have an " inventive " architec- 
ture for America, that is, a new architecture, one that did 
not before exist, an architecture that shall he not only 
distinctively American in its style, hut that shall also he 
new in its style? 

In an address before the Boston Architectural Club, 
in October, 1893, Mr. Robert D. Andrews said: " I think 
it is the custom nowadays to put our conscious effort in 
the wrong place in the treatment of art. We put it at 
the end, when it ought to be at the beginning. We 
elaborate our superstructure, hut treat the foundation as 
of little account." I believe that custom still prevails. 

The poets never tire of calling our attention toward 
the Unity of Life, toward the intimate relation all liv- 
ing things hear to one another, and toward the fact that 
this relation is a far more intimate one than we almosl 
always feel it to he. Scientific research in all its ablest 
conclusions emphasizes the same point, insists upon the 
Oneness of all Nature and all Lift'; upon the fact that 
each plant in Nature is not a self-dependent organism, 
but that its health and its life is governed by a force 
which controls and sustains all living objects; upon the 
fact that a man is not an independent organism, but that, 
whether he is conscious of it or not. his fortunes are 
governed by a higher ambition than his own, though be 
is given tree will to choose between the good and the 
bad, his final destiny will rest upon obedience or dis- 
obedience to physical, moral, and spiritual laws, over 
which he has no control. 

Now art that is, living art. true art, art that is not 
merely a thing of dead forms and formulas is one oi 
the most potent expressions of human life. It is the con 
servation culminated in material form of all the artist has 
had of knowledge, of skill, of experience, of character; 



122 



T II E BRICK BUI LDER. 



and it is subject to the same laws which govern life, and 
is a part of the same great unity; so that by ascertaining 
how those laws operate in the production of new things, 
of inventive things in Nature or in life, we shad also see 
how they Operate in the creation of new things in art. 

In Nature we find that a plant produces in leaves. 
dowers, and fruit only that which it has been able to 
draw in another form from the earth, the sun, and the 
air; and that its perfection and distinction of type is 
directly dependent upon the success witli which it obtains 
such nourishment in qualities and quantities suited to its 
particular needs. And in life we know that a man can 
give out only that which in another form he has pre- 
viously taken in; and that the distinctness of his individ- 
uality, and the value and amount of his productiveness, 
will directly depend upon his knowledge of the sources 
of power which best sustain him, and upon his obedience 
to the laws which govern his nature. 

And so it is in art. For the artist is not an inde- 
pendent worker having supreme control over the quality 
and number of his creations. He is a part of a divine 
order of life from which all his efficiency springs; and 
the originality and sustained excellence of his work 
depend upon the degree to which he becomes conscious 
of his relation to that order, and upon his recognition of, 
and obedience to, its laws in their application to his life. 

Now the application of universal law which governs 
the life of an individual artist, each artist must discover 
for himself through the process of living, but some of 
the laws themselves in their wider bearing upon all 
artists' lives may here be briefly enumerated. The 
artist, then, is first a man and is to know himself and the 
world; that is, he is to recognize the natural equipment 
for work with which he has been endowed, the decree 
and nature of its power, and also its limitation; and he is 
to try to discover the place it should occupy in the world's 
entire economy. As a man, he is also to recognize the 
importance of the physical side of his being, and he is to 
see that it is kept in the highest condition of efficiency 
for sustaining the work of his brain. 

Then the artist is a member of a social body; and if 
his work is to meet the highest demands of that body and 
to satisfy its best taste and judgment, he must obey the 
moral laws which require that he place himself in sym- 
pathy with that body. And herein enters the subject of 
compensation. For as a member of a social body the 
artist will increase in every possible way his own power 
for usefulness and good, and the power which rests in 
the wise use of money is one not to be ignored. On the 
other hand, if his work is to satisfy his own conscience 
and to secure him the largest degree of self-development, 
as well as to bestow the greatest benefit Upon his client 
and to accord with the highest public welfare, he will not 
place peeuniar\- gain higher in the scale of values than 
he will excellence in the quality of the work he puts 
forth. 

And now we come to the spiritual laws governing the 
life of an artist. We readily recognize the operation of 
physical and moral laws in our work, but we have yet to 
realize more fully that the artist is also a part of a uni- 
versal spiritual order from which beauty of the highest 
kind has always come, and that if lie is to produce a new 
beauty, an inventive beauty, which shall have a real and 



enduring charm, he must first absorb in other forms that 
which he creates. 

For beautiful things of lasting quality in architecture 
and in all the arts are not tricks of clever fancy which 
some fortunate ones may discover: they are the result 
of an assimilation of many kinds of order, and of beauty, 
and of truth into the sold of the artist, where they 
undergo an unconscious process of transmutation into 
the creations which his imagination brings forth, and 
which his knowledge, his skill, and his character shape 
into new material form. 

He may obtain this nourishment from all sources 
which he finds will enrich him : from Nature, from human 
experience, from religion, from literature, from painting, 
from the architecture of the past. But whatever sources 
he selects should be capable of refreshing him continu- 
ously. For the artist is constantly spending his vitality 
in creative work, and so must continually renew it. Both 
operations are equally important parts of a creative 
process, and should be equally instinctive habits of the 
artist's life. They are analogous to the workings of 
Nature in her method of giving birth to all living things, 
and such instinctive habits have always been those of the 
man of creative genius through whom all true art has 
been evolved. 

Now the architectural style of a country is the result 
of prolonged endeavor on the part of architects to erect 
buildings which shall accord with the best taste and with 
the soundest judgment of a people; and though the en- 
deavors of those architects may often be thwarted and 
the accomplishment of their purpose seem at times a long 
way off, a higher power than their own will guide the 
course of events, and a mightier destiny than any private 
or public ambition will finally determine the quality and 
the permanence of the country's architectural style. 

Important movements in architecture, such as the so- 
called Romanesque of Richardson, occasioned by the 
influence of creative men of exceptional individuality, 
may prevail for a while. The demands of unhealthful 
social conditions, such as inordinate accumulation of 
wealth by classes of people who lack corresponding de- 
grees of culture, may result in the vulgar and ostentatious 
over-adornment of their buildings. But the architecture 
of a country which will be truly representative in style, 
and which will endure with a lasting beauty, will voice 
the highest ideals of its people, and will spring from the 
hearts of conscientious men who have accomplished the 
architectural expression of its noblest national life. 

The attainment of such an architecture involves a 
process of growth which cannot be hastened. It requires 
a condition of wide and deep culture in the people of a 
country, and a corresponding degree of culture in its 
architects; and though we have such culture in this 
country, either the reconciliation between the people who 
possess it and the forms through which it is trying to find 
architectural expression is not complete enough to point 
definitely toward the qualities which distinguish an 
architectural style, or, the intangible nature of style 
prevents our recognition of as much of one as we may 

have. 

Perhaps, unknown to us, it is taking form in the 
many noble architectural monuments that have been and 
are being built by contemporaries. For all architectural 



THE BRICKBUIL D E R . 



123 



beauty which is natural and vital to the best American 
life will contribute to the growth of an indigenous and 
inventive American architecture. 

To further the growth of such an architecture in 
every possible manner should be our ambition; our 
methods should correspond with the noblest methods of 
men who are working for the benefit of mankind in other 
walks of life, and our hope of success should lie in a 
consciousness of our relation to the divine Source of all 
Life, of all growth, and of all accomplishment. 



ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION. 

PAPER READ AT THE SECOND ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE 
ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA, AT CHICAGO. 

BY ALEXANDER DUEL TROWBRIDGE. 

THE very recent agitation affecting the motto, 
"Progress before Precedent," has attracted the 
attention of the professors of architecture, who have 
noted with regret that some of these architectural walk- 
ing delegates have assumed unfriendly, even hostile, 
attitudes toward the schools. It is safe to assume that 
men differ in a great variety of ways in their interpreta- 
tion of this motto, and that probably very few of the 
"young men of the Middle West" really hope, down in 
their hearts, that the schools will drop precedent and 
reorganize on a Nature-study basis. Possibly it is over- 
stating it to assume that this is the wish of Air. Lean 
and his friends; yet that is what one may very easily 
gather from Mr. Dean's several articles which have 
appeared within the past year in the architectural maga- 
zines. An accepted definition of an anarchist is "one 
who believes the world so good as to need no laws." 
While such a state of affairs is devoutly to be wished, no 
one in this assemblage believes for a moment that it 
would be safe, or even reasonable, for us as a nation, 
for instance, to suddenly drop our system of laws and 
enforcement of laws. In the same way we may accept 
in perfect faith all that Mr. Dean advocates as something 
very desirable, but we cannot for a moment dream of 
flying from the traditions, the laws, the precedent, that 
have been willed to us by our professional forefathers. 
We are inclined to the opinion that the "young men of 
the Middle West" are taking themselves too seriously. 
At present we agree with Messrs. Wyatt and Nolting, of 
Baltimore, who very aptly state: "We suggest that, 
before writing and theorizing more 011 the subject, he 
would produce actual work by his proposed methods, 
which will be accepted by the art world as superior to 
that produced by the training of either the American or 
European schools." The professors of architecture will 
give an enthusiastic reception to any new piece of work 
which shows truth, logic, and fitness. It must not he 
forgotten, however, that no matter how excellent sonic 
of this inventive work is to be, it cannot reduce the 
intrinsic merit of some of the modern buildings which 
we have all enjoyed together, and which everywhere 
show the influence of precedent. 

We recall a sentence from something that was said, it 
we remember rightly, by Mr. Sullivan, to whom many 
turn in their search after originality. If the quotation 
is not exact, at least the meaning is the same, " Learn 



what is in the books, and then throw the books away." 
There is a good deal of sound wisdom in that advice for 
men of Mr. Sullivan's strength, hut how many consider 
themselves in his class' Suppose, for example, we 
should accept this advice and apply it to the students in 
our schools. I low long would it take the average stu- 
dent to learn what is in the books? We think a Lucky 
man would, perhaps, feel that he had a good grasp of 
what the hooks contain after he had practised architec- 
ture twenty-five or thirty years. We know some hum- 
ble-minded professors of architecture who feel that three- 
score years and ten are not enough time for the proper 
Study of architecture. Suppose, now, we adopt the 
modest plan of living from precedent, depending upon 
the natural talent and inventive genius of our students 
for our academic results. We turn a class of beginners 
loose in a draughting room, lock the library doors, issue 
a program which calls for some architectural character, 
and then wait for the sparks of genius to illuminate the 
blank sheets of Whatman. We might extend the experi- 
ment so that it would be fully tried upon one class of 
students during its entire four years of stay with us. 
What would be the result"' Our students would either 
emigrate to the " Middle West " and become great archi- 
tects, or they would hurl maledictions at us for the rest 
of their lives. The latter is the more probable result. 

It may be that we have been extreme in our assump- 
tion that Mr. Dean and his co-workers desire so great a 
departure from precedent. If, however, one bit of his- 
toric detail is inappropriate to our age, why are not all 
bits of historic detail? If it is wrong to use a Greek 
triglyph or a Creek column to-day because they belonged 
to a past civilization, then no classic moldings are allow- 
able, and even the carpenters in their ignorant use of the 
classic cyma reversa will have to devise something to 
take the place of the innocent ogee molding, in order to 
be consistent. 

The profession of architecture as well as the vast 
thinking public have cause to be thankful that the schools 
of architecture are taking a stand for conservatism in 
teaching. If we were to allow ourselves to be tarried 
away by the delusion that we might achieve fame by ex- 
perimenting Upon our students in the search for an origi- 
nal style of architecture, we would be infamous. We 
would be betraying a trust more sacred than any trust 
that is encountered in the practice of architecture. In 
practice an architect has the responsibility of disposing 
of his client's money, and of so using it that the com- 
munity concerned will be enlightened and educated. His 
is a trust which should not be broken through this ego- 
tistical belief in one's power to revolutionize architecture. 
How much greater is the responsibility of the professors 
of architecture who have in their hands the futures of a 
group of young people? 

Our duty toward our students is, first, to teach 1 hem to 
construct according to modem practices; second, to ex- 
press themselves in black and white, in color, and in 
plastic materials; third, to habituate them to good meth- 
ods of study in the art of designing. Add to this the 
various courses in history of architecture, history of art, 
etc., and we have in a nutshell an outline of a course which 
is conservative, and yet capable 'if the development of a 
perfectly sale amount of originality. It is not necessary 



124 



THE BRICK r.r 1 LDER 



to go into the details of the many courses which are re- 
quired of students in developing them in the three di- 
rections stated. It is sufficient to remark in passing that 
the essential policy for success in the development of a 
school is insistence upon a stiff entrance requirement 
and alertness in keeping to the standard set by the best 
architectural students in the world, the French. Mr. 
Dean is mistaken in holding that because some of the 
recently returned students of the Paris school have the 
had taste to erect French buildings in our cities, that, 
therefore, both European and American schools are at 
fault. Becauseone dog goes mad. it does not follow that 
all dogs should be muzzled and their mothers shot. 

The ideal education of an architect is for him to first 
take an A. 1!. degree in some college or university where 
contact with professors and fellow-students in the so- 
called liberal studies will broaden his attitude toward the 
world. Then let him take his prof essional course of four 
or live years in a conservative school where good princi- 
ples, not original theories, are taught. If he be a genius, 
his four years in a professional school cannot possibly re- 
press him. His individuality will show through all the 
conservatism of his teaching. If he have not great 
talent, as is the case with many students of architecture, 
his conservative teaching will have been his professional 
life preserver. Not only he, but the community with 
which he is connected, will fervently thank the men who, 
believing in and loving originality and invention, still 
had the couragre and common sense to teach traditions. 



•• Till-; ARCHITECT." 

PAPER READ BEFORE IIIK SECOND \\\t \l CONVENTION OF 
THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE Of AMERICA, \l (UK AGO. 

BY Ik \NK LLOYD WRIGHT. 

"Liberal sects do their work nut by growing strong, but by making 
all others iii' ■ 1 e liberal." 

A VITAL point of difference between professional 
man and man of business is that money-making to 
the professional man should, by virtue of his assumption, 
be incidental; to the business man it is primary. 

Money has its limitations; while it may buy quantity, 
there is something beyond it, and that is "quality." 

When the practice of a profession touching the arts is 
assumed, certain obligations t<> the public concerning 
quality and beyond money-making are also assumed, and 
without their faithful discharge the professional man de- 
generates to the weakest type of social menial in the 
entire system, an industrial parasite. 

An architect practises a Fine Art as a profession, with 
tlie Commercial and the Scientific of his time as his 
technique. Men are his tools. 

In this age of " quantity " there is a growing tendency 
on the part of the public to disregard the architect in 
favor of the plan-factory magnate or architectural broker, 
ami there is consequent confusion in the mind of the 
young architect of to-day and of to-morrow as to the 
sound constitution of his ideal, if that ideal is to be con- 
sistent with the "success" every man of him hopes to 
achieve. This confusion exists, and naturally enGugh, 
because the topography of his field of action lias changed. 
It lias changed to such an extent that in the letter, at 



least, the antique professional standard he may not recog- 
nize if lie would. But the spirit of practice in the old 
field is still sound to the core, the spirit that made of 
the professional man a champion of finer forces in the 
lives of his people. 

The influence chiefly responsible for this change and 
most easily recognized is that of Science and its Com- 
mercialism. 

The tremendous forward march of scientific attain- 
ment with attendant new forces and resource, cultivation 
of the head at cost to the heart, of mind and matter at 
the expense of the emotions: which has nevertheless 
given to him new and masterful tools that demand of 
him their proper use, and have taken from him tem- 
porarily his power to so use them. 

Because he has failed to realize and grasp his situation 
in its new bearings, he is not quite like his brother the 
artist, a " thing afraid " of organization and its symbol 
tlie machine; but the architect, the master of creative 
effort whose province it was to make imperishable record 
of the noblest in the life of his race in his time, for the 
time being has been caught in the commercial rush and 
whirl, and hypnotized into trying to be the commercial 
himself. He has dragged his ancient monuments to the 
market places, tortured them with ribs of steel, twisted 
and unstrung them, set them up on pins, and perforated 
them until he has left them not a rag! 

He has degenerated to a fakir. A fakir who Matters 
thin business imbecility with "Art architecture shop 
fronts" worn in the fashion of the old "dickie." or 
panders to silly women his little artistic sweets. His 
"Art is upon the 'town' to be chucked beneath the 
chin by every passing gallant, coaxed within the drawing 
room of the period, and there betrayed as a proof of cul- 
ture and refinement. " 

Do you wonder at the prestige of tlie plan factory 
when architecture has become a commodity, "athing" 
to be applied like a poultice or a porous plaster? Do 
von wonder that architecture becomes of less and less 
consequence to the public, and that the architect has 
small Standing except as he measures his success by the 
volume of business he transacts? 

Divorced from line art. the architect is something 
yet to be classified, though he is tagged with a license in 
Illinois. So is the banana pedler and the chiropodist. 

Do you wonder that his people demand that he be at 
least a good business man, a good salesman, as some- 
thing that they can understand and appreciate ? when 
as for the commodity he is selling, it has been dead to 
them so long as to be unrecognizable, except by virtue of 
association with the dim past, and it is not quite respect- 
able even yet to do without something of the sort. 

That commodity is as dead to tlie salesman as to 
the buyer, and to the fact that the thin-- is more easily 
handled dead than alive, the salesman, captain of indus- 
try though he be, owes his existence. 

In business it is in the stock pattern that fortunes are 
made: so in architecture it is in the ready-made article 
that the money lies, altered to lit by any popular "sarto- 
rial artist " the less alteration the greater the profit — 
and the architect. 

The present generation of the successful architect 
has been submerged, overwhelmed by the commercialism 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



'-5 



of his time. He has yielded to the confusion and fever- 
ish demand of the moment, and has become a high-grade 
salesman of a high-priced imported article. His duty to 
the public as professional man laid aside, if it was ever 
realized, and merely because the public was ignorant of 
its claim and willing to buy even if the paint came off 
and the features peeled. 

What has been gained by his feverish haste to offer 
his art on the altar of commercial sacrifice has been 
quantity at expense to quality, — a general depreciation 
of architectural values and a corruption of the birthright 
of the " buyers. " 

In consequence, architecture to-day has not even com- 
mercial integrity; and the architect as he practises his 
profession is humiliated and craven. 

Robbed by his own cowardice and mediocrity of his 
former commanding position in the arts, he hesitates 
between stalking his victim outright or working wires 
otherwise his friends — for the " job," as his opportunity 
is now styled. 

He joins the club and poses, or hanging to the coat- 
tails of his friends he teases for the "jobs" they may 
carry in their pockets, his mouth sticky and his hands 
dirty, pulling and working for "more." Then he 
starves in the lower ranks of a doubtful aristocracy 
unless he comes by influence in other than architectural 
ways, — by inheritance, by marriage, or by politics. I Joes 
a sale of property appear in a trade journal, immediately 
the owner is besieged by ten "first-class architects," 
suing for the privilege of submitting "samples free of 
charge," assuring the owner, meanwhile, that he would be 
granting a personal favor in permitting them to do so, 
and if the samples were not what he wanted they would 
love each other none the less. Or his friend drops in 
shortly after the owner decides to build and incidentally 
mentions so and so as a good fellow and a winning archi- 
tect. His wife, perhaps, has had influence brought to 
bear before he gets home, and while against the prin- 
ciples of the architect to work for nothing, yet the com- 
bination is of such a friendly nature as to form a special 
case, and "sketches," in this instance, in place of "sam- 
ples" are finally submitted to all intents and purposes as 
before, but a little higher in the social scale, inasmuch 
as the method is less rude and abrupt. 

The latest development is the hiring of a professional 
promoter by the year to drum up "trade" — mine and 
counter-mine the social system with pitfalls for the un- 
wary to be ensnared for the practice of his principal. 
And talk to the best of him concerning "professional" 
advertising, making capital of himself in subtle telling 
wa y S — poor devil, the naivete of some of him would wring 
the tear of pity from commerce herself. How many archi- 
tects would live (and they are just the number that 
should live) if they depended upon the work that came 
to them because of intelligent, critical appreciation of 
actual qualifications or work performed? There would 
be a good many, but probably about 7 per cent, of the 
profession. There is usually the maneuver, the pull, 
sometimes methods more open, but no more weak and 
shameful. 

Because this matter of architecture itself has become 
of little moment to the average client, architecture as a 
Fine Art is reallv out of it, and for the -present architec- 



ture as a commodity is a ease of friendly favor and inter- 
ference, or a matter of " fashion." 

The fact that all this has become so generally accepted 

as good form is proof of the architect's danger and the 
damnable weakness of his position. 

Another feature of his present plight is that not 
wholly respecting himself (how can he?) he is apt to be 
a hypersensitive individual, and like other unfortunates 
who depend upon pre-eminence of personality to get in 
the way of "the choosers" he is interested in pretty 
much everything as long as lie counts one, and at that 
No. 1 ; none of his bloom or luster is to be rubbed off 
by contact. So, concerted effort in matters touching the 
welfare of his profession is rare among him. 

Perhaps this is in the nature of the proposition. 
There are intelligent architects who argue that only 
the selfish few give value to art, the high lights only 
give value to the pattern of the fabric; but I believe it is 
because of warp and wool, undertone and motive, that 
he has any value as a " high light," and that type of in- 
dividualism is one of the superstitions lie must shed be- 
fore he comes to his own. 

The architect, so called to-day, is struggling in a gen- 
eral depression in the level of his art, owing to the un- 
known character of the country patiently awaiting his ex- 
ploration, prophesied by the past, but of which no map 
may yet be made, and of which no chart has been pro- 
vided by the schools. 

He is complacent inanity personified, and counts not 
at all ; or blinded by the baser elements of commerce, 
choked by greed, goaded by ambition for "success" of 
the current type, the feverish unrest, common to false 
ideals, racks his bones and wastes his substance until he 
finally settles, da/.ed and empty, in his muddy tracks, 
which amounts, I suppose, to giving the people what 
they want. 

For the generalization of the situation, then, the 
architect is rapidly becoming accepted as a middle-man, 
or broker, with the business instinct and ability, but who 
can have no business integrity because of the nature of 
his self-imposed occupation. He sells the public ready- 
made imported architecture that he himself buys in a 
" job lot " of unfortunates in a " home " which lie estab- 
lishes to protect them from a condition which he himself 
has developed and fostered. This architect lire is applied 
to his client's condition as a poultice or porous plaster 
would be applied to his aching back, and is accepted with 
a clamor for "more" through lack of acquaintance with 
the real thing, lack of an ideal and of educational force 
in the profession itself. Meanwhile the younger aspir- 
ant for better things is either assimilated by the winners, 
plucked and shoved behind the scenes with the unfortu- 
nate, or settles down to give the people what they want, 
which simply means producing more of the type the 
plan factory fashions. 

An example of a once noble profession prostituted by 

"commercial knight of untiring industry," abandoned t>> 

her fate by the "architect" (in quotation marks), who 
shrugs his shoulders, looks aghast, and contributes 
inocuous expectation of her ability "to pull out" (and 
pull him out tool to the general blight. 

And why this net-work of cross purposes? 

Is it because the architect is now confronted with a 



126 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



condition which they gay demands a combination of two 
of him and a corps of trained experts, where before one 
was absolute? 

Is it because he is now in a position that demands 
that an intricate commercial machine be perfected to 
carry into effect an idea? 

( >r is it because architect tire is a great thing in small 
hands, and ideals, noble theories, if you will, •'the rails 
of the track on which the car of Progress runs" have 
fallen to disrepute? 

"Give me a great thought," cried the dying Herder, 
"that 1 may refresh myself with it." 

lie was of the stuff from which an architect is made. 

The regeneration of architecture does not lie in the 
hands of classicist, or fashion-monger of the Bast nor 
of the West. 

Their work is almost written at its Length, and no 
spark of life and but a shroud of artistic respectability 
will cling t<> it half a century hence. 

It is but archaeological dry bones bleaching in the sun! 

America will regard it as crude. Chicago, even now, 
regards her County Courthouse as something weak and 
servile, an insult to the people who entrusted to chosen 
ones the fruit of honest toil and were betrayed to perpetu- 
ate the degenerate art of a degenerate people. 

The American nation has a heart and backbone of its 
own, and is rapidly forming a mind of its own. It has 
not yet been taught self-expression except in the matter 
of dollars and cents, and recently of war. Presently 
Light, Grace, anil Ethics, true to as virile an in- 
dividuality as history has known, will come as naturally 
to her as the breath of life that is already hers; and then, 
oh, ye Stuffed Prophets of Plethoric "Success"! will 
she look with pride Upon the time that you bedizened her 
with borrowed finery; pierced her ears for borrowed 
ornaments; taught her to speak with a lisp, and minee in 
her gait? No! Your very success was your undoing 
and her disgrace. 

In her new code no one man will be entrusted with 
the amount of work that occasioned the "plan factory." 
As no Rockefeller may rise to a legitimate point of van- 
tage that would justify the control of such a vast share 
of the earth's resources, how unspeakably imlgar and 
illegitimate ivill it be for one man to n inter take in the Fine 
Arts more than he can characterize in noble fashion as a 
work of Art! 

The plan factory is the product of a raw commercial 
state, perhaps a necessary evil to be passed through as 
we pass through the dark before day. 

Perhaps the epidemic of Renaissance, French, Dutch, 
and English, that encumbers the land was a contagious 
malady such as little children bring from school. Soonest 
over, soonest mended. 

It is argued that we are witnessing the same develop- 
ment in architecture that we see is legitimate enough as 
a means to an end in trade, as the department store and 
the trust. Rut it is not in architecture a development, 
but a reflection, or reflex action, that is passing but caus- 
ing painful confusion. It is making of art a net-work of 
cross purposes, but temporarily. 

Art will reign as long as life, and greater than ever 
her prestige, when the harmony between commerce, sci- 
ence, and art is better understood. 



It is this Harmony, this Commercialism, that the 
younger architect should strive t<> understand and appre- 
ciate, for it is the measure of his technique in his new 
field ; but he should strive to understand it as a " master," 
not as a "huckster"; to poetize and deify it as an instru- 
ment in his hands. 

He should help his lame, halt, and blind profession 
again to its place by respecting his art and respecting 
himself ; by making the solution of problems that come 
fairly his way such as will compel the recognition that 
there is no commercial dignity without that kind of art ; 
that will make the man of business see that a Greek tem- 
ple made over to trade is an unhallowed joke, and that 
he is the butt when genuine dignity and beauty might 
be his for less money ; that will make the householder 
realize that if he would live in a Louis XV. environment, 
he is but a step removed from the savage, with a ring in 
his nose ; and make it felt that architecture is not a mat- 
ter of the scene painting of periods, nor a mere matter 
of scene painting in any sense whatever. 

Give back the slogan "agood copy is better than a 
poor original " to those whose desire for " success " out- 
measured their capacity to perform and who framed it 
in self-defense. 

" A poor thing but mine own " is better stuff for men 
when coupled with reverence and honesty, and carries 
the fundamental principle' of harmonious independence 
graven over the gate of the new country promised of 
old. 

The architect should help the people to feel that 
architecture is a destroyer of vulgarity, sham, and pre- 
tense, a benefactor of tired nerves and jaded souls, an 
educator in the higher ideals and better purposes of yes- 
terday, to-day, and to-morrow. 

Such an art only is characteristic of the better phase 
of commercialism itself, and is true to American inde- 
pendence. America's hatred of cant, hypocrisy, and base 
imitation. 

When once Americans arc taught in terms of building 
construction the principles so dear to them at their fire- 
sides, the architect will have arrived. 

Put his own education is a matter of the greatest con- 
cern. We all catch a glimpse of the magnificent await- 
ing him. but how to prepare him is a more difficult 
matter. 

It is for a higher law and more freedom in his archi- 
tectural school that we plead, not anarchy — a deeper 
sense of the significance to his Art of Nature, manly 
independence, and vigorous imagination, a truer rever- 
ence for his precedent. lie should learn method of 
attack ; have cultivated in him the quality that gets at an 
architectural proposition from the inside outward, tor and 
by itself. He should be a thinking quantity when he 
leaves school. Standing on his own legs, such as they 
are. with ears and eyes wide open, receptive, eager, and 

enthusiastic; his faculties sharpened by metaphysical 
drill, his heart wide open to beauty, whether of a spe- 
cific brand or no; and a W orker first, last, and all the time 
a worker; his mind alive to opportunity, knowing the 
direction in which it lies, gauging his own fitness in 
relation to it; far-sighted enough to decline the opportu- 
nity that he was unfitted to undertake if it should come 
to him (and many such do come to all architects); coura- 



THE BRICKIUTIL I) E R 



127 



geous enough to decline it and wait for one " his size." 
And when it came he would make it count without mak- 
ing his client pay too large for a share of his education 
in the field. 

He would gain experience and strength, and build up 
solidly, if slowly; and the respect and confidence would 
in time be his that would make his personality a power 
for the architectural good of his country. 

His experience is to be gained only by solving prob- 
lems for and by themselves. 

Advice never built a character worth the name, 
though advice is good. 

So an architect may practise architecture extensively 
with book and precedent, and die without experience, 
without a character. 

The man who has worked out the salvation of a sum- 
mer cottage on his merits, held the conditions in rational 
solution, and expressed them in terms of wood and plas- 
ter, with beauty germane to the proposition, has more 
valuable experience than he who builds a city with the 
pomp and circumstance of established forms. 

The education of the architect should commence when 
he is two days old — " three days is too much " — and con- 
tinue until he passes beyond, leaving his experiments by 
the wayside to serve his profession as warning signs or 
guide-posts. 

The kindergarten circle of sympathetic discernment 
should be drawn about him when he is born, and he 
should be brought into contact with Nature by prophet 
and seer until abiding sympathy with her is his. He 
should be a true child of hers, in touch with her moods, 
discerning her principles and harmonics until his soul 
overflows with love of Nature in the highest, and his 
mind is stored with a technical knowledge of her forms 
and processes. 

Braced and stayed by that, he should move into the 
thick of civilization to study man and his methods in the 
things that are his and the ways thereof, taking his aver- 
ages and unraveling seeming inconsistencies, shoulder to 
shoulder with his fellow-men as one with them. 

Meanwhile, as his discipline, he should acquire the 
technical skill of the mill, forge, and try-pit of commerce 
in the light of science; study the beauty of the world 
as created by the hand of man, as his birthright and 
his advantage; finding his passion and delight in var- 
ious initial steps of composition with the encouraging 
guidance of a catholic-minded, Nature-wise, and loving 
master. 

In short, a master that would make the distinction be- 
tween Fine Art and Fine Artisanship plain. 

Now he is taught certain architectural phraseology of 
form and color dubbed " grammar " by his professors, 
and much foreign technique. 

If teaching him that minutes and modules of the 
architraves and cornice of one type in certain measure 
make Greek, and of another type in combination make 
Roman, and when they corrode each other the result is 
" Renaissance " — there he is taught " grammar." 

I imagine it to be a more difficult matter to teach 
him the " grammar " of Goth and Moore; but architec- 
ture has no business primarily with this " grammar," 
which, at its best, I suppose, might mean putting the 
architectural together correctly, but as taught means put- 



ting the architectural together as predetermined by fash- 
sion of previous races and conditions. 

So the young student is eternally damned by the 
dogmas of Vignola and Vitruvius, provided with a fine 
repertoire of stock phrases as architectural capital and 
technique enough to make them go if he is let alone and 
conditions are favorable, which he never is and they never 
are. 

He comes to think these tine phrases and this tech- 
nique are architecture, and sells both in judicious mixture 
to the " buyers" as such with the circumstance of the 
"scholar" and the " classical, " and he would be shocked 
if told that he is a swindler. 

He is sent out a callow, complacent fledgling, sure of 
his precedent, afraid of little but failure to "succeed," 
puffed up with architectural "Excelsior," and wadded 
with "deafening," to become soaked and sodden in the 
field, hopelessly out of shape. 

The architect primarily should have something of his 
own to say, or keep silence. 

There are more legitimate fields of action for hi in 
than the field of architecture. 

If he has that something to say in noble form, gracious 
line, and living color, each expression will have a 
"grammar " of its own, using the term in its best sense, 
and will speak the universal language of Beauty in no cir- 
cumscribed series of set architectural phrase as used by 
people in other times, although a language in harmony 
with elemental laws to be deduced from the beautiful of 
all peoples in all time. 

This elemental law and order of the beautiful is as 
much more profound than the accepted grammatical of 
phrase in architecture as Nature is deeper than Fashion. 

Let the young student add to his wisdom the strength 
and wisdom of past ages; that is his advantage. But let 
him live his ozvn life, nor mistake for the Spirit the Letter. 

I would see him relieved of the unnatural, educational 
incubus that sowed the seed of the plan factory and 
nurtured the false ideals that enable it to exist. 

I would see him relieved of architectural lockjaw, 
not by prying the set teeth of his Art apart with a crow- 
bar, nor by cracking its jaws with a sledge-hammer, but 
by a realization that life was given the architect that ar- 
chitecture may grow and expand naturally as a noble 
Fine Art and as becomes a free-hearted, vigorous young 
people. 

It may be that the very cosmopolitan nature of our 
nation will prevent a narrow confirmation of any one 
type. 

I hope that we are destined to greater variety in unity 
than has yet existed in the art of a great people. 

The very Strength of individuality developed in a free 
nation, and the richness of our inheritance, will find ex- 
pression in more diverse and splendid ways than could 
be expected of a more narrowlv nurtured race. Yet it 
will find expression in an art that is indigenous and 
characteristic as an architecture measured by the laws oi 
Fine Art, the hardy grace of the wild flower, perhaps, 
rather than the cultivated richness of the rose, but a 
further contribution to the art of the world, not a 
servile extraction ! 

The architect has a hard road to travel and Car to go. 

He should know what he is to encounter in the field. 



I 2 8 



T II E B RICK IH T ILD E R 



and be trained to meet it by men who have faced it in all 
its ugly significance with unconquerable soul and clear 
vision. 

He should understand that to go into the field penni- 
less with a family to support means the ultimate addition 
of one more craven to the ranks, unless some chance 
saves him, or his fortitude is of the stuff that will see his 
wife and children suffer for ideals that may seem ridicu- 
lous, and are to the average mind incomprehensible. 

[f he goes single-handed he must he content to walk 
behind, to work and wait. 

The work to he done by the young architect entering 
the lists would better he done by him whose hoard and 
lodging is assured for life, and whose communication 
with his base of supplies is not apt to he cut off. 

lie is going into a country almost abandoned to the 
enemy. 

Yet the hardy pioneer who takes his architectural life 
in hand and fares boldly forth in quest of his ideal, not 
scorning hardtack for food nor a plank for a bed, 

•• Withal a soul like the bird, 
Who, pausing in her Sight 
Awhile on boughs too slight, 
Feels them give way beneatb her and yet sin^s. 
Knowing that she hath wings," 

is perhaps the Stuff from which the missionary we need 
is to come. The spirit that conquered Western wilds 
and turned them to fallow fields transmuted to the 
realm of Art, a hoy with the heart of a king; the scent 
of the pine woods dee]) in his nostrils, sweetness and 
li,L, r ht in his soul the erudition of tin- world at his fingers' 
ends. Will the flickering art spirit of this age produce 
him"- If he is the stuff that architects are made of, lie is 
not to he discouraged by limitations. 

The limitations within which an artist works do grind 
him, and sometimes seem insurmountable; yet without 
these very limitations there is no art. They are at once 
his problems and his best friends, his salvation in 
disguise. 

In the arts every problem carries within, its own solu- 
tion, and the only way yet discovered to reach it is a very 
painstaking way to sympathetically look within the 
thing itself, to proceed to analyze and sift it, to extract 
its own consistent and essential beauty, which means its 
common sense truthfully idealized. 

That is the heart of the poetry that lives in archi- 
tecture. 

That is wdiat they should teach the young architect in 
the schools, beginning early. lint the schools will have 
to be taught before they will ever teach him. 

His scientific possibilities and demands have outrun 
his hand-made Art as planned for him in the school 
curriculum. He is without lettered precedent as he 
stands to-day on the threshold of great development in 
the industrial direction of the world. 

A highly organized, complex condition confronts him. 

He will understand it, learn the secret of its cor- 
respondencies and their harmonics, and work with them. 
not against them. For his Art is of Life itself; it will 
endure. 

Life is preparing the stuff to satisfy the coming 
demand; and the architect will know the capacities of 



modern methods, processes, and machines, and become 
their master. He will sense the significance to his art 
of the new materials that are his, of which steel is but 
one. 

He will show in his work that he has been emanci- 
pated from the meager unit established by brick arch 
and stone lintel, and his imagination will transfigure to 
new beauty his primitive art. 

He will realize that the narrow limitations of struc- 
ture outlined in his precedents are too mean and small to 
be longer useful or binding, and that he is comparatively 

a free man to clothe new structural conditions in the liv- 
ing flesh of virile imagination. 

He will write large, in beautiful character, the song of 
steel and steam : 

"Lord, thou hast made this world below the shadow of a 
dream. 
And taught by time. I take it so, exceptin' always steam." 

Romance! Those first-class passengers, they like it very 

well. 
Printed ami hound in little bonks, but why don't poets tell? 
I'm sick of all their quirks and turns, the loves and doves they 

dream. 
Lord! Send a man like Bobbie Burns to sing the song of 

steam, 
To match with Scotia's noblest speech, yon orchestra sublime, 
Whereto uplifted like the Just the tail rods mark the 

time, 
The crank-throws give the double bass, the feed-pump sobs 

and heaves ; 
And now the main eccentrics start their quarrel on the 

sheaves, 
Her time her own appointed time the rocking link-head 

bides. 
Till hear that note the rods return, whings glimmering 

through the guides. 
They're all away, true beat, full power, the clanging chorus 

goes 
Clear to the tunnel where they sit. my purring dynamos. 
Interdependence absolute, foreseen, ordained, decreed. 
To work yell note at any tilt, on any rate of speed, 
From skylight lift to furnace bars, backed, bolted, braced, and 

stayed. 
And singing like the morning stars for joy that they are 

made ; 
While, out o' touch of vanity, the sweating thrust-block says ; 
" Not unto us the praise, or man not unto us the praise. 
Xow all together, hear them lift their lessons, theirs and 

mine : 
Law, Order, Duty, and Restraint, Obedience, Discipline. 
Mill, forge, and try-pit taught them that when roaring they 

arose. 
And th' while 1 wonder if a soul was gied them wi' the blows. 
Oh, for a man to weld it then in one trip-hammer strain. 
Till even first-class passengers could tell the meanin' plain." 

The architect will weld that strain and build that song 
in noble line and form. 

He will write that record for all time. 

He may not last to "judge her line or take her curve, " 
but he may say that he, too, has lived and worked; 
whether he has done well or ill, he will have worked 
as a man and given a shoulder to his fellows climbing 
after. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



129 



Selected Miscellany. 



NOTEvS FROM NEW YORK. 

As usual, the influence of a presidential year is making 
itself felt among the building and kindred trades. From 
now until the first of next year it is not likely that much 




HOUSE AT GERMANTOWN, PA. 

Lawrence Visscher Boyd, Architect. 

work of importance will be undertaken, al- 
though there is no diminution in the wonder- 
ful activity in regard to cottage building in 
the suburbs and moderate-priced apartments 
in the city. 

The Record ami Guide has for several 
weeks past contained a series of interesting 
and rather acrimonious letters in regard to 
model tenement buildings, a subject which is 
agitating the architects and reformers of New 
York at present. The participants in the dis- 
cussion are a " reform " architect, who has 
made a study of the subject in conjunction 
with the Charity Organization Society, and a 
practical investor and builder, who has studied 
the problem and built a high class of tene- 
ments in the city for twenty years. Their 
favorite plans were published side by side 



and will certainly do much to provoke discussion of 
the subject, which is always a long step towards the solu- 
tion of a problem. In most cases the criticisms were 
just, and many Haws made apparent in both plans. 
Coming as it docs just after the award of (he Tenement 
House Commission of prizes in a model competition, the 
result of which was announced in The Brickbuilder, the 
discussion was very timely and entertaining, and the end 
thereof is not yet in sight. 

A fin-dc-siccle institution, of which we 
are justly proud, is the establishment of 
small parks in the crowded parts of the city. 
St. John's Park, which was designed by 
Carrere & Hastings, and which is a little 
gem, looks now as though it were here to 
stay, as the newness has worn off, the shrubs 
and trees have developed into luxuriant 
growth, and tlie hard granite walls of the 
shelter are overgrown with beautiful clinging 
vines. In Hamilton Fish Park, which has 
just been opened, a larger amount of space 
has been left for children's playground than 
is usual in such cases. In too many parks 
the lawns are reserved as beauty spots to be 
gazed upon with awe, but not to be desecrated 





HOUSE AT GERMANTOWN, PA. 
Lawrence Visscher Boyd, Architect. 



HOUSE AT GERMANTOWN, PA. 
Lawrence Visscher Boyd, Architect. 

by the feet of children. Larger -raveled and 
asphalted areas for playground and only 
enough of grass, tree, and shrub to meet the 
aesthetic requirements are what is wanted if 
the parks are to serve their proper functions. 

I would like particularly to call the atten- 
tion of the readers of The Brickbu k to 

a practice which is becoming popular among 
architects, even anion- those who stand at 

the head of the profession, and which upon 

serious consideration will surely be found 

very unjust and inexcusable. I refer to the 
custom oi compelling contractors to estimate 
upon Large and important jobs from plans 
drawn to ' >■: scale, and with no dimensions or 
thicknesses of walls figured. My attention 
was called to this by a contractor who was 



170 



Til E I! R I C K BU I L I) KR 



asked to estimate upon the general contract for a build- 
ing which will cost $3,000,000, and where the plans were 
as stated above. He said he positively could not tell 
whether the brick walls were intended to be 20 or 24 ins. 



trad as lowest bidder, having figured on walls of the 
smaller dimension, if he insisted on building them thus 
instead of thicker, to suit the architect? Another injus- 
tice often added to this is that the plans given contrac- 




BOTANICAL MUSEUM, BRONX^PARK, NEW VORK. 
Architectural terra-cotta executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

k. W. Gibson, Architect. 



thick, so, of course, to protect himself, he figured on the 
larger dimension, which adds perhaps $5,000 to the total, 

and which the owner has to stand. Would not a con- 
tractor be upheld l>v the law if he were awarded the eon- 




SCULPT0R VI WORK, AT Works or PERTH AMBOY TERRA 
COTTA COMPANY, ON STATUE OF ST. WOISIIM. ST. 
iUGUSTINE R. C. CHURCH, PITTSBURGH, I'A. 

Kutan & Russell, Architects. 



tors for estimating are blue prints, //"/ c<>/<>r<</. I know 
of a ease where a carpenter's bid was thrown out be- 
cause he had included in his bid a lot of terra-cotta work, 
which he had no means of knowing was not to be wood. 
I hope that architects will give this matter some consid- 
eration. 

Boring & Tilton have been awarded the competition 

for the Joseph Tome Industrial School buildings, to be 
erected at Port Deposit, Md., at a cost of about $1,000,000. 

\ 

NOTES FROM CHICAGO. 

Shepley, kutan & Coolidge have been selected to 
design the new Carnegie Library, to cost $50,000, at 
Sedalia, Mo. 

The firm of Long & Nothnagel, architects, has been 
dissolved. Mr. John T. Long retiring, and Mr. C. W. 
Nothnagel continuing at [85 Dearborn Street. 

S. A. Treat and A. K. Adler. son of the late Dank- 
mar Adler, have associated under the firm name of Treat 
& Adler. 

The Illinois Hoard of Examiners of architects have 
revoked the license of Benjamin H. Eden, of Alton, 111., 
for placing his seal on the plans of several unlicensed 
architects, these acts coming under the head of ••dis- 
honest practices" within the meaning of the license law. 

The trustees of the sanitary district, of Chicago, 
through Franklin McVeagh, president of the Municipal 
Art League, have appointed P. B. Wight and Martin 
Roche to assist the engineers in designing the approaches, 
etc., for six new bridges to span the Chicago River. 
Those at Canal, State, and Randolph Streets will be 
erected first, with others to follow at Harrison, Polk, 
Eighteenth, and Main Streets. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



L3 1 






3333333333 rp;;;;;;;;;; I ;;;;;;;;;;; > 




TRIBUNE BUILDING, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

Entire front of glazed brick, furnished by the Tiffany Enameled Brick 

Company, and glazed tcrra-cotta furnished by the American 

Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company. 

Frederick Kees, Architect. 

NOTES FROM ST. LOUIS. 

The prevailing high prices of building materials con- 
tribute largely to the continued dulness in building 
circles. Many important improvements which the archi- 
tects have been working on have been held up or aban- 
doned, and there seems to be little encouragement in the 
outlook for the immediate future. 

The decrease in the value of buildings for which per- 
mits were issued during the month of April was 80 per 
cent, below that for the corresponding month, last year. 

The question of a new City Hospital has been taken 
up again by the municipal assembly, with a hope that they 



/rjff.s , 




WINDOW HF.A1), HOTEL FOR WHITE ESTATE, NEW YORK 
CITY. 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 
Barney & Chapman, Architei I 



may be able to find a sufficient fund with which to com- 
mence the building, 

Considerable interest was taken in the annual exhibi- 
tion of the vSt. Louis Architectural Club, held at the 




WINDOW CROWN, APARTMENT HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 
The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

Museum of Fine Arts, from April 12 to April 22, inclu- 
sive, which afforded an unusual opportunity for the lay- 
men to study the work of some of the leading architects 
and decorators of our own country as well as of Europe. 
As the exhibit was practically the same 
as that of the T Square Club and the 
Chicago Architectural Club, it has been 
thoroughly described heretofore. Of 
the local portion of the exhibit, the 
drawings submitted in the competitions 
for the buildings of the Washington 
University and for the St. Louis Trust 
Company were perhaps the most im- 
portant. 

Mr. William B. Ittner, the architect 
of the school board, will spend his 
vacation in Europe, visiting the Ex- 
position before returning. 



IN GENERAL. 

The following named architects 
have been appointed to represent the 
United States at the Fifth Internat- 
ional Congress of architects, to be held 
in Paris at the end of July: Robert S. 
Peabody and T. M. Clark, Boston; 
Prof. William R. Ware, New York; 
Albert Kelscy, Philadelphia; and W. 
L. B. Jenney of Chicago and George 
( ). Totten of Washington, who were 
appointed at the Brussels Congress, 
three years ago, as honorary members 
of the permanent committee for the 
organization of the present congress. 

R. Guastavino Company, in order 

to better accommodate their New York WINDOW COl 1 MN, 

business, have leased, for office pur- VPARTMEN 1, 

poses, the house No. 49 Fast [9th NEW YORK CITY. 

Street ^' w J erse y ' ' ' ' ' 

Cotta Company. 



Charles Bacon, Boston representa 



makers, 



J 3 2 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 




MERCANTILE BUILDING, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Above first story tbe building is of lighl red terra-cotta, executed by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 

Francis II. Kimball, Architect. 



tive for the Celadon Terra-cotta Company, Ltd., reports 
the following new contracts for roofing tile: Southern 
gate house, Spot Pond, Mass., Shepley, Rutan & 

Coolidge, architects; residence at Weston, Mass., J. E. 
(.'handler, architect. As representative of Sayre & Fisher 
Company, Mr. Bacon reports contracts for: Two new- 
residences, Fenway, Boston, Peabody <.V Stearns, archi- 
tects; building for Lawrence Estate, Boston, A. II. 
Vinal, architect; pumping station. Spot Pond, Mass.. 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects; engine house, 
Boston, J. A. Fox, architect; residence. Fenway, Boston, 
W. T. Sears, architect. 

The Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company are now supply- 
ing the terra-cotta on the following contracts: Ditson 
Building, Boston, Mass., Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, 



architects: Apartment House. 
Morningside Avenue, New- 
York City, Harry B. Mulliken, 
architect; Bryant Park Studio 
Building, New York City, 
Charles A. Rich, architect; 
summer residence, William K. 
Vanderbilt, Long Island, 
Richard II. Hunt, architect; 
school building, New Haven, 
Conn., Brown & Von Beren. 
architects; Title & Trust 
Company Building, Connells- 
ville. Pa.. James T. Steen, 
architect: Carlyle Chambers, 
Xew York City. Herts & 
Tallant, architects; office 
building tor Girard Estate, 
Philadelphia, Pa., J. H. Wind- 
rim, architect; office building, 
A t 1 a n tic Mutual Insurance 
Company, New York City, 
Clinton & Russell, architects. 

Sayre and Fisher Company 
have recently closed contracts 
to furnish all the front brick 
for the Atlantic Mutual Insur- 
ance Company's new building, 
located at corner of Wall and 
William Streets; also all the 
front brick for the Mutual 
Life Insurance Company's 
new building, running from Libert} - to Cedar, between 
William and Nassau Streets; also the large Durland Rid- 
ing Academy at 66th Street and Central Park, West. 

The two buildings mentioned first will require, ap- 
proximately, 1,000.000 of semi-glazed white brick; the 




; 




)tS 




BALUSTRADE. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

C. W. Bolton, Architect. 



KEY AND \kCIIIVol.T OF \\ ENTRANCE. 

Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

Stroch, Brown >v German, Architects. 

academy will take 150,000 old-gold brick. This company 
has done a good business since the first of the year, not- 
withstanding the general falling off in building opera- 
tions. 

Edward R. Diggs & Co., Baltimore, general agents 
for building material supplies, have moved their princi- 
pal offices to Washington, I). C, same being located at 
1 2 16 G Street, X. W. Mr. I >i.^.^s is a resident of Balti- 
more, and the firm will still continue an office there, but 
a rapidly increasing business has made it necessary to 
establish headquarters in Washington. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

JULY, 

I900. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. (). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12. iS.,j. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed fiat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers .......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ....... $6.00 per year 

SUBSI RIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



GOOD MECHANICS. 

7"*HERE is a disposition on -the part of most of ns to 
give every well-meaning; mechanic a fair chance; 
and when the architect exercises his undoubted preroga- 
tive in restricting the competition for a piece of work to 
those who have done his work in the past, it often gives 
rise to a feeling' of unfairness, which at first thought 
seems justified. And yet there is another way of looking 
at this question. In conversation a short time since with 
one of our most prominent builders, an architect of more 
than national reputation was being' discussed, and the 
secrets of his success were being' analyzed. The state- 
ment was made that he owed a very considerable element 
of his success t<> the fact that he resolutely refused to al- 
low his clients to employ any but the very best builders, 
with the consequence that his buildings were invariably 
well built, were completed on time, and stood the test of 
wear. This is something' that the beginner in architec- 
ture often fails to realize, and the temptation to meet 
the desires of an owner by allowing' an interior con- 
tractor to bid, or by accepting' figures from an unknown 
mechanic, is often the first step towards a ruined reputa- 
tion. It is not the province of the architect to guarantee 
or be responsible for the quality of work which the builder 
does. At the same time, the community judges the 
architect by his completed building's, and if lie is so 
unfortunate as to have his work executed by careless 
or ignorant workmen, his reputation, though he may 



be entirely blameless, is sure to suffer. So that it 
is decidedly to the advantage of the architect that a most 
rigid selection should be made of the parties to whom he 
is to entrust work. It is equally to the advantage of the 
builders themselves that the best workmanship should 
win the best rewards. Every builder wants all he can 
get honestly, and yet, also, we fancy that any builder, 
however inefficient in his methods, would prefer to owe 
his successes to the intrinsic quality of his work, rather 
than to the mere chance permission or selection on the 
part of an indifferent architect or owner. If it were 
more difficult for poor mechanics to get work to do. there 
would be a higher grade of mechanics as a natural result. 
And if the obtaining of work were strictly conditional 
upon a good record in the past, that would be one of the 
highest incentives for the production of the very best 
quality of work under all circumstances. 



NON FIRE-PROOF TENEMENTS. 

IX our May issue we referred to a bill which had passed 
to a third reading before the Massachusetts Legisla- 
ture, so drawn as to permit of four-story non-fire-proof 
tenement or apartment houses being erected within city 
limits. We regret to say that this act has been finally 
passed by the legislature and signed by the governor, and 
that the opposition represented by the Master Builders' 
Association and the Boston Society of Architects was of 
no avail as against the urgings of the Real Estate Ex- 
change. Massachusetts has on the whole been singularly 
favored in the matter of legislative building enactments. 
Her laws have been generally well chosen, and have 
shown a tendency to encourage the best work, to reduce 
the opportunities for dishonest constructions, and to 
recognize the opinions of the most conservative and the 
most advanced thinkers on building construction and 
science. This is, as nearly as we can recall, the first in- 
stance in which purely financial considerations have been 
allowed to over-ride what is recognized to be the essen- 
tial condition of security and good building. The act is 
thoroughly reprehensible. The fact that a few real estate 
owners claim themselves aggrieved because they could 
not under the old laws develop their properties as they 
pleased, is the least of reasons which ought to have 
weighed with sensible legislators in considering a propo- 
sition to throw down the bars. This measure is a step 
twenty-five years backwards, and one which will be suit 
to give occasion for much regret in the future, unless a 
succeeding legislature is sufficiently fortunate to In- able 
to reconsider this unwise enactment, and provide for 
building hereafter nothing but fire-prooi structures in 
the heart of this great city. 



'34 



THE BR I C K BU I LI) E R 



BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION, III. 

A FARMHOUSE. 

PROGRAM. 

THE problem is a farmhouse, barn, etc., to be built 
on a farm adjoining the sea. The farm ten years 
ago was in good condition, but the buildings were burnt, 
and now little remains except an overgrown cart track 
and the cellar of the house, to indicate its original condi- 
tion. From the plan will be seen the general lay of the 
land, and the position of the old cellar. 26 by 50 ft., the 
creek, the brook, the pond, and the trees. 

The new owner wishes to rebuild. He has a wife and 
four children, keeps one servant, and has two farm-hands 




AmJ 



IT toy ys 






>fUn o^JlU ■%* 



in the house. He wishes to utilize the old foundation, 
but will have to build larger. The situation is dry, 
and he prefers a story and a half house to two stories or 
more. The house will be of brick from the adjoining 
kiln. It is to contain a large kitchen and an open shed 
or summer kitchen adjoining, where even in winter wash- 
ing can he done: a large living room and a small office or 
sitting room for his wife. They have town water supply 
so that they can have a closet for the men on the first floor, 
and a bath room on the second. There will be three bed 
rooms on the ground floor for farm-hands, and four on 
the second floor. 

The barns, etc.. will be on the level ground to the 
north, with the farmyard facing south. The barn must 
accommodate eight (8) cows, four (4) horses, pens for 
pigs varying from two or three to a dozen, loose boxes, 
one or two, for calving or for a sick horse, sheds for 
wagons and farm implements and machinery, paddocks, 
sunny and warm, for winter for both cows and horses. 
Space is to be reserved and laid out for a hedged garden. 

The general style of the house will be very simple, 
even quite plain; its charm depending largely on the 
masses and their disposition, on the proportion of the 
rooms, rather than on decoration. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED: One elevation, ortwo.if 
necessary, to show both house and barn. In one corner 
on the same sheet is to be a sketch plan of the group, not 
necessarily to scale, but giving the complete lay-out and 
surroundings, as shown on the accompanying sketch. 
The drawing is to be in black ink without wash, upon a 
sheet measuring 15% by 10 ins. 



Bach drawing is to be signed by a nom de plume or 
device, and accompanying the same is to be a sealed 
envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior, and con- 
taining the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered, flat, at the office of 
Thb Brk kbuilder, 85 Water Street, boston, on or before 
September 1, 1900. For the three designs placed first, The 
Brickbuilder offers prizes of twenty-five, fifteen, and 
ten dollars, respectively. All premiated drawings are to 
become the property of The I i i< 1 « kbi 11 der, and the right 
is reserved to publish any and all drawings submitted. 
Some well-known architect, whose name will be an- 
nounced later, will judge and criticize this competition. 



INTERIOR 'd-' Till-: CHURCH AT ASSISI, 
ITALY. 

I REPRESSIVENESS in interior architecture is gained 
in different ways. In the cathedrals of Amiens, or 
Cologne, the vast height of the nave and the splendidly 
narrowing perspectives of the aisles are tremendously 
effective. The impressi veness of Monreale conies from 
its brilliantly colored mosaics and graceful proportions; 
that of St. Peters from its enormous scale and rich 
decorations. At Assisi the elements of size, of height, 
and of brilliant color are lacking. As one enters the lower 
church, with eyes blinded by the bright Italian sunlight 
which floods thepiassa, the gloom of the cavernous interior 
seems almost inpciietrable, and nothing can be discerned 
of the details which crowd the walls. But, little by little, 
as the eyes become accustomed to the darkness, the forms 
of the architecture begin to be made out: the massively 
groined vaults, the deeply hollowed chapels, the sturdy 
pillars, and the shadowy altar assume shape. Aside from 
the broad beam of sunshine which streams in from the 
Open door, no light reaches the interior except through 
a few narrow and richly stained windows. Then gradu- 
ally it is perceived that the aiches. ceilings, and walls are 
covered with the most brilliant frescos and arabesques, 
and the effect is seen to be one of the most impressive 
that the mind of man has ever conceived. 

The church of St. Francis, at Assisi, consists really of 
two churches, one above the other. The lower church, 
which is the subject of our illustration, was begun in 
122S, according to Vasari, by Jacopo Tedesco; but after 
1232, it appears to have been handed over to Filippo da 
Campello. The chapels are crowded with tombs and relics, 
but the especial interest of the interior lies in the famous 
series of frescos by < riotto, the scenes from the life of Jesus 
in the transept, and especially the four famous paintings 
on the vaulting above the high altar illustrative of the 
vows of the Franciscan order: Poverty, Chastity, and 
Obedience, and an apotheosis of St. Francis. Simonds, 
in his "Renaissance in Italy," says of these paintings, 
that "Giotto approached the deep things of the Christian 
faith and the legend of St. Francis in the spirit of a man 
bent simply on realizing the objects of his belief as 
facts. His allegories of Poverty, Chastity, and Obedience 
at Assisi are as beautifully and powerfully felt as they 
are carefully constructed. Vet they conceal no abstruse 
spiritual meaning, but are plainly painted ' for the poor 
laitv of love to read. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



135 



An Architects Itinerary. 

BY H. I',. PENNELL. 

IT is quite as difficult, and perhaps quite as unimpor- 
tant, for a writer to compose an article on European 
travel without plagiarism as it is for an architect to design 
a building which attempts to disclaim its ancestry. Per- 
haps in either case a familiar truth in new dress can lay 
the best claim to originality. Surely the fact that archi- 
tecture is composed of two elements, theory and practice, 
is as old as art itself. By theory, we mean knowledge of 
the rules of architecture; by practice, the application of 
the theory in brick and stone. In other words, architec- 
ture includes traditions, laws, and formulas as well as 




TEMPLE OF NEPTUNE AT l'.KSTUM. 

their expression in concrete form. Theory is the art, the 
science, the history, the education of taste, and sense of 
proportion ; practice is effecting a result by the combina- 
tion of these elements in building materials, and adapting 
them to the requirements of the problem, the civilization, 
and epoch. Each of these parts is necessary to the whole, 
architecture. When we study a building it is not enough 
to examine its plan, its construction, its composition 
merely; we should inquire into its historical antecedents, 
the nature of the materials used, the exigencies of the 
climate, the customs of the times, and the needs of the 
people. 

Much lias been written of the educational benefit to 
the architectural student of measuring and drawing the 
buildings of Europe, and studying them in plan and 
elevation, section and detail. In England, especially, is 
this method paramount; in France; it is happily preceded 
by thorough academic training; and wherever or when- 
ever it is used, it should be combined with a wide knowl- 
edge of the history and science of architecture. < Uherwise, 
the theoretical education is only partial and will result in 
practical archaeology, — medievalism or classicism, incon- 
gruous and inappropriate. So deeply is the American 
student imbued with the necessity of using the two-foot 
rule, that his tendency is to know the length and thick- 
ness of the huge stones of a mediaeval palace before he 
considers their connection with the "strenuous life" of 
the times. We are not of the opinion, however, that it is 
unprofitable to carefully measure and draw out existing 
buildings, even if they have been done ever so accurately, 
and published by other and abler men. Such work is 



very instructive, and, combined with other methods of 
observation, will undoubtedly be beneficial. lint this 
should not finish our study of that particular building, 
and if there is time for only one thing, we much prefer 
the more general knowledge to the accumulation of archi- 
tectural data, or the making of small sketches, which, 
however edifying to the uninitiated, arc of little value 
except for practice in drawing. 

The disregard for the historical significance of archi- 
tecture is largely responsible tor the modern imitations 
of former styles; and not until architects have the proper 
reverence for the latter, can clients be dissuaded from 
building Francis I. chateaux, or living in meaningless 
Empire or Louis' rooms. The present chaotic condition 
in this regard can only be righted by concerted action; 
and in the mean time it is incumbent upon students to 
understand the variations in style of the different epochs 
and countries, their relationships and development, in 
order to appreciate their true meaning and character. 

To do this it is necessary for the architectural student 
on a European trip to have a systematic plan of travels, 
and to travel slowly. It is quite out of the question to 
adopt the method of the typical American tourist, whose 
celerity will always be an object of wonder to Europeans. 
The capacity to take in all Europe on a short vacation, 
the ability to sum up in a few words the relative merits 
of countries, governments, and peoples, — to say nothing 
of their art, — is distinctly a tourist's prerogative. Com- 
ments on their travels, heard on multitudes of return- 
ing steamers, are seldom more comprehensive than: 
"London was drizzly," "St. Peter's was awfully dis- 
appointing," or "Oh, wasn't St. Mark's lovely by 
moonlight?" It is beyond human possibility for a stu- 
dent to travel as a great many tourists do and receive any 




INTERIOR, CAPELLA PALATINA, PALERMO, SICILY, 



i 3 6 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



real benefit, artistically, from what he has seen. To him, 
one gallery or one building studied carefully is of more 
value than many countries seen in a confused and super- 
ficial way in a few months. Just as there is no "royal 
road to Learning," so there are no rapid transit facilities; 
and although it may not be possible to convince him of 
it before he has made both experiments for himself, it 
would be far wiser for an art student with only a few 
weeks at his disposal to devote his entire attention to one 
city, or one county, or at most one country, than to adopt 
the usual tourists' method. Take Warwickshire, Eng- 
land, for example. ( )ne*s time could easily and profitably 
be spent in studying the houses, gardens, and churches. 
London alone is almost a whole continent, both in area 
and in the comprehensiveness of its wonderful museum 
collections; while either Paris or Rome can be only 
casually seen in less than a month. 

Then the indispensable Baedekers, with their conve- 
nient routes arranged in geographical order, regardlessof 
the confusion of ideas or sentiments they may create 
in one's mind, are adapted to a tourist's, not a student's, 
needs. Hundreds or even thousands of years may have 
elapsed and their artistic results entirely disappeared 



shores of France are next sought, and here, owing to the 
existing confusion of styles, he looks at Romanesque, 
Gothic, and Renaissance in quick succession, without any 
attempt at classification, and judges everything from the 
ordinary personal standpoint of like and dislike. We 
feel sincerely sorry for our student, for we have suffered 
with him. There may have been reasons why the journey 
was not arranged differently. He may have started in 
summer, and as the guidebooks said Italy was hot, he- 
took the northern route. But personal comfort or dis- 
comfort is a poor guide to follow, for it is quite as dis- 
agreeably warm in England in July as it is cold in Rome 
in December. Or he may have wished merely to sec 
everything, intending to rearrange it in his mind when 
he had time, which never happened. 

Doubtless there are many and various opinions as to 
the disposition of one's time in Europe. Whether it 
shall be devoted to travel, to academic study, or to a 
happy combination of both depends largely on the pre- 
vious training and the taste of the student. But, as has 
been said, it is certain that it is necessary to travel 
slowly, and to arrange one's journey as chronologically 
as the geographical conditions will permit. For instance, 




A GREEK I UFA IKK AT TAORMINA, 



between the fall of one city and the rise of another not an 
hour's ride distant. Even in the same city, the conven- 
tional route planned to avoid the necessity of retracing 
our steps leads us out of some isolated classic temple of 
extinct civilization, under the walls of a mediaeval for- 
tress, and into a modern cathedral, whose very classicism 
makes it difficult to separate in our minds the anthems of 
the Christian church from those we have just imagined 
we heard chanted to the great god Pan. 

It is almost a misfortune, perhaps, to the architectural 
student that Europe lies with its west coast — the coast 
of most recent civilization nearest to us. The Ameri- 
can student, arriving from the New World, finds it neces- 
sary to say his architectural alphabet backwards. England 
being most convenient to reach is naturally the first place 
visited, and the adopted home of Gothic architecture is 
known before the land of its birth and development. The 



in Italy. Rome and Ravenna should be known in order 
that their influence might be traced westward across the 
continent during the Middle Ages; the Gothic cathedrals 
of France should be studied after the Northern Roman- 
esque, and before those of England or Germany; the 
ornamental character of the Gothic influenced the 
Renaissance on its introduction into France and resulted 
in Francis I. work; classic art had its rebirth in Italy, 
and we should become acquainted with it there before 
meeting its English, French, or German relatives; ancient 
Rome contained all the elements of the Renaissance, 
while Roman architecture must be traced back, as you 
would navigate a river, until the springs of purest water 
are found at the source, in Greece. We should begin, 
then, at the source, and go down-stream. It is certain 
that a trip planned in this way would be most satisfying 
in its impressions, and the systematic study most 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



M7 




SARCOPHAGUS, CALLED ALEXANDERS MUSEUM, AT CONSTAN 

TINOPLE. 

beneficial in its results. Let us map out an ideal 
itinerary upon these lines, and formulate a method for 
observation and study. 

There need be no uncertainty where to begin our 
journey. We will take a steamer for Naples, and no 
bay could form a more imposing entrance to the scene of 
our travels. Whether it be by night or by day, we can- 
not be disappointed. At night the lights of the city 
gleam like a necklace of opals about the throat of the 
harbor; and in the morning the city, spread over its 
many hills, lies before us. On one side Prosillipus 
shades the tomb of Virgil with its umbrella pines; on the 
other, Torre del Greco and Pompeii lie at the foot of 
Vesuvius, with bloody mouth still gloating over its prey. 
Castellamare and Sorrento continue the coast line, and 
far out to sea, looking like another fleecy cloud, lies the 
rocky isle of Capri. We land, and proceed at once to 
Paestum to see the ancient temple that, in the sixtli 
century, B. c, adventurous Greeks erected to Poseidon. 
It has been familiar to us, perhaps for years, in books 
and photographs, but it is the actual presence of it as it 
looms before us at the rounding of a curve in the railroad 
that fixes its real aspect in our minds forever. The rum 
stands, isolated and majestic, on the fever-stricken 
marshes where once thrived a busy Hellenic city, and 
still faces the sea, which, like its god, has long since 
deserted the shrine. We have just read the history and 
pictured in our minds the days when Rome was but a few 
hovels, in order that we may sympathetically and intelli- 
gently enjoy our first sight of early Creek art. Slowly 
the picture of the past completes itself, and in its true 
light the temple stands revealed. We are not now 



archaeologists, but architects, living in the age of our 
building. We stay here several hours, studying each 
detail of its organism, comparing the proportions <>i 

column and entablature with those of the Parthenon, 
drawings of which we have brought with us. Then we 
visit the neighboring Basilica and Temple of Ceres, 
thinking over the chain of centuries that connects the 
past with the present. An old shepherd passes with his 
dog and Hocks, and we realize that his type is all that 
remains of that primitive civilization. Our return trip 
to Naples leads us along the magnificent highway to 
Amalti, with Ravello on the mountain above it, and 
across on a boat to Capri, thence back to Sorrento and 
Castellamare. At Naples we go to the museum and look 
only at the few Greek statues and the collection of vases. 
Here our method of study is to begin with the Greek 
originals or ancient copies, and take the rest in turn. In 
this way we make sure of our first impressions instead of 
enervating ourselves before hundreds of mediocre and 
promiscuous works. Before leaving the museum we 
return to the masterpieces. We are astonished to find 
them even more beautiful than at first, and readily 
understand why they are unique. There are few line 
Greek statues in Naples, so after looking at the Greek 
bronzes and excellent painted frieze from Peestum of 
warriors departing for battle, we leave Naples for Sicily. 
The Florio-Rubattino steamer leaves at 8 p. m., and 
in the morning we find ourselves at Palermo. The 
museum contains the recently discovered metopes of 
Selinus, whose archaic character shows that sculpture 
was less well developed than architecture at that period. 
The various political changes <>t' Sicily have left their 
stamp on the architecture of Palermo, and our study of 
early Greek work is interrupted by our admiration for 
the mosaics in the Capella Palatina, Monreale and 
Martorano, and the Cathedral at Cefalu. Segesta is next 
on our route; and the unfinished Doric temple is best 
reached on horseback from Calatifimi. The same day 
we go on to Selinus, where the grand temples on an 
eminence overlooking the sea give us our first conception 
of an acropolis. A prostrate Atlantis lying near the 
Temple of Zeus is the sole remaining giant inhabitant of 
Girgenti, which Pindar called "the most beautiful city of 
mortals." In the rock-cut theater at Syracuse, we 
imagine Greek actors in a classic tragedy, and listen to 




SAN I \ SOPH] \. CONSTAN flNOPl I , 



M* 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



reverberating echoes in the Ear of Dionysus. The 
height <>f enjoyment in our Sicilian tour is reached at 
Taormina. We are attracted by the great beauty of its 
situation, its romantic history, its charming Greek 
theater facing Mt. Etna, and no less by the modern 
luxuries at the hotel on the site of an ancient monastery. 
We leave Sicily at Messina for Piraeus, and land almost 
in sight of the Acropolis of Athens, reaching the first 
goal of our journey with minds prepared to appreciate 
the epitome of architecture. 

Our first duty is to review Greek history and refresh 
our memories on Greek mythology and art, reconstructing 




INTERIOR OF SANTA SOPHIA, CONSTANTINOPLE. 

from plans and restorations the temples and monuments, 
and from history the country and civilization. Then 
days and weeks may be spent in Athens in noting the 
careful workmanship, and in sketching the delicate forms 
and noble disposition of masses with which the Greeks 
stamped their personality on their work. Constantino- 
ple is easily and quickly reached by various lines of 
steamers from Piraeus. An added inducement to visit 
this city, whose cathedral is dedicated to holy wisdom, is 
offered by the Greek sarcophagi recently discovered at 
Sidon, and now in the museum here. Concerning the 
Alexander sarcophagus, which dates from the fourth 
century, B. C, and is the most beautiful and best preserved 
of the group, Gardner says, "No one who has not seen 
this sarcophagus can realize the effect produced by a 
correct and artistic application of color to sculpture." 
Santa Sophia is the Parthenon of Byzantine architecture. 
Its dome is as vast and as lightly suspended as ever; but 
infidel hands have covered the golden mosaics, and the 
huge green shields on the four corner piers announce 




RESTORATION or THE ROMAN FORUM. 

that Allah is (hid, and Mohammed, llis Prophet. The 
turbaned guide, in recognition of the dollar just paid 
him, points a scornful finger at the Christian cross, 
dimly showing on the vaults; but neither the frenzied 
devotion of the Dervishes, nor the magnificent spectacle 
of the Salamlek, is enough to convince us, as we leave 
the Golden Horn, that one day the ancient mosaics shall 

not again appear. 

Returning, we leave the steamer at Piraeus and cross 
Greece by train, first making a short trip in the interior 
to Corinth, Argos, and Mycenae and Epidaurus; then <>n 

to Olympia, and leave Patras for Brindisi. From Greece 
tlii' course of empire took its way westward. Rome was 
the arena of the centuries intervening between Athens 
and Byzantium, and Pompeii is the intermediate step. 




PORCH OF SAINT-TROPHIME \l ARLES, PROVENCE, FRANCE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



i39 




TRANSEPT WINDOW, AMIENS CATHEDRAL, AMIENS, FRANCE. 



140 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




CHATEAU DE CHAUMONT SIR LOIRE. 

The newly excavated house of Vetius, with its architec- 
ture, sculpture, mosaics, frescoes, fountains, and gar- 
dens, is a well-preserved example of the architecture of 
the time. Already we can see evidences of the con- 
querors. In imagination we turn from the festal pro- 
eession, filing around the courtyard of the Temple of 
Apollo and past the statues of Greek cult, to j^reet 
another procession entering under the triumphal arches 
in the Forum; and before the greatest temple, that of 
Jupiter, listen to Roman orators extolling the god of 
their victorious arms. Later the gods were forgotten, 
and statues of conquering emperors occupied the sacred 
pedestals, bearing the attributes of Jupiter. 

In Rome all our ingenuity is taxed to carry out our 
chosen program. We must conscientiously go to the 
Forum and the Palatine Hill, to Hadrian's Villa and the 
Baths of Caracalla, and out on the Appian Way, with 
Lanciani's works and photographs of restorations in hand, 
until classic Rome is completely before our minds. We 
will go to the Lateran Museum on the day that the pagan 
sculpture is exhibited and view the remnants of a deca- 
dent art whose zenith we have already seen, and then to 
the Colosseum, where, amid the prayers of dying martyrs, 
the bloody fabric of Rome fell, and the dawn of a new 
era appeared. 

Much has been written of this most interesting period 
in Roman annals; and before beginning the study of 
early Christian art we need to become acquainted with 
the social conditions. There is no better book than 
"Quo Vadis" to gradually awaken our pagan conscience 
to receive the new revelation. We must commence our 
study with the catacombs and the early sarcophagi in 
the museums, and find the beginnings of the new art as 
debased as the decadence of paganism. The refined 
proportions of Greek statues and the rounded muscles of 
the athletes failed to interest the believers in the new doc- 
trine that the body is nothing, the soul everything. 
Rome has many churches which show the earliest experi- 
ments in Christian architecture, but not until Constan- 
tine had removed the scat of empire to Byzantium was 
anything of value produced. Then, gradually, artists 
became accustomed to using colored mosaics for walls 
and ceiling, and representing their figures in garments of 
Oriental splendor. In the churches of S. Paolo Fuori, 



Sta. Maria Maggiore, S. Lorenzo, Sta. Agnese, Sta. 
Maria in Cosmedin, S. Clemente, etc., we see the grad- 
ual growth of the basilican type. The abundant frag- 
ments of ancient ornament in porticoes and cloisters 
represent Eastern as well as Roman motives. The 
churches of Rome, together with those in Tuscany, 
carry us across tire abyss of mediaeval art in Italy up to 
the fourteenth century. 

In the latter part of the fifteenth century we see the 
Renaissance, after which the baroque and rococo sprang 
up like mushrooms. The villas of the popes and the 
palaces of noble families next invite our attention. With 
Renaissance architecture we begin to reap the benefit of 
our systematic study. Like the architects of the fifteenth 
century we are familiar with the monuments of ancient 
Rome, and we can find in the baths and tombs of Rome 
and Pompeii the precedents of the details of the columns, 
caps, and moldings, of the colored stucco decoration of 
ceilings and pilasters, and of the appearance of pagan 
gods and goddesses as motives of ornament. 

Rome possesses unlimited wealth of artistic treasure. 
Permissions to work in the museums, galleries, or public 
buildings are readily granted to students, and it is vain 
to expect to find in Italy a more fruitful place to study. 
Rome is the architectural Mecca of Italy as Paris is of 
France. 

The pursuit of our course of historical study north of 
Pome is a simple task. We have already found painting 
and sculpture inseparably connected with architecture. 
It is only in modern times and owing to the complex 
conditions of life that they have formed distinct branches 
and grown out of sympathy with architecture and with 




1 \i \[)K OK THE CHAPEL, VERSAILLES, FRANCE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



141 



each other, much to the detriment of the greater art and 
more so of the lesser arts. Not until they shall once 
more be in unison, can we expect to see works like those 
of the old masters who worked in all three branches as 
one art. In the galleries of Perugia and Florence the 
works of each school are admirably arranged to give one 
an understanding of their characteristics; and we trace 
the influences of masters upon pupils in chronological 
order, fixing in our minds ineffaceable memories of 
favorite pictures. 

The palaces of Florence are a distinctive expression 
in architecture of an age and social condition. Family 
feuds were incessant, and the nobles erected huge two- 
story structures reaching the height of a modern ten- 
story building. The bravado Cellini, recounting his ex- 
ploits, could give a no more vivid picture of the times 
than did the architect by the character of these buildings. 
Historically, they succeeded a style whose masterpieces 
were for religious or civil purposes, which hitherto had 
been the domain of architecture. Before leaving Flor- 
ence, we will make excursions to Lucca, Pistoia, and 
Pisa, and to the surrounding country and hills. 

From Florence we goto Venice, and thence westward 
across northern Italy to Genoa. Padua, Verona, Mantua, 
Cremona, Piacenza, Milan, and Pavia were important 
centers in the development of Lombard architecture in 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries. We are following 
the route the Eastern merchants took when Ravenna 
was one of the important ports of southern Europe, and 
Eastern architectural influence, as well as Eastern stuffs, 
was carried across Italy and the Riviera into France and 
Spain. 

We enter France through Provence, and become 
acquainted with the charming Romanesque of Aries, 
Nimes, and Avignon, where sculptured apostles and saints 
struggle to preserve their identity amid classic Roman 
details, in the porches of St. -Trophime, St.-Gilles, and 
Notre Dame des Doms. Byzantine influence spread 
north into Aquitania, and appears in St. Front at Peri- 
gueux, which copies the plan but not the vaulting of St. 
Mark's. At Cahors we find an imitation of St. Irene at 
Constantinople. 

In central France the development of church vault- 
ing began, and we must take Viollet-le-Duc, Corroyer, 
and Moore for our guides if we wish to intelligently 
follow the successive steps in the growth of Gothic 
architecture. The theory and general principles of this 
style may be already well understood, but their applica- 
tion is best comprehended by observation. There is no 
more interesting literature on architectural history than 
that relating to this subject. The stupendous cathedrals 
aremiracles in stone, wrought by the religious enthusiasm 
of the people, as well as marvelous examples of an archi- 
tectural style, which, in attempting to solve a structural 
problem, resulted in a harmonious and organic system of 
construction and decoration. That there is as much both 
in detail and in composition to be learned from the 
Gothic architects as from the Renaissance masters is cer- 
tain ; while certain parts, as for instance, the north door 
of the Notre Dame, in Paris, can be compared in artistic 
beauty to Greek proportion and refinement alone. 
Whether because our modern civilization is more like the 
Grecian, or because of our academic training and classi- 



cal tastes, the architecture of the earlier race seems 
nearer to us in point of time than does the Christian 
architecture of the Middle Ages. Whatever may be the 
architectural "mode" for the present, both the Greek 
and the Gothic should be carefully studied as they are 
exemplification of our first statement concerning theory 
and practice in architecture. 

Besides the cathedrals in the Royal Domain, those of 
Normandy. Burgundy, and Champagne are most worthy 
of study, and easily reached by train or bicycle. Wheel- 
ing has many delightful advantages and attractions, and 
the Loire valley with its many chateaux is one of the 
most interesting routes. 

It is impossible to write of an architect's itinerary 
without an enthusiastic mention of the student's advan- 
tages at the Ecole in Paris. The previous travel and 
systematic study of the architecture of the past will only 
be an added inspiration in the solution of the ideal prob- 
lems. The months, or even more fortunate years, of 
study in Paris necessary to get the diploma will be pleas- 
antly varied by summer vacations in .Switzerland, Ger- 
many, or Holland. 

We have purposely made Spain the last country to be 
visited on the continent. In historical value the Roman- 
esque and Gothic churches do not differ greatly from 
contemporary French examples which served as models 
for many important buildings. The detail was even 
richer, and the facades more ornate, but with a lack of 
logic and constructive qualities found in France. The 
Alhambra is the masterpiece of Spain, and its gorgeous 
color decoration, the stalactites, and intersecting lines of 
geometric patterns are all reminders of our first acquaint- 
ance with Palermo, where the Christians conquered the 
hated moslems, but copied their architectural style in 
their churches. 

From Gibraltar we will sail to England, and continue 
our study on a bicycle trip, as the beautiful country with 
its fine old houses and churches is the chief attraction. 
Letters of introduction are almost a necessity in order to 
gain admittance to most estates, but the utmost courtesy 
is generally shown to students. There are too many 
tours possible through England to make it necessary to 
advocate any one especially. What is most important is 
to know beforehand what one wishes to see, and locate it 
on the ma]), for the most interesting houses and gardens 
will otherwise be passed by unseen. 

In keeping with the domestic architecture of England 
is the modern movement in textile arts, etc. in London, 
which, while productive of much that is purely commer- 
cial, is also one of the most hopeful signs of modern times. 
The different societies working to produce harmony in 
the allied arts deserve greatest support and encourage- 
ment from architects especially; for the successful results 
of united efforts by painters, sculptors, and architects 
will be most beneficial to architecture in general. 



We have received the catalogue of the exhibition 
which was held in the Carnegie Art Galleries by the Pitts- 
burgh Architectural Club. All can be said of this cata- 
logue that has been said of previous exhibitions, and it 
is certainly no small praise to say that it holds its own 
very favorably with the showing of the New York and 
Philadelphia exhibitions. 



142 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Designing and Planning of Small 
Railroad Stations. 

BY ALFRED HOYT GRANGER. 

IT is only within the past few years that the great rail- 
mads in the Middle and Western States have deemed 
it necessary to employ an architect upon their smaller 
stations. Heretofore, the engineering departments pre- 
pared plans and specifications for all but the large city 




GENERAL WAITING Room, STATION, CLYBOURN JUNCTION, 
ILL., CHICAGO \ND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 

terminals. Mr. Richardson, by demonstrating to the 
traveling public how beautiful and appropriate a small 
station can be, inaugurated the change, and now we see 
on many of the great lines, notably the Chicago and 
Northwestern, the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul, the 
Rock Island, and the Burlington, stations either fulfilling 
or striving to fulfil the architect's dream of beauty and 
appropriateness. < *ne of the most hopeful characteristics 
of our American people is its passion for perfection in 
whatever it undertakes, and in this passion lies the great- 
est hope for our architecture. Just at present we are apt 
to be led astray by a desire to reproduce some of the 
beauties of Europe in new and strange surroundings and 
for stranger purposes. Such reproductions can never 
take root or be anything more than exotics, and our prac- 
tical Yankee common sense will soon lead us past this 
transition stage. In railway station building the require- 





STATION, CLYBOURN JUNCTION, ILL., CHICAGO AND NORTH- 
WESTERN RAILROAD. 

ments, while simple, are iron bound and are fast making 
an established style for such work. In this paper it is 
my purpose to speak only of the town or country station 
which requires a totally different handling from the city 
terminal. The plan, as I said above, is a very simple 
one. 

The main requirements are waiting rooms, women's 
retiring' rooms, lavatories, ticket office, telegraph office, 
baggage and express rooms. 

If the station is to be built in a manufacturing town, 
it is necessarv to have two waiting rooms of equal or 




STATION, CLYBOURN JUNCTION, III.., CHICAGO AND NORTH- 
WESTERN RAILROAD. 



STATION, RAVENSWOOD, ILL., CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN 

K All ROAD. 

nearly equal size, and both must command the track so 
that the passengers may have every warning of approach- 
ing trains. The old plan of having a ticket window in each 
room has been generally abandoned, and large ticket 
windows are located in a lobby or ante room between the 
two waiting rooms and facing the entrance vestibule. In 
this arrangement the traveler can purchase his ticket 
when entering the station, and after doing so can sit 
in either waiting room without worry until his train 
arrives. Each waiting room must have convenient lava- 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



H3 




tories and ample exits upon the platforms. These exits 
should be planned to leave a portion of the room retired 
and free from draughts, and the entrances and exits 
should be so placed that the waiting rooms are not mere 
passages, but allow for passengers plenty of space for 
quiet waiting, free from the annoyance of constantly 





STATION, RAVENSWOOD, II. I.., CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN 
RAILROAD. 

passing crowds. A drinking fountain is a desirable 
feature in a waiting room, and with proper study can be 
truly a thing of beauty. In the better class of suburban 
stations, ofttimes the plan of a large general waiting room, 
with a small retiring room for women at one end and a 
corresponding smoking room for men at the other end, 
makes a simpler and more interesting building. In such 



stations a floor of large red tiles in the large 
waiting room is both beautiful and practical. 
The ticket office should be located on the 
platform side of the station that the telegraph 
operator may command the trains. In many 
cases it is necessary to have a small room oil' 
the ticket office for a train order room, which 
keeps all employees out of the waiting rooms. 
The baggage and express rooms are prefera- 
bly located towards the larger terminal. If 
these rooms are separated from the main 
station by a covered passage ,^o to 40 ft. in 
length, ample space is given for handling 
baggage even at times of extraordinary 
travel. This covered passage, carefully 
handled, becomes a most pleasing architec- 
tural feature. As a railroad station is pri- 
marily a shelter where people may wait for 
trains, this characteristic should lie emphasized in the 
design. The waiting rooms should be very open to the 
light, while, at the same time, all piers should be even 
unduly heavy to counteract the constant jarring of pass- 
ing trains. For similar reasons the design of a station 
should depend upon simple and dignified proportions for 
its beauty, as much ornamental detail is manifestly out of 
place. If the town in which the station is to be located 
has any marked characteristics, these may rightly be in- 
dicated in the design. The material of the station is also 
ofttimes governed by the locality. For example, the 
station at Oconomowoc, Wis., on the Chicago, Mil- 




STATION, IMOIII.ANI) PARK, II, I., CHICAGO \M> NORTHWESTERN 

R VILRO \l>. 




SHELTER STATION, HIGHLAND PARK, ILL., CHICAGO AND 
NORTHWESTERN KAI I. ROAD. 



waukee, and St. Paul Railroad, is built of split granite 
boulders as is the one at Hartland, Wis., on the same 
line, because they are found in large quantities in the 
vicinity. Unless, as in the two eases just mentioned, 
stone abounds in the immediate neighborhood, brick 
is the best material to be used. When the station is a 
brick one, it is not advisable to use much stone, as an 
all brick building is more consistent and, consequently, 
more architectural. In the past three years a new 
problem has arisen in and around Chicago because oi the 
elevating of all the tracks. This necessitates two build- 
ings: one the station proper directly accessible to all trains 
towards the city, with an auxiliary shelter and small 
baggage room for outgoing trains on the opposite side of 
the tracks. I show illustrations of three stations of this 



i 4 4 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



character: one at Ravenswood, 111., one at Highland Park. 
111., and one at Clybonrn Junction. In all stations of this 
character, the two buildings are connected by subways 
under the tracks. 
These subways are 
broad tunnels, lined 
with enameled brick 
and lighted by elec- 
tricity. The station 
at Clybourn is an 
" island " station, 
with tracks on both 
sides, and serves as 
a transfer between 
two main divisions 
of the Northwest- 
ern road. It is 

located centrally between these divisions, with tiny shelters 
covering the stairways to the outer tracks. These three 
stations, and some others which I show, are more suburban 
and, consequently, have no lunch room facilities. Where 




STATION, WINNETKA, 



.1.., CHICAGO \Mi NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 




STATION, PEWAUKEE, WIS., CHICAGO AM) NORTHWESTERN 

RAN. ROAD. 

lunch rooms arc needed they should he so placed that 
every table and the larger part of the lunch counter may 
command the tracks, as otherwise many a hungry traveler 
will suffer untold worry through fear of losing his train. 
It is also desirable that the lunch room should not com- 
municate directly with the waiting rooms in these smaller 
stations because of the flies and odors from cooking. 

The location of the station is a matter of considerable 
importance, and depends largely upon the character of 
the town in which it is to be built. In city suburbs. 




where there is a daily going to and fro of many people, it 
is desirable that the platform sheds should be placed close 
to the tracks so that passengers may be protected from the 

weather when get- 
ting on and off 
trains. Some rail- 
roads place the 
stations 30 or 40 ft. 
a w a y f r o m the 
tracks, but this is 
not desirable e x - 
c e p t in isolated 
points from which 
there is but little 
travel. Most 
smaller stations be- 
long to the side- 
house character, with through tracks upon but one side 
of the building; hence the platform shed should be long 
enough to afford shelter to all the traveling- public. 
Much stress is being laid these days upon the landscape 
effects around stations. The love of the beautiful is 
born in every man and grows with his opportunity for 
satisfying it. The more beautiful the surroundings of 
any building are, the more satisfactory is that building 
bound to be. Some roads embellish their station plats 
with numerous beds of gay flowers. This form of adorn- 
ment seems, however, to be more adapted to a ladv'sgar- 
den, and is not to be recommended. The most suitable 
and practical results are to be obtained by the plant- 
ing of shrubs and bushes which do not have to be re- 
newed each season, but steadily increase in value. Where 
the land allows it, the station should be approached on 
its town side by broad roadways, skirting the building so 
that many carriages can approach at the same time. 
These roadways when bordered with clumps of flowering 
shrubs are of great beauty, and give untold value to the 
architecture of the building. Where the character of the 
station and the climate allow it, plants of ampelopsis or 
Boston ivy should be set out when the grading is done, 
as they form the greatest embellishment. There is very 
little diversity in the plans shown as illustrative of this 
paper, but in almost every town where a station is needed 
there is some peculiar local point which makes the prob- 
lem interesting to a designer, and equally interesting, we 
hope, to the traveling public, for whose use these stations 
arc built, and upon whose criticism depends their real 
architectural future. 



STATION, BELOIT, WIS., CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE, AND ST. 
PALI. RAILROAD. 



A BRICK chimney, 160 ft. high and X'j ft. square at 
the base, and 4',. ft. diameter at the top, has been 
overthrown in St. Louis by the use of hydraulic jacks, 
says the Engineer. The chimney was first undermined 
on one side, and three 10- ton hydraulic jacks were placed 
in position tinder the side. A hawser was then fastened 
about the chimney, 60 ft. from the ground, and ropes led 
from this hawser to crabs placed at a distance of about 
100 ft. With eight men at each crab and men at the 
hydraulic jacks, the chimney was slightly lifted and 
pulled at the same time; the men at the jacks left their 
posts at the first warning crack, but those at the crabs 
continued their work until the chimney fell. — Scientific 
American. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



M5 



" The Brickbuilder ' Competition. II. 

COZY CORNER AND FIREPLACE IN THE 
LIBRARY. 



CRITICISM AND AWARD. 

BY GEORGE ]). MASON. 

LOOKING backward and reviewing the changes in 
character which have from time to time come over 
buildings in America, it is surprising to note the number 



Mansard, Victorian Gothic, Romanesque, Italian Renais- 
sance, and the present fever — English ( ; )- 

It is unfortunate that architects of fifteen years ago 
mistook the terms " rock -face " and "Romanesque" to 
be synonymous; equally unfortunate that those of ten 
years ago believed a draughtsman capable of drawing an 
arabesque-carved panel to be a consummate master of the 
style of the Italian Renaissance. Such has been the case, 
and the fault is still with us, as is evinced when we see 
the angular, unsightly buildings, with even more un- 
sightly interiors, which are being erected all about us, 
and which we are blandly informed are " English "! Not 



POOR 

BUT 

N E.EDY 




FIRST PRIZE DESIGN. 
Walter E. Rice, Boston, M vss. 



of evil influences which have been brought to bear upon 
what is called American architecture. It was well horn, 
but during the period of carpenters' classic, grew into 
degeneracy, and has since suffered from periodical 
attacks of virulent disease, which occur about every ten 
years, growing worse each time. The cause of these 
outbreaks is generally the importation of an alleged 
architectural style which is not suited to the conditions 
of life existing in America, and this "style" is worked 
out only in caricature. This is true of the early [talian, 



the "English" of Norman Shaw, of Arnold Mitchell, of 

Leonard Stokes, or of Ernest Newton, but of the sort 
that is illustrated in "The Studio," etc., an architei 

ture minus composition, proportion, and detail, sometimes 

decorated with trees growing up from the base and held 
in position l>v a picture molding; often they resemble 

the arm and leg bones of a human being, with ends cov- 

i red by a species of crinkled lettuce leal. This is the 
style which has influenced many of the designs entered 
in t his competit ion. 



46 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



: s 




i 1 > 

HEARTT 






SECOND PRIZE DESIGN. 
William L. Phillips, Rochester, N. Y 




THIRD PRIZE DESIGN. 
John Stafford White, St. Louis, Mo. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



H7 



There was but little difficulty in deciding which draw- 
ing- to place first. "Poor but Needy," while stiff in 
general effect, has in some respects a homelike character. 
The seats are broad and comfortable looking, the mantel 
is well proportioned, and in a colored faience or terra - 







^■m^^m^r^'" 



Mm. - M 



JL--.' ^-„*_ r -..^>.^ 




MENTION. 
(">. A. Frost, Toledo, Ohio. 

cotta could be developed into a pleasing design. The 
treatment of the ceiling and general lines of the room arc 
consistent. The handling of the window is commend- 
able for its simplicity; the cusped and pointed panels 
above the mantel shelf should have been omitted — at 
least over the picture. The wide projection to the sides 
of the mantel shelf and the large hinges to the cupboard 
doors would make the seats next the fireplace uncomfort- 
able. The beam and post treatment which separates the 




MENTION. 
Allen Winchester Jackson, Cambridge, Mass. 

nook from the main room is suggestive of a porch to a 
cheap seaside cottage. 

"Hearth," placed second, is the most interesting 
drawing submitted. It is precisely what is called for, 



and had it not been for the ugly fireplace and bulky 

detail between the windows, it would have been given 




DESIGN SUBMITTED BY CHARLES I. HOPPE, NEW YORK 
CITY. 

first place. The arrangement of pottery, pictures, etc., 
as well as the decorative way in which the drawing is 
presented, indicate that it is the work of an artist. 

There arc three designs which claim consideration in 




DESIGN SUBMITTED BY HAMILTON MURDOCK, SAN FRAN 
CISCO, CAL. 

arriving at a decision as to third place, "Beauvis," 
"Escutcheon," and "Black Cat." Of these, "Escutcheon" 
is the most interesting; but as in the design marked 
" Hearth," which, in drawing, it closely resembles, the 




DESIGN SUBMITTED l:\ GEORGE P. KIEFER, MILWAUKEE, 

WIS. 



148 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



mantel is displeasing. It is of a type that does not look well 
in terra-cotta or brick. The seat ends are awkward and the 
line of molding carried across under the windows seems 




1 



ports, would have greatly improved this design. It is 
free from the influence of fads; and if its author had as 
good an eve for proportion as for constructive effect it 
would have been placed high. To this design is awarded 
first honorable mention. 

" Black Cat " is fair in idea and better in proportion 
than "Beauvis"; it is similar to "Poor but Needy" in 
having large comfortable seats, but inferior to the latter 
in every respect. How did "Black Cat" expect to sup- 
port that segment over the fireplace? He would have 
done much better to have used an arch and omitted the 
gargoyles, evil geniuses, or whatever they may be, that 
appear to be springing out of the brickwork. The 
proper use of color might produce a "cozy corner" out 
of this design, and it is considered as worthy of mention. 

" Dele" and " King Philip" are interestingly drawn, 
but possess no merit whatever as designs. " Ouartre- 



DES1GN SUBMITTED BY HUGO H. ZIMMERMAN'S. CHICAGO, 

ILL. 



designed to fracture the skull of the person occupying 
the seat. However, with some modifications, this design 
might be placed in the hands of a good detailcr and made 
to look well, and is considered entitled to third place. 
The most interesting feature of this design is carrying 
the window treatment over the bookcases, which at first 




DESIGN SUBMITTED BY A. RAYMOND ELLIS, ALLSTON, MASS. 

glance are not apparent in the perspective. "Beauvis" 
is an instance of what might have been if the designer 
had given his subject a little more study. Increasing 
the distance between the top of pedestal and underside 
of beam, and substituting columns for the square sup- 




•Tb«.piaD 





IB? 




^$*^J mm Z T*'*j0 m y? SS i^ 




DESIGN SUBMITTED BY 1'. C NIROUS, MEDFORD, MASS. 

foil " has a sensible brick and terra-cotta mantel, but the 
balance of his design is an example of what not to do. 
" Wreath and Pipes " shows a design such as one sees in 
the catalogues of brick manufacturers; but if the orna- 
mentation had been omitted from the mantel this design 
would have been awarded a third mention. Of the other 
seven designs, none are worthy of serious comment. 



DESIGN SUBMITTED BY ANDREW I'. COOPER, UNIONTOWN, 

PA. 



WP arc in receipt of Vol. XIV. of the " Techno- 
graph," published annually by the Association of 
Engineering Societies of the University of Illinois, one 
of the most interesting of a series of technical publica- 
tions which is added to each year by our scientific schools. 
This number, the contributions of which are entirely from 
those connected in some manner with the University, 
contains several interesting and valuable papers, notably 
one on the manufacture of terra-cotta and its use as a 
building material, by IP A. Webber; and another by 
Newton A. Wells on the technical acquirements and 
difficulties of mural paintings, this last article being 
illustrated by photographs of the painted decorations 
made by Mr. Wells for the library of the University. 
The publication is obtainable at the University at a cost 
of fifty cents. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



149 



Fire-proofing. 



SOME INCONSISTENCIES IN MODERN FIRE- 
PROOF DESIGN. 

BY J. K. FREITAG. 

IN defining the word " fire-proof," the Century Diction- 
ary states that "buildings are rendered fire-pi-oof 
by the exclusive use in their construction of non-com- 
bustible materials, as stone, brick, iron, cement, concrete, 
and asbestos." To the non-technical reader, this defini- 
tion may answer about as well as a more specific one, 
but for those vitally interested in fire-proof construction, 
a more comprehensive, or rather a more accurate defini- 
tion is to be desired. 

In the first place, fire-proofing cannot be accomplished 
merely through the vise of incombustible materials; and, 
furthermore, the enumeration, without further qualifica- 
tion, of stone, iron, and cement as constituting materials 
producing fire-proof results, simply because they are in- 
combustible, is certainly misleading and must be seriously 
objected to as applied to building construction. 

A more satisfactory definition could be made as 
follows: Buildings are rendered fire-proof by the exclu- 
sive use in their construction of such materials as are 
themselves proof against serious damage by fire and 
water, or by the use of materials which are amply pro- 
tected by fire- and water-proof coverings. 

In the light of present knowledge, however, even this 
extended definition is not sufficient to define properly the 
ideal of fire-proof excellence, — for, in all things, an ideal 
must be set toward which all efforts tend, and through 
such striving alone improvement can be made possible. 

Ordinarily, the investor considers his structure fire- 
proof even in the highest degree of excellence, simply 
because the building has been provided with a framework 
of iron and steel, brick surrounding walls, tenra-cotta or 
concrete Moor systems, and possibly terra-cotta partitions. 
To such satisfaction, based on the elements mentioned, 
justifiable criticism may be offered. If, then, the com- 
monly accepted dictionary definition is criticised, and 
the prevalent estimation of fire-proofing qualities is 
questioned, the query: what is meant by the word 
"fire-proof" when used in connection with building 
construction, requires a satisfactory answer before incon- 
sistencies of fire-proof design can be discussed. 

If by the term " fire-proof " we mean simply that a 
structure will not collapse after passing through the 
ordeal of fire, the word has already been sufficiently de- 
fined. The employment of incombustible materials 
which will offer sufficient resistance to fire and water to 
still allow them to perform their load-carrying functions, 
will secure this result. Hut ideal fire-proofing must 
include other requirements no less important than mere 
stability. The structure must not only be incapable oJ 
collapse, but a minimum damage must result, not alone to 
the building itself, but to the contents as well; and to 
these requirements must be added all possible protection 
to insure the safety of the lives of those within the 
structure. 



For the building proper, the first question after dam- 
age by fire is that of reconstruction. Facility in this 
direction means gain in time and hence in renting value, 
as well as the decreased cost of repairs through the origi- 
nal employment of materials which suffer but little damage 
under the test conditions. The amount of reconstruction 
depends upon the extent or area of the fire and water dam- 
age, as well as upon the intensity of the test. If the fire 
is successfully confined to one apartment, it is probable 
that the intensity as well as the extent of the damage 
will be a minimum, for the volume and intensity of fire 
are vastly greater in large areas than in small ones. 

Respecting the contents, it is to be presumed that 
their actual value to the owner is in excess of their insur- 
ance value. In the case of mercantile buildings or 
department stores this is apt to be especially true, as the 
destruction of the contents may involve vast business 
interests, at busy seasons, which could be but very partially 
covered by insurance vahies. Here too, then, the ideal 
fire-proofing means the absolute minimum of damage to 
contents by either fire, water, or smoke, to insure con- 
tinuation of sales in the ease of a mercantile building, or 
the continued use in the case of an office building or hotel, 
of such portions of the building as were not directly 
reached by the fire itself. 

As to the safety of human lives, it is reasonable to pre- 
sume that the sense of security in a building, on the part 
of either inmate or visitor, would constitute a recommenda- 
tion for popular favor, an item not to be overlooked in 
the commercial value of the premises. From a humani- 
tarian standpoint, also, regardless of commercial value, 
the utmost safety to all human life must enter into ideal 
conditions. The stringent municipal regulations in regard 
to theatre construction and exits are so familiar as to 
need only mention of the fact. The audience varies from 
one thousand to possibly three thousand in number, while 
the real danger lies not in the auditorium, but in the 
stage, which is cut off from the audience by brick walls 
and asbestos curtain. For such gatherings the ordinary 
municipal building ordinance lays down exacting require- 
ments as to construction, design, and equipment, in spite 
of which such rapid destruction as was exhibited in the 
recent burning of the Theatre Francais in Paris is possi- 
ble. ' The following is taken from a newspaper account of 
the burning: — 

" It was, however, only a matter of an hour that saved 
Paris a repetition of the Opera Comique catastrophe, as a 
crowd of women and children had already gathered at the 
doors, awaiting the opening for the matinee, when tin- 
alarm was raised. Had the performance begun, few 
probably would have escaped, owing to the rapidity with 
which the flames spread, settling the fate of the building 
before the firemen could even get to work. 

" Meanwhile the fire brigade had been summoned, but 
twenty minutes elapsed before the first detachment ar- 
rived, and then only hand pumps were brought. Finally 
steam pumps came; but then it was found that no water 
was to be had. It was 12:45 ''■ M, i nearly three-quarters 
of an hour after the alarm was raised, before an adequate 
stream of water was poured into the burning building, 
which, by that time, was quite beyond help." 

The loss of life would undoubtedly have been very 
great had the fire occu rred during the performance; yet all 



1 5° 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



large cities undoubtedly contain hotels, apartment houses, 
or large department stores where even eight or ten thou- 
sand people may be in the structure at one and the same 
time, but where provision for the safety of such crowds 

has been passed over with but slight consideration. 

From the argument, thus far, it follows that a compre- 
hensive definition of "fire-proof" construction should 
embody not less than the following points: 

I. (<?) The exclusive use in construction of materials 
which are in themselves proof against serious damage by 
lire and water, or the use of materials which are adequately 
protected by lire- and water-proof coverings. 

(/>) The materials employed must permit of easy 
reconstruction. 

II. The internal plan or design must he made with 
especial reference to preventing communication between 
floor and Boor, and between different portions of the same 
floor. 

III. The exterior design to be such as to prevent the 
communication of fire from or to adjoining structures. 

from these requirements, it will be seen that fire-proof 
construction is a matter of rational and scientific design 
or planning of all the general features of a building, as 
well as the matter of detail in regard to the materials 
employed and the precise methods of their employ- 
ment. 

( )wing to the rapid development and general use of the 
terra-cotta and concrete systems, requirement I. is now 
very largely fulfilled ; but in spite of our present extended 
knowledge and most valuable experience, gained through 
the costly demonstrations afforded by many notable fires 
in what have been generally recognized as fire-proof 
buildings, many traditional methods and details of con- 
struction are still employed which constitute flagrant 
inconsistencies of rational fire-resisting design. 

The persistent use of wood in connection with pres- 
ent attempts to produce ideal conditions is somewhat 
remarkable, and decidedly inconsistent with past experi- 
ence. By this, the judicious use of limited quantities of 
interior trim and finish is not referred to, but rather the 
decidedly injudicious use of this material in large quanti- 
ties and in improper ways. As used for flooring, for ex- 
ample, it is taken as a matter of course that any building 
pretending to possess fire-proof qualities shall be pro- 
vided with a satisfactory fire-resisting floor system of 
terra-eotta, concrete, or composition material. Then, as 
though the use of any such system were entirely suf- 
ficient, the whole floor area is generally covered with a 
wood floor, and often with an under flooring of greater 
thickness. Were such floors always laid so that abso- 
lutely no air-spaces existed beneath them, the evil would 
be lessened, but the example of the Home Insurance 
Building tire in Xew York shows how easily such open 
spaces may be left beneath the flooring, to act as means 
of ready communication of flame, and to aid combus- 
tion. 

Another very ordinary fault attendant Upon the use 
of wood floors is that of allowing the terra-cotta parti- 
tions t<> be built upon such flooring, instead of reaching 
to the concrete or to the floor-arch proper. Many fail- 
ures of otherwise serviceable partitions are to be traced 
to this cause. 

But even when used with the greatest care, and with 



the avoidance of the faults above specified, the introduc- 
tion of such large quantities of combustible material 
within a building intended to resist the spread and dam- 
age of tire, cannot but be at variance with the principles 
of fire-resisting design. Satisfactory substitutions for 
wood flooring are surely to be had among the many non- 
combustible flooring materials now on the market. A 
material called " Lignolith " seems to offer many accept- 
able qualities, and this composition of wood fibre and 
non-hydraulic cement, set by means of certain acids, has 
already been used in several notable instances. It is fire- 
proof, waterproof, reasonably elastic, durable, and not 
cold or unyielding as tile or terrazo. For the corridors, 
at least, and for all public or much-used areas, some such 
floor as •' Lignolith " or tile or terrazo should most cer- 
tainly be used. 

Another unnecessary and menacing utilization of 
wood in large quantities lies in the ordinary construction 
of store counters and fixtures. The substitution of 
counters covered with sheet metal (except possiblv the 
polished wooden tops), with metal counters underneath 
and behind or along the walls, would greatly reduce the 
tire risk and ultimate damage to both stock and fixtures. 

In the matter of partitions also, great emphasis is apt 
to be laid on the fact that " tire-proof " partitions have 
been employed, consisting of terra-cotta blocks, or possi- 
bly a light framework of metal studding and metal lath- 
ing, covered by plaster, but it is probably no injustice to 
say that 75 per cent, of so-called fire-proof partitions 
would undoubtedly fail to accomplish their purpose un- 
der even moderately severe test conditions. 

Much has been said of late against the introduction of 
woodwork into partitions intended to resist attacks by 
fire, and still, even with such satisfactory means of rem- 
edying this defect as are at hand, note how present 
contracts still call for the old and inadequate methods. 
Highly varnished and combustible wooden doors, wood 
frames, architraves, and even sometimes wainscoting, are 
still employed in partitions separating rooms from corri- 
dors, and rooms of greater hazard from those containing 
materials or conditions of a less menacing character. In- 
terior sash, too, arc still to be found in recent work, in- 
troduced to transmit light from corridors to offices or 
hotel rooms, or to provide ventilation, the detail almost 
always calling for wooden frames and sash, and ordinary 
glass. 

To these very well-known inconsistencies must be 
added the practice of supporting the terra-cotta blocks 
over doorways upon the rough wood frames. This is 
most decidedly incompatible with any fire-retarding 
qualities which such partitions may be expected to pos- 
sess. In other cases the blocks arc not of sufficient 
thickness or stability to resist the force of fire hose. 

Such incongruities may be transposed into consistent 
and rational designs by employing metal studding for 
the framework of doors or other openings in terra-cotta 
partitions, as is done in many of the United States pub- 
lic buildings of recent design, and by using metal-covered 
doors, door frames, window sash, etc., as utilized by Mr. 
R. \V. Gibson, in the Onondaga County Savings Bank 
Building, Syracuse, X. V. Wire glass should also be 
substituted for the ordinary ^lass now used in such cases. 
( ( ontinued. ) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



l S l 



Selected Miscellany. 



NOTES FROM NEW YORK. 

The big taxes that real estate in New York is forced 
to pay these days is a very serious matter. Probably it 
has had as much to do, perhaps even more to do, with the 
decline in building operations than the advance in the 
price of building materials. Certainly, the two united 
have been decisive. One of these retarding factors 
promises, as we have seen, to pass away ; the other will 
remain to trouble us, unless the people of this city be- 
come a little more sensitive than they are about the ex- 
travagant manner in which the affairs of this municipality 
are being managed. However, we have had a very 
prosperous period during the present year, measured In- 
ordinary standards, and there are no events possible that 
can put us back into the condition that we were in from 
1893-96. That is, no conceivable event; for after four 
years of business prosperity and progress, we surely will 
all eagerly give our assistance in securing another such 
period of four years. 

Within the next decade, New York will become a city 
noted for its great bridges. The new East River bridge 




."-nail > i! SffffS! 

rirm 





SECURITY BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Built with Roman brick furnished by the Hydraulic-Press Brick 

Company. 

Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



BROADWAY CHAMBERS, BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY. 

Fire-proofed by the National Fire-proofing Company. 

Cass Gilbert, Architect. 

is well under way, the great steel towers looming up so 

that they are seen for miles around the country. Three 

other East River bridges are contemplated, all of which 

will tend to bind New York and Brooklyn closer; and the 

greatest of all, the immense North River bridge, for the 

construction of which contracts have been let, will be a 

great boon. Over this it is proposed to have the railroads 

run, and there will be one grand terminal in New York 

for all the roads now landing in New Jersey, whereby 

the time spent in ferry 

travel will be saved. 

It is promised that this 

will be one of the most 

wonderful bridges of 

its kind in the world. 

It will be nearly twice 

as large as any suspen- 

sion bridge now in 

existence. Its s t e e 1 

towers will rise to the 

height of 587 ft. above 

high water, more than 

250 ft. above the Statue 

of Liberty, and h a 1 f 

again as high as the 

tallest sky-scraper in 

the city. 

Mr. Howard Gould 

intends building a city 

re s i d c n cc on Fifth 

Avenue and a country 

. , . . ' CARTOUCHE. 

residence on bono- is- .. ,.,,,-. , .,. ,. , 

o New York Architectural rerra-Cotta 

land, the aggregate Company, makers. 




IS 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



cost being estimated at $1,000,000. Mr. Bruce 
Price will be the architect tor the country house 
and C. P. H. Gilbert for the city house. 




tectural Society, 
been sent out. 



The invitations have not vet 



NOTES FROM CHICAGO. 

Mr. \Y. L. B. Jenney. of this city, is one of 
the official delegates to the Fifth International 
Congress of Architects, to be held in Paris from 
July 28 to August 5. 

The following named were granted licenses to 
practise architecture, at the examination held on 
|une [9 zi at Urbana, 111.: Henry Wittekind, 
X. Max Dunning, Alfred Alschuler, and Francis 
M. Bartholomae, all of Chicago; George \V. Lud- 
wick, Danville; Harry R. Temple and William G. 
Foster of Urbana; Ernest Helfenstetter of St. 
Louis; Andrew S. Marland, Alton; Charles A. 
Phillips, Evanston, and Raymond S. Wiley, Bell- 
ilower, 111. 

Under the provisions of the new constitution 
adopted by the Architectural League of America 
at its recent convention here, the new president 
of the League, Mr. Joseph C. Llewellyn, assisted 
by the executive committee of the Chicago Archi- 
tectural Club, has chosen the League's first execu- 
tive board, as follows; Vice-president, Richard 
E. Schmidt, Chicago; corresponding secretary. 



, - v 

Vav 




Emil G. 
L r sc h. 
Detroit; 
recording 

secretary. 
Hugh M. 
G. Gar- 
den, Chic a go; 
treasurer, August 
Wilmanns, Chi- 
cago. The other 
members of the 
board are Robert 
C. Spencer. Jr.. 
of Chicago a n d 
Prof. Newton A. 
Wells of the Uni- 
v e rsit y of Illi- 
nois. 



PILASTER. 

\ 1 w I rsc . 1 srra 

Cotta Company, 

makers. 



The T Scpiare Club will be officially repre- 
sented at the Fifth International Congress of 
Architects at Paris by K. Kent Day, of the firm 
of Frank Miles Hay and Brother. 

A preliminary meeting was recently held in 
Milwaukee to arrange for the organization of an 
architectural club in that city. It was decided 
to apply for membership in the Architectural 
League of America. 

Prof. Thomas Nolan of the architectural de- 
partment of the University of the State of Mis- 
souri, Columbia, Mo., has been called to a chair 
in the University of Pennsylvania. 

The annual meeting of the Cleveland Archi- 
tectural Club was held on May 10. The election 
of officers resulted as follows: President. Domi- 
nick W. Benes: vice-president. Louis Rohrheimer; 
secretary, W. H. Nicklas; treasurer, Stephen C. 
Gladwin; librarian. Herman Kregelius; chairman 
of current work committee, Frederick W. Strieb- 
inger; chairman of entertainment committee, 
Kanegpro Nagaye. I 'resident Benes appointed 
William Warren 
S all i n and 
Abram Garfield 
on the current 
w or k commit- 
tee, and George 
W. A a d r e w s 
and William R. 
W a t t erson on 
t h e entertain- 
ment committee. 



PANEL, I : I II STORY, BROADWAY 
CHAMBERS, \h\\ SoKK CITY. 

iiiy. makers, 
lect. 



PERS< )NAL 
A X D C EC B 

XEWS. 

Early in the 
fall a meeting of 
architects partic- 
ularly interested 
in church archi- 
tect ure will be 
h eld i n Phila- 
delphia for t h e 
purpose of organ- 
izing an Eccle- 
s i a s tical Archi- 



Percy I Jriffin, archi- 
tect, announces the re- 
moval of his office to 9 
Hanover Street, corner 
of Beaver Street. New 
York. 

The annual meeting 
of the Washington Ar- 
chitectural Club w a s 
held in the club rooms 
at the '• ( )ctagon " on 
June 2. The following 
officers were chosen to 
serve during the ensu- 
i n g y e a r: President, 
T h e o. F. Laist : sec- 
retary, P e re y A s h : 
t r e a s u r e r. Carl F. 
Grieshaber; directors. 
E, A. Crane, Arthur B. 
Heat on, Waddy B. 
Wood, Elwyn Green; 
delegates to the Fine 
Arts Association. 
Mess r s. W h eat' in, 
Baker, and Donn; al- 







■\\ 11 1 

"R' Hi 



IS 



f 



£ 



NOR 1 H AMERICAN I KIs | COM 

PANY BUILDING, NEW YORK 

CITY. 

White semi-glazed terra-cotta made 

by the Atlantii 1 ' otta 

Company. 

Bruce Price \.n litect. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 



ternates, Messrs. Marsh, Peter, 
and W. W. Stevens. 



BOOK REVIEW. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL 

ANNUAL. —Edited by Albert 
Kelsey, 931 Chestnut Street, 
Philadelphia. 

Through the courtesy of the 

publishers, we are enabled to 
reproduce from an article on the 
work of Wilson Eyre, Jr., in this 
year's "Architectural Annual, "a 
cut of a pleasing window in a 
town residence, designed by Mr. 
Eyre. The article from which 
this was taken is an ably written 
and appreciative critique by Al- 
fred Morton Githens, in which 
the personality of Mr. Eyre's 
work is taken as the key to its 
strength. It is illustrated from 
drawings and sketches by Mr. 
Eyre, and from photographs of 
his executed work, of which 
there are over one hundred. 

The 'Architectural Annual" 
opens with an editorial summary 
of the architectural history and 
opinion of the year, brief men- 
tion of the present status of 
matters that have been brought 
under discussion in professional 

circles, and notes in terse form on the tendencies manifest 
in thought and practice. This is followed by a number 
of signed, and for the most part, illustrated articles and 
papers by men of known reputation, both here and 
abroad, with a few important letters, extracts from ad- 
dresses and the proceedings of architectural and allied 
societies. The more important competitions of the year 
have been noted, and in some instances, especially in the 




153 

case of the competition for the 
University of California, they 
have been fully illustrated. 

Apparently, one of the chief 
purposes of the editor was to en- 
courage interest in municipal 
improvements, as there are a 
number of articles, mostly thor- 
oughly illustrated, relating to 
civic embellishment, street pag- 
eantry, city bridges, etc., and a 
short sketch of the work of Baron 
Haussman, the father of all 
modern city-making. 

The "Annual" concludes with a 
directory of architectural schools 
and clubs, and of the journals of 
the profession, the general char- 
acter of each of the latter and the 
field occupied by it being also 
reviewed in a few words. 



IN GENERAL. 



OFFICE BUILDING, BOSTON, MASS. 
Front brick furnished by Sayre iV- Fisher C 
Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



The name of the Celadon 
Terra-Cotta Company, Ltd., has 
been changed to Celadon Roofing 

Tile Company. No change has 
been made in the management or 
character of the business. 



The Columbus Face Brick 
Company have been experiment- 
ing for a long time to determine 
the best way to produce a rough 
brick for base course and trim, and have found at last 
on their property a shale that burns out large iron spots, 
and the brick has been named " Iron-clad," companion to 





MOONEY-BRISBANE BUILDING, BUF1 \ I o, N. v. 
Union Akron Cement, "Akron" Brand, used in all the masonry .v 
M. E. Beebe & Son. Architects. 



u'k. 



WINDOW, I o\\ \ RES1 DENCE. 
Wilson Eyre, Jr., Architect 



154 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




X*U 



BALUSTRADING in PARAPET RAIL, LIVERPOOL, LONDON, AND 
GLOBE BUILDING, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 
Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

their "Ironclay." The vitrification of the brick is per- 
fect and the color beautiful, and when it is considered that 
the shale from which it is made contains all the elements 
that produces the brick, " Iron-clad " will become inter- 
esting to architect and geologist alike. It is in no sense 
a freak brick, but rather, unique, and is bound to find 
favor for certain classes of work with our best architects. 

A. J. Blix, architect, has opened an office at Virginia, 
Minn., and would be glad t<> receive manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples. 

The Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Company reports the 
following new contracts: At Indianapolis, Ind., Zener 
apartments. Handy & Cady, architects: store building, 




KEY, MAIN ENTRANCE, FEDERAL BUILDING, VOUNGSTOWN, 

OHII >. 

St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

D. II. Burnham & Co., Architects. 

entire front including cornice all terra-cotta, Vonnegut & 
Bonn, architects: store building, C. E. Bates, architect. 
At Milwaukee, Grace Lutheran Church, II. C. Koch & Co.. 
architects. V. M. C. A. Building, II. A. BettS, architect. 
At Louisville, Liederkranz Home Association, Charles I). 
Meyers, architect. At Toledo, building for Superior 
Building Company, George S. Mills, architect. At 
Lexington, Ky., McClelland Building, Richards. McCarty 
& Bulford, architects. At Hoopeston, 111., Presbyterian 
Church, Deal & Billiard, architects. At Appleton, Wis., 
Stevens Building, H. Wiedhasren, architect. 







SPANDREL, OFFICE BUILDING, NORFOLK, \\. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 
J. E. K. Carpenter, Archil 

Tlie Tiffany Enameled Brick Company reports the 
following new contracts: West 33d Street engine house, 
and 77th Street engine and hook and ladder house. Xew 
York City. H organ & Slattery, architects: Miles Building, 
Philadelphia, Pa., Charles Balderson, architect: Tonsa 
Savage's stable. Newark. X. J.. J. II. and W. C. Ely, ar- 
chitects; Olympia Cotton Mills, Columbia. S. C, W. B. 
Smith, Wally Company, engineers; West Roxbury High 
.School, Andrews, Jaques & Rantotil. architects; Erie 
County Morgue, Buffalo, X. V.. Lansing & Beierl. archi- 
tects; Union Depot, Grand Rapids, Mich.. L). II. Burn- 
ham & Co., architects; Bacon & Sons' Storage Building, 
Louisville, Ky.. Clark & Loomis, architects; General 
Electric Building, Minneapolis, Minn.. Stone & Webster, 
architects; F. B. Semple's carriage room, Minneapolis, 
Minn., F. B. and L. L. Long, architects ; C. R. I. and P. R. 
R. Depot, 1'es Moines. la.. John Yolk & Co., builders. 




PANE1 \N n BR VCKET. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 
A. A. Richter, Archil 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

AUGUST, 
1900. 







x 



CO 



Q 
< 



y. 



w 



ft 

Iff VOL 9 

NO. 8 iU 



THE 

BRICKBVILDER 



33£§B 



AUGUST 




h r. b. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 1 



PI BUSHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 
Enteredat the Boston, Mass., Posl Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March i \ 1892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1S93, B^ '"' BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed Hat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada #5.00 per year 

Single numbers 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ....... $6. 00 per yeai 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : — 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



page 
Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE ARCHITECT. 

IN a previous number we made some comment on the 
competition for the Atlanta Masonic Building. We 
have since then had occasion to notice some decisions, 
which have been made by courts, confirming the princi- 
ple of the owner's liability if he fails to select a compe- 
tent architect. Many property owners seem to feel that 
if an architect is employed he can be held responsible 
for what happens, no matter whether he is fitted to prac- 
tise his profession or not. This view is not, we are 
happy to say, sustained by the courts, which have recog- 
nized the architect primarily as an adviser, and have 
decided that if an owner is not wise enough to pick out 
a good adviser, he has no one but himself to blame when 
the results of the advice, which he SO obtained, arc not 
satisfactory. Decisions of this kind decidedly make for 
good architecture. There are plenty of standards by 
which the most uninitiated layman can make at least a 
fair selection of an architect. Personal honesty and busi- 
ness ability are qualities which are very speedily mani- 
fested, and can very quickly form a part of an architect's 
current reputation. His artistic ability can be measured 
by what he has actually done, and if a prospective client 
chooses to be guided chiefly by whether an architect is a 
hail-fellow-well-met, or will work cheap, he deserves to 
get in trouble, and generally does. 



"*HE English-Portland cement held a high place in 
public favor for many years, and there were some 
constructors who used to claim that it was not possible 
to manufacture really first-class Portland anywhere 
except in England. But a protective tariff and large 
opportunities have changed all that. The English arti- 
cle has almost gone out of the market, and German 
cements have very largely taken its place, but these in 
turn are being supplanted by our own manufacture. It 
was not so very long ago that reliable American-Portland 
Cement was almost unknown. The early brands were 
unevenly mixed and badly ground, while the limited 
sales left small margin for experimental development, 
but persistence and constant improvement was sure to 
win out, though it has required both faith and works on 
the part of our manufacturers and investors. At present 
an immense amount of capital is applied in this line in 
the United States, and the quality of the product is such 
as to rank with the best of the foreign output, the 
American Portlands being given first choice by many of 
our best constructors and architects. The continued 
use of the German cements is, we believe, largely due to 
the fact that the output of the American mills is limited 
and cannot vet fully supply the enormously increasing 
yearly demand, a condition which is, however, fast 
changing for the better. 

But it can by no means be inferred that all American 
Portlands are of equal quality. To the popular mind, 
the term " Portland " as applied to cement carries with 
it the idea of something which is supposed to be above 
suspicion, and advantage of this has been taken by some 
unscrupulous manufacturers to put out a product which 
they dubb American Portland, and which, somehow, seems 
to find a ready sale on the strength of its name, though 
its quality is so poor that it would not be passed by any 
sort of test, and it is far below the average of the poorest 
of the foreign cements. The mere name of Portland is 
110 longer in any sense a guarantee of quality, and with 
this, as with nearly every largely used building material, 
the safest course is to confine the select ion to a few ot the 
well-known and thoroughly tested and accepted cements. 

Concrete, when properly prepared, is a most excellent 
building material, upon which greal reliance can be 
placed, but as it is always mixed in place, and the work 
generally done by workmen who are more or less in- 
different in the results, if not entirely ignorant of them, 
it is a composition which varies a great deal, and it is 
not wise to assume that an inferior cement can be so 
manipulated in the mixing as to compare a moment with 
the highest grades, There are far too few actual tests 
made right on the works to justify any experimenting 

with doubt fill brands. 



i& 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



"THE BRICKBUILDER " COMPETITION. IV. 

A CREMATORY. 

PROGRAM. 

THE crematory may be located cither on flat or moun- 
tainous ground, or a rising slope with wooded 
background. All of the construction is to be such as is 

adapted to materials in burnt clay. The cost is not 
limited. 

The function of the building is threefold: First, for 
the purpose of incineration; second, for the accommoda- 
tion of those persons desirous of taking part in or wit- 
nessing ceremonies in connection with the incineration: 
third, for the preservation and display of commemorative 
tablets, monuments, etc.. and of urns or vessels contain- 
ing the ashes for incineration. The different parts of the 
design may be combined in one building, or grouped and 
connected with colonnades, etc. 

The design should include the following features: 
Ch viii. in which religious ceremonies may take place, 
should have pulpit; also catafalque where body may rest 
while the service is said ; also organ and singing gallery 
or a chancel, and choir room and robing room for clergy. 
The chapel should seat at least five hundred people. 
Reception room for relatives and friends should be near 
the entrance to chapel, and have connected with it the 
following rooms; Office for registration, administration 
offices for trustees, toilet rooms. The incinerating de- 
partment should be in direct communication with the 
chapel, and contain the following features: Reception 
Room for the preparation of the body, connected directly 
with the chapel and with the incinerating process by 
tramway, lift, or other apparatus to convey the coffin to 
chapel and incineration chamber. Pharmacy for restora- 
tives, connected with above room. Incinerating cham- 
ber in direct communication with the chapel and with the 
furnace or other apparatus for generating the incinerating 
force, possibly directly beneath the chapel. Room for 
furnace or other incinerating apparatus, with accessory 
rooms for Storage of oil, wood, distilled wood, material 
for liquid air, etc. Room provided with "lasses in the 
wall, through which the relatives may view the incinerat- 
ing process. Ventii.atinc chimney, if furnaces are used. 
Living rooms for attendants. Columbarium arranged 
with alcoves and balconies to multiply the surfaces for 
niches in which to place the ashes and urns. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED: A perspective sketch and 
sketch plans, showing the disposition of all the required 
rooms. To be rendered in black ink, without wash, upon 
a sheet measuring 15 1 .. by 10 ins. Each drawing is t<> be 
signed by a notn tic plume or device, and accompanying 
the same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom i/c p/iiiuc 
Qn the exterior, and containing the true name and address 
of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered, Sat, at the office of 
The Brickbuilder, 85 Water Street, Boston, on or before 
Oct. 1, 1900. For the three designs placed first. Tin. 
Brickbuilder offers prizes of twenty-five, fifteen, and 
ten dollars, respectively. All premiated drawings are to 
become the property of Tin-: Brickbuilder, and the right 
is reserved to publish any and all drawings submitted. 
Mr. John W. Case, Detroit, Mich., has kindly consented 
to judge and criticize this competition. 



VIEW ON THE ROAD FROM SALERNO TO 
AMALFI, ITALY. 

THE northern shores of the Gulf of Salerno, though 
less extensively visited by tourists than those of 
the Ray of Naples, are even superior to the latter in 
scenic grandeur. The high range of mountains which 
forms the Peninsula of Sorrento rises thousands of feet 
directly from the sea, sheltering in its crevices numerous 
maritime villages which, inaccessible by railway and in 
some instances by vehicles, preserve their mediaeval 
characteristics intact. A good carriage road reaches from 
Salerno to Amalfi, beyond which it has been found im- 
practicable to construct a permanent way, such portions 
of the road as have been built having been repeatedly 
destroyed by landslides, among which the disastrous one 
of last year is probably still fresh in our reader's memory. 
The view presented in our frontispiece is of Vietri, a 
small place on the road near Salerno, where the more 
savage portion of the scenery has hardly begun, and 
where level spots may still be found which are planted 
with lemons, olives, and vines. From the southern ex- 
posure of this coast it was particularly open to the 
ravages of the Barbary pirates, who made frecpient 
and sudden raids, plundering the towns and carrying off 
the inhabitants as slaves. For defense against these 
pirates, the viceroys under Charles V. of Spain, under 
whose dominion the kingdom of Naples fell, erected a 
series of massive, square watch-towers at close intervals 
along the coast, one of which, with its corbelled and 
machicolated battlements, is seen on the beach in the 
center of the picture. 

The outside walls of the houses are generally plas- 
tered a dazzling white, and the towers and domes of the 
churches often have a curious decoration of glazed and 
colored tiles. The Saracenic influence is strong in the 
architecture; and in the churches and cloisters of the 
monasteries are many examples of intricately wrought 
capitals and bronze and mosaic work. J. Addington 
Simonds, in his "Sketches in Italy," describes the 
scenery about Vietri as follows: "On first quitting 
Vietri, Salerno is left low down upon the seashore, nest- 
ling into a little corner of the bay which bears its name, 
and backed up by gigantic mountains. . . . On the left 
hand hangs the cliff above the deep salt water, with here 
and there a fig tree spreading fanlike leaves against the 
blue beneath. On the right rises the hillside, clothed 
with myrtle, lentisk, cistus, and pale yellow coronella, 
a tangle as sweet with scent as it is gay with blos- 
som. . . . Meanwhile each turn in the road brings some 
change of scene: now a village with its little beach of 
gray sand, lapped by clearest sea waves, where bare- 
legged fishermen mend their nets and naked boys bask 
like lizards in the sun; now towering bastions of weird 
rock, broken into spires and pinnacles like those of Skye, 
and colored with bright hues of red and orange; then a 
ravine, where the thin thread of a mountain streamlet 
seems to hang suspended upon ferny ledges in the lime- 
stone — or a precipice, defined in profile against sea and 
sky, with a lad, half dressed in goatskin, dangling his 
legs into vacuity and singing — or a tract of cultivation, 
where the orange, apricot, and lemon trees nestle to- 
gether upon terraces with intermingled pergolas of 
vines." 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



157 



Brickwork of the Royal Chateaux of 
France. II. 

BY WILLIAM T. PARTRIDGE. 

THE Chateau de Maintenon, situated in a level coun- 
try near the bank of the river Eure, depended for 
defense upon the strength of its towers and the depth of 
its moat. It therefore lacks the picturesque setting of 
Gien or Blois, both of which crown elevations. It gains 




CM \ I LAI DE MAINTENON. 

in effect, however, from the wide encircling moat, upon 
the surface of which its medley of towers is reflected. 
Two great sentinel masses stand one on each side of 
the garden front. Between them lies the brick addition 
made by bonis XII. So many farther alterations were 

carried out by 
Lou is XIV. 
that it is not 
easy to deter- 
mine the exact 
extent of the 
work of the 
(j o t hie king. 
Hut what h e 
constructed is 
much in t h e 
style of his 
work at blois, 
thou g h it is 
uncertai n 
which chateau 
is the earlier. 
For example, 
Louis XII., in 
m akin g this 
p r e s e 11 t 
change, left 
t h e principal 
towers and a 
I \ ( \dl, CHATEAU DE SAINT GERMAIN ^sm al 1 J r: ( rag- 

EN-LAYE. nl c n f °f t - ne 




wall uniting them, — here, as at Blois, merely joining 

older parts by a wing. A chapel is at one end of the 
wing, and a staircase cage in the middle. 

The material used, of course, is brick. There is some 
attempt at a diaper pattern; but the wall surface is too 
small for much display. The composition, controlled 
by the existing conditions, is very irregular. These con- 
ditions led to a picturesque treatment, which has been 
somewhat marred for us by the barn-like addition of 
Louis XIV. 

With the Chateau de St. -Germain-en- Laye a new 
use of brickwork began. During the Gothic period brick 
was used for constructional purposes only. That is, the 
body of the wall was built of brick; the contrast of its 
color with that of the stone was merely accidental. Orna- 
mental effects were obtained by patterns formed of bricks 
of different colors, but in St. -Germain-en- Laye the color 
of the brick is utilized. All architectural effects are 




STAIRCASE, CHATEA1 DE s\l\l GERMAIN EN I UI. 

worked out from this point of view. The body of the 
building is covered in great part with stucco, another 
innovation. Against this light background stand reveals, 
pilasters, and string-courses of red brick, carried in narrow 
lines and used purely decoratively. 

Tlie composition of this building, built later than 
Blois, is a step in advance of the north facade of Francis 
I. in that chateau. 

At Blois the recessed balconies are more or less regu 
larly spaced in a thick wall, and have no relation to the 
court facade. The piers vary LH width and are merely 

fragments of wall surface. At St. -Germain-en- Laye, 

on the other hand, these piers are structural, buttressing 
a Large vaulted roof. The windows are deeply recessed, 

allowing space for balconies at the principal floor Level. 



15« 



THE BRICK B 1'ILD E R . 




SMALL STAIRCASE IN COURTYARD, 
S VINT GERMAIN EN LA^ E. 



T li i s s a m e 

treatment o E 
bu t tres sing 
piers and re- 
cessed w i n - 
(lows appears 
in the court- 
yard, making 
the building a 
series of bays 
nearly alike 
from the ex- 
terior and fr< 'in 
w i t h i n the 
court. 

In the in- 
i e r nal angles 
nf the court- 
yard, tunned 
by the- fun r 
wings so con- 
structed, a r e 

circular stair- 
eases. ( )n the 
c x t e r ior the 
m ode r n r e- 
storer has ter- 
minated t li e 
f a c ad e with 
square, pro- 
jecting pavil- 
ions. T h e 
piers on the exterior are carried down to a base, which is 
readily seen t<> he the lower part of an old chateau fort, 
with its machicolation, buttresses, and drawbridge still 
extant. On this exterior the difference in thickness be- 
tween the lower fortress wall 
and its superstructure enables a 
continuous gallery to run across 
the principal or garden facade. 

The cornices and sides of the 
characteristic buttresses are or- 
namented with narrow brick pil- 
asters with molded caps and 
bases. The buttresses are joined 
at the top by arches not quite 
their full depth. By this ar- 
rangement all the vertical pilas- 
ters can extend to the cornice 
without interruption by the im- 
post of the arch. The pilasters 
are coupled by a small arch, also 
of brick, flush with their faces, 
making a kind of small arcade 
applied to the pier. The win- 
dow pilasters and pediments are 
of molded brick, and quite thin. 
The whole et'f'eet is that of a late 
Gothic building. 

The flat roof the only one, 
by the way, in a building of 
this period gives small oppor- 
tunity for ornamental chimney 




CIIIMM N I'll 



•:, CHATEAU DE SAINT ell-' 
MAIN EN \ \\ E. 




COURTYARD ELEVATION, s\INI GERMAIN EN LAYE. 



tops. There- 
fort-, thus e 
here are prac- 
tical r a t h e r 

t h a n decora- 
tive. 

The i n t e- 

rior m a n tel 

and the hoods 
over the tire- 

placeare inter- 
esting. They 

are built en- 
tirely of brick, 
i- xcept ing a 
single Gothic 

e x a in p 1 e at 
Ro u e n, t h e 
only instances 
of such con- 
struction gen- 
erally known 
to havcexistcd 
at this period. 
The high spec- 
i in e n in the 
Grand Room 

e,'ains added distinction from its importance in the appli- 
cation of the Orders. The panels of the vaults and the 
pilasters of the staircase are of brick. 

The brick additions at Fontaincbleau are the service 
court, called the (.'our de Henri IV., the Gallerie des Cerfs 
and its pavilion, built also by Henry, and the new wing 
of the Gourde Cheval Blanc, constructed under Louis XV. 
Three wings built by Henry IV., abutting an older build- 
ing, form the Cour de Henri IV. In mass, these three 

wings make long lines of low 
one-story buildings, with attics. 
buildings marked at the corners 
and on tin- axes by higher pavil- 
ions. The center of theprinclpal 
facade is composed of a triple 
mass, of which the central is the 
highest feature. 

Although in plan all these 
wings and pavilions arc of the 
same width, emphasis is given 
by an increase in the number of 
stories in the pavilions. Thus. 

the great middle pavilion has 

three stories and an attic; the 
minor central ones, as well as 
those at the angles of the court, 
have two. Each mass is roofed 
quite independently with a high, 
wedge-shaped roof. The central 
pavilion is set back some dis- 
tance, and the space so formed 
is Idled with a sort of semicir- 
cular niche. For a service court, 
the great entrance opposite this 
pavilion is imposing. 

The material used is brick. 












1 








THE BRIlKliUII.DEH 



■59 




J HI 



pip u sjit; la:! m 

B'^lW ' B'l' Bl"^ IBP 
Ul II! . IEK tiiail 




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u 



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33 



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u 

5 

oq 

3-* 






i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







with stuccoed wall surface. As at St. -Germain-en- Laye, 
tin.' exposed brickwork is used decoratively. The quoins 
and skewbacks arc oi stone; but all the architectural 
lines, cornices, sill-courses, and reveals are brick, con- 
trasting prettily in color and texture with the light stucco. 
Even the lines of the mortar joint are taken advantage of 
and add a touch of decorative detail wherever brick is 
used. The main cornice is of brick; the block mod ill - 
ions are laid up in an ingenious fashion. The circular 
dormers frankly show the material, of which the jointing 
is a principal element. 

The Cour de t'heval Rhine is not as picturesque a 
composition as that of Henri IV., but from the point of 
view of brickwork it is far more interesting. Very little 
stone is employed above the base course. 

The use of the Stone jamb inside the brick framework 
of the window is a unique method of enrichment. Then, 
too, the jointing of the string-COUrses, laid in alternate 
headers and stretchers on end. embellishes these bands 
nearly as much as would a dentil course. The design of 
the central brick dormer and the accuracy and delicacy of 

detail in t h e 
joints are most 
interesting. 

The chim- 
n e y, as our 
'• II i s t ory of 
Architecture " 
tells us, w a s 
f( >r c 1 i m a t i c 
reasons devel- 
oped in France 
rather than in 
Italy. H ere 
we arc shown 
how much can 
be made of so 
Utilit arian a 
f c a t urc; wit- 
ness the mini- 
ature pilasters, 

three-qua r t e r 

columns, a n d 
]) e d i m e n t s 
which make the 
chimneys they 
adorn a decora- 
tive factor of 
the com p o s i- 

tion. 

Another facade constructed by Louis XV. shows ex- 
actly the opposite use of the color of brick. Here all 
architectural lines are of stone, and the panels are of 
brick laid in Flemish bond. So little brick is used that 
we infer that color, rather than economy, must have been 
considered. 

In the Gallerie des Cerfs a more interesting architec- 
tural treatment appears than in either of the service 
courts. Here are the important rooms of the chateau, 
adjoining the garden of Diana. Embellishments, niches, 
statues, and busts enter into the composition. The 
gallery takes its name from the trophies of the hunt, 
which once ornamented the interior of its tipper section. 




— -^c -r - fV-a 



ToaB^aacB 




CHIMNE\ PIECE, ill \ I K W DE 
GERMAIN EN LAYE, 




COl R DE t'IIK\ \l l:i INC, I o\ r \l\l l;l I \ I . 

They were removed when alterations were made by 
Louis XV. In this gallery were painted plans of the 
thirteen Royal Chateaux; but they, too, were covered by 
the hand of the re-decorator. 

Two stories compose the gallery: the lower a classic 
arcade ; the upper a high attic, with a dormer in every 
alternate bay. These dormers extend down through the 
attic; the panels between them are Idled with oval niches. 
An arcade, flanked by similar though smaller motifs form- 
ing a kind of triple feature, marks the middle of the 
facade. A pavilion of the same character terminates the 
left-hand side. 

Pilasters, cornice, and architrave are stone ; brick forms 
the arches and imposts of the arcade and the panels and 
the jambs of the attic windows. The most interesting 
point, however, is the treatment of the niches, jambs 
and imposts of stone, but backs and tops of brick. The 
brick joints are made to radiate from a central stone eye. 
The greatest care must have been taken in the molding 
of these bricks. The employment of brick in such a 
position affords a dark contrasting background to the 




COUR l>l. CHEVAL BLANC, FONTAINEBLEAU 



T 1 1 E B R 1 C K B U I L D E R 



161 



light marble statues. The comparison of the ( rallerie des 
Cerfs with those of similar motifs built in the Gothic 
period shows how difficult it was for the later architects 
to free themselves from the older principles. In detail 
alone does this example differ from the brick court facade 
at Blois. 

The additions to Versailles followed so closely upon 
the completion of the original building of Louis XIII. 



assoeiated with Versailles that it causes some surprise to 
learn that Louis XIII. and Jacques Lemercier are respon- 
sible for the original building, the present (.'our de 
Marbre. 

The buildings of this present courtyard Louis XIV. 
preserved, in spite of the unlimited means at his com- 
mand and against the wishes of his architects. It is 
recorded of him, indeed, that when an architect de- 




COUR HENRY IV., FONTAINEBLI \ I . 



that the structure as it stands shows fewer variations in 
style than are usually to be found in a French chateau. 

Versailles had singular good fortune: First, it was 
built in its entirety within a single epoch, and then, 
although it was the very center of interest during the 
French Revolution, it suffered less than other chateaux 
at the hands of the revolutionists. 

The names of Louis XIV. and Mansard are so closely 




manded as a vital essential to proper planning the demo- 
lition of the existing building, Louis replied that the 
building must then be rebuilt exactly as it had stood. 

Until Mansard was commissioned to erect the chapel 
and wings associated with his name, the alterations that 
were made did not affect the appearance of the older 
building from the Paris or court side. 

It was with the development of the garden that the 
use of brick became almost universal to France; and the 
Cour de Marbre — so called from the employment of 




KM) 1'AVII.ION, GALLERIE DES CERFS, F0NTAINEBLEA1 



'. \l l I RIE DES CER1 s, F0NTAINEB1 I \l 



l62 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



marble in the paving of the court was designed to 
face a garden. The ugly expanse of cobblestones on 

which it fronts at present makes but a sorry setting. 

In plan, this brick building of Louis XIII. is a scries 
of receding pavilions or wings that form an open court. 



a feature in the general type of buildings of an earlier 
date. In consequence the sky-line is meager and unin- 
teresting. Then. too. the roof of two slopes, commonly 
attributed to Mansard, lends further destruction to the 
sky-line, broken now by only a tall flasf-staff and chimney- 




GENERAL VIEW OF COUR DE MARBRE, VERSAILLES. 



gradually narrowing as it approaches the central en- 
trance. The original end pavilion can readily be dis- 
cerned, marked by the little staircase turret in its angle. 

The interior of the structure is a hopeless tangle of 
rooms and small courts, the uses of which can be appar- 
ent to none but a thorough student of the times for 
which they were built. 

The exterior facade is of brick and stone. It follows 
the Italian fashion in showing a balustrade above the 
cornice, but combines with this effect the high French 
roof. A sacrifice is made of the chimney, so picturesque 



pots that seem to protest silently against the destruction 
of an ornamental and useful feature. 

But below the cornice line there is much of interest. 
The Doric order is used, its cornice supported at the 





CORNER ol' COUR DE MARBRE, VERSAILLES 



CORNER or mi R DE MARBRE, VERSAILLES. 

corner of each break by an angle pilaster. The bays so 
formed have each a single window in the middle save at 
the centers of the central motive and of the wings, where 
there are three. These windows break through the ar 
chitrav eand frieze of the entablature and extend down 
to the floor. They open upon balconies. 

The height of the order is diminished by a high base- 
course through which the windows cut down to a stylo- 
bate of three steps. 

The wall surface is of brick. This material fills the 
metopes of the frieze and the panels of the attic of the 
central feature. 

The centers of the brick panels throughout the surface 
are marked by raised inner panels of marble, from which 
spring consoles supporting marble busts of the Roman 
Emperors. Upon the balustrade are allegorical figures 
actually sitting upon the rail. 

The architraves of the windows return around the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



163 




^£^£mmrp 



base-course, and are flush with the string-course. The 
taenia of the architrave returns around the jamb and 
lintel of the upper 
window. The 
dentils of the 
cornice occur only 
as points of em- 
phasis over t h e 
pilasters and win- 
dows. 

The distribu- 
tion of the masses 
of color has been 
carefully studied. 
This fact is appar- 
ent in the main 
cornice where the 
broad bands o f 
stone would have 
been out of scale 
had the metopes 
been of the same 
material as the 
order. 

There are some 
interesting variations in the composition of the angle 
pavilions where large openings occur. Here the frieze 
is omitted. The rustication in the corner and slight dif- 
ferences in the horizontal courses clearly indicate an ad- 
dition. This rustication marks the corner of the termi- 
nal pavilion of the work of Louis XIII. 

When we contrast this great effort, the Palais de Ver- 
sailles, with the smaller buildings of the previous cen- 
tury, we find it wanting in that quality of composition 
that marked the well-nigh faultless work of the earlier 
builders. Whatever merit may come from a broken 
plan, the monotonous sky-line is nevertheless uninterest- 
ing, and the broken color of the wall surface, however 
attractive in a smaller building, here becomes unrestful 
rather than gay. 




ELEVATION OF A BAY IN COUR DE 
MARBRE, VERSAILLES. 



BUILDING ON STILTS. 

THE character of the commercial buildings in our 
large cities often suffers from a false idea on the 
part of property owners and tenants that the vertical 
supports in the first story shall be reduced to the mechan- 
ical minimum required for absolute strength, without 
regard to the larger question of the appearance of strength 
in the exterior design. In other words, we are forced to 
boost our structures upon stilts and rest sometimes a 
twenty or thirty story building upon a couple of slender 
uprights and a big sheet of plate glass. This is aestheti- 
cally wrong, and our observation makes us believe it is 
practically unnecessary. While an abundance of light is 
desirable for every form of business, it is not. reasonable 
to expect that one can do business with the same degree 
of illumination as if in the center of a large, uncovered 
field; and we have yet to see a case where a building that 
was designed with a proper consideration for the appear- 
ance of stability in the first story failed to rent well, or 
to give as much satisfaction to tenants as one which abso- 
lutely ignored the external effect. 



The T Square Club Traveling Scholar- 

ship. 

BY WILLIAM CHARLES HAYS. 

OF the various organizations having as their purpose 
the promotion and practice of architecture and the 
kindred arts, the T Square Club is preeminent in the 
direction of endeavor to train its members in architecture 
by means of competitive design. In its earlier years, 
the young club, with its few but enthusiastic members, 
needed no incentive to produce excellent work other than 
the helpful criticism sure to be given. Those were the 
days when Wilson Eyre, Jr., John Stewardson, and Walter 
Cope were most effective workers in building the founda- 
tion. In striking contrast is the competition for the 
T Square Club Traveling Scholarship, the first holder of 
which, Mr. Lloyd Titus, sailed for Europe on May ry. 
The scholarship, lamentably small in money value (mean- 
ing but a few months abroad), in the reward of the past 
season's competitions in design. 

The conditions governing all T Square Club competi- 
tions are substantially these: Drawings are hung early in 
the evening, giving an opportunity for a preliminary 
examination before the business meeting. After usual 
routine, the president invites certain of the more promi- 
nent men present to conduct the criticism, though let 
it be understood that all members are urged to comment. 
The chief motives, indeed, of criticism and judgment are 
the bringing out of individual thought, and the develop- 
ment of powers of discrimination. Following in regular 
order, each design is carefully considered and analyzed. 
the author often making notes. There is also a general 
summing up by the leading critic, who comments on the 
conditions of the problem which were mandatory — the 
keynotes which should have given tone and character to 
the designs. The judgment is by popular vote. Regu- 
larly printed ballot forms, with blank spaces for first, 
second, and third places, are used. It is compulsory that 
each voter shall name three designs, incomplete ballots 
being excluded from the count. Designs voted first 
place receive three points; second place, two points; and 
third place, one point. The three mentions are then 
awarded in the order of the total count of points. In com- 
puting the standing of competitors in the entire year's 
work, a similar method is followed. 

In the preparation of the programs of competition for 
the club scholarship, it was speedily decided: That t.he 
subject chosen should be one of the evcrv-dav problems 
of American practice, that local character should be 
emphatically required, and that the several problems 
should be so co-related as to develop a complete whole, 

at the same time reducing to a minimum the amount of 
actual work required each month. This last feature is 
indispensable, since the majority of our active participants 
have but little leisure time to apply to club work, being 
otherwise employed during the daw 

The introduction to the programs for (lie vcar. as 
announced in the Syllabus, contained the following: 
"Asa result of the recent appropriation made to enable 

a member of tin- T Square Club to visit Europe annually 
tor architectural sketching and study, a Traveling Fellow- 
ship Ins been established, and will be competed for in 



164 



T HE BRIC K B UILD E R 




in-: 



SQUARE CLUB SCHOLARSHIP, PLAN OF WINNING DESIGN. 

Lloyd Titus. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



165 



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X. 




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1 



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X 3 
x 



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1 66 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



the same manner as (and in lien of) the gold medal for 
the highest average obtained in monthly competition. 



preparation of the programs, with the hope of secur- 
ing better and fairer results. In order to cultivate more 




ELEVATION OF STABLE. 
Lloyd Titus. 



The Executive Committee realizes that the movement 
will mark an important step in the advancement of the 
club, provided that every member receives it in the serious 
spirit in which it has been conceived. While a higher 
standard might 
be reached by the 
competition of a 
few strong men, 
the greatest in- 
fluence for good 
will be attained 
only by having 
twenty or thirty 
men competing 
regularly, and 
the whole club 
entering into the 
spirit of the con- 
test. The mo- 
tive of the pro- 
gram is the first 

effort to pursue the course advocated by the Architectural 
League of America toward a natural and national archi- 
tecture. Upon the results of this experimental competi- 
tion depends whether the award shall be increased or 
discontinued next year. In compliance with the ex- 
pressed wish of the members of the club, these competi- 




EXEDRA. 
Lloyd Titus. 



logical thought, it has been decided to give continuity 
to the monthly problems by relating the programs to 

one another, and they have been prepared with this end 
in view, as well as to make the series terminate with 

a general review. 
The syllabus is 
presented in such 
a manner as to 
form a sort of 
pocket m e m o- 
r a n d u m , f o r 
notes and criti- 
cisms under each 
program. All 
drawings m u s t 
b e signed, and 
the last one re- 
entered at the 
following meet- 
in g, corrected or 
not corrected, as 
the competitor sees fit. Thus, after a member has com- 
peted once, at the succeeding meeting he will enter an 
old and a new drawing, and in the last competition he 
will enter his entire set. Awards will be decided by the 
usual vote of the active members present, and each prob- 
lem will be considered in the same class in making up an 




ELEVATION or THE Hoi SI . 

Andrew J. Sam r. 



tions will involve no more work on the part of the com- 
petitor than in the past, although the committee, having 
this matter in charge, lias given careful study to the 



In the terms of 



average of the mentions for the year. 
the program, there were 

"GIVEN. A nearly level semi-suburban plot of 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



167 




ARRANGEMENT OF TERRACE STEPS AND WALL FOUNTAIN 

Andrew J. Saner. 



ground in the environs of Philadelphia, 200 ft. front 
between party lines by 250 ft. deep, with access from the 
front only." 

" REQUIRED. —A DOMESTIC 
ESTABLISHMENT. 
'• The owner is a progressive and 
public-spirited citizen, proud of his 
Philadelphia lineage, and a punctilious 
respecter of the traditions of his na- 
tive place. Therefore, he wishes his 
new place to be free from any sug- 
gestion of affectation or showy dis- 
play, and especially desires that his 
architect shall give all the buildings 
an expression which shall be as local 
and indigenous as may be consistent 
with the best forms of contemporane- 
ous building and design. The build- 
ings, which are to be erected from 
time to time, are to include a large 
modern house for a family of eight, 
and such outbuildings and accessories 
as are becoming and natural to a man 
of taste with a growing family." 

Albert Kelsey, 

Warren P. Laird, 

Walter Cope, 

Committee. 



The first competition required : 
' ' A Block Plan at >s in. scale of the 
entire property, including the side- 
walk and one half of the street, to 
show the house and outbuildings and 
the general lay of the grounds. First, 
the estate should be considered in its 
relation to the community as a whole, 
and. second, it should be so disposed 
as to provide as great an amount of 
isolation as possible, while at the same 
time contributing to the openness and 
beauty of the public thoroughfare. 
An ordinance already exists requiring 
all buildings to be set back at least 
25 ft. from the building line. Ren- 



The actual number of drawings 
submitted, eighteen in all, was disap- 
pointingly small, but a high standard 
Of excellence was set. In the general 
criticism, great stress was laid upon 
the requirement that the estate should 
be so disposed as to contribute to the 
"openness" of the thoroughfare. 
This interpretation virtually placed 
hors de coin ours several most inter- 
esting designs, in which the houses 
were placed far back from the road, 
with walled gardens, such gardens 
being considered "shut in" and not 
in harmony with local spirit and tradition. Amongthese 
designs was the plan by Wetherill P. Trout, here repro- 




dering optional. Note. — Each design 
should be well supplemented by ex- 
planatory notes written or printed in 
the margin of the drawing." 



*? 'w 



COMWrniON 

MiWH Zl, 1*1.... 



W" : & li 



w 



'& 



2.oo- Ay 15o> 



REVISED GROUND n w 

Andrew J. Saner. 






1 68 



THE BRI L'K BUI LDER 






JTAA/.JZ 



4T I^WiE^u *». 



duced. In most of the drawings submitted, the various 
buildings were well disposed, in reference to exposures. 

This was especially noticeable in those of Messrs. Titus, 
Trout, and Hill. Several schemes showed ill-considered 
circulation, with gardens not easy of access, complicated 
arrangements of driveways, and omissions of proper 
service facilities. 

Designs were submitted by Messrs. Titus, Saner. 
Watmough, Hill, Trout. Wise. Leisenring, Bissell, Pot- 
ter (2), Ilokanson, Swales. Miles. Powers. Klauder, and 
three unknown. First mention, Lloyd Titus; second 
mention, Ira M. Hill; third mention. Herbert t'. Wise. 

The second competition required: " First and Second 
Floor Plans of the House at '; in. scale. Rendering op- 
tional." There were twelve designs submitted, the men- 
tions being awarded as fol- 
lows: First, Richard L. Wat- 
mough; second, Wetherill P. 
Trout: third, I. M. Hill. 

T h e third competition 
required : " Two Elevations 
of the House ( front, and one 
side) at ' , in. scale. Ren- 
dering optional. Marginal 
notes to explain quality and 
color of materials. " Ten de- 
signs were hung. Andrew 
|. Sauer won first mention: 
I. M.I [ill, second mention ; 
W. I'. Trout, third mention. 

The fourth competition 
required: " First Floor Plan, 
a n d T w o E ] e vations 1 >f 
Stable, at ! -; in. scale. " Eight 
drawings were in competi- 
tion, and the places taken 
were: Lloyd Titus, first ; A. 
J. Sauer, second : I. M. Hill, 
third. Before this competi- 
tion several of the strongest 
men had discontinued, owing 
w first misconceptions of the 
program, and the natural 
desire to avoid the making 
of radical changes from the 
preliminaryplans. Hereinlay 
the weakness of the scheme 
of closely related programs. 

The fifth competition required: "Drawings at Vi in. 
scale of such of the Out-buildingS and Accessories of the 
competitor's scheme as he may care to amplify. Also de- 
tails at - 4 in. scale of the most important architectural 
elements of the design. Rendering optional. " Messrs. 
Titus and Hill (each with six credits). Sauer (with five 
points), and Watmough (three points) alone entered this 
competition. Mr. Watmough was awarded first place, 
Mr. Titus was second, and Mr. Hill was third. 

The sixth competition called for: •• A Revised Plan, 
on Whatman paper, at ' .-; in. scale, of the entire estate, in- 
cluding sidewalks and curl), showing new arrangements 
of buildings and garden as minutely as possible. To be 
rendered in wash, monochrome, or color." The same four 
men were represented, and mentions were in this order: 



th: 



<&r&*fV ** 



1 







I I 

1 -i I 



-. 




PRELIMINARY 

Wetherill 



Saner. Titus, Watmough. Mr. Walter (.'ope led the 
criticism. The plans had been greatly improved since 
the first sketch, that of Mr. Sauer being open to but 
little criticism. Mr. Titus showed a very short avenue 
nf maple trees, dividing his gardens very unpleasantly. 
(In a subsequent revision this feature was removed, t<> 
the vast improvement of the scheme.) 

Tlic seventh competition required: "A Bird's-eye 
View Perspective of the entire estate (rendering in line). 
The point of view to be taken at an elevation of about 100 
ft. from a point which will best show off the competitor's 
design. This drawing to be neatly presented, with 
border lines, and a clearly printed title, ' Final draw- 
ing submitted in the T Square Club Fellowship Compe- 
tition.'' There were three designs: Mr. Titus receiv- 
ing first mention: Mr. Wai 
.■■■■. ■■ mough, second: anil Mr. 

Sauer, third. Mr. F r a n k 
Miles Day conducted criti- 
cism. 

The total points scored 
by each competitor were: Mi'. 
Titus, thirteen: Mr. Sauer. 
nine; Mr. Watmough, nine: 
Mr. Hill, seven ; Mr. Trout, 
three; Mr. Wise, one. (The 
two last named competed in 
tlie first three competitions 
only. ) Mr. Lloyd T i t u s. 
therefore, was announced as 
the winner, with Andrew J. 
Sauer and Richard L. Wat- 
mough equal honorable men- 
tions. 

A resume of the criti- 
cisms offered, relative to the 

w inni n g design, follows: 
" The house is well placed 
to secure privacy in the living 
portions, and the exposures 

are well studied, with morn- 
ing sun in the dining room 
and best bed rooms. The 
family porch and terrace, 
also the library, overlook the 
tennis lawn, and enjoy the 
sunsets. There is an attrac- 
tive vista from the dining 
room, through the reception room and drawing room, to 
the rose bower and fountain. The entrance terrace is 
meager. The arrangement of dining room, pantry, and 
kitchen is faulty, a scullery being essential in houses 
where the pantry forms the communication with the 
kitchen. 

■• The stable plan shows a congested carriage house, 
from which a tortuous way leads to an ill-ventilated 
-roup of stalls. The arrangements for gardener and 
coachman are good. The elevation is much superior to 
the plan. The great entrance archway, with hay doors 
above, is well designed. 

" The relative positions of house and stable insure free- 
dom from odors, the prevailing winds, except in winter. 
being southwest. The stable is not very easy of access 



BLOCK PLAN. 
P. Trout. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



169 



from the house. A pleasing disposi- 
tion of sunken lawn for games and 
raised flower beds, between which is 
the long axial pathway, terminating 
in a well-conceived yew bower. The 
arbor at the southeast and the shady 
walk at the southwest are attractive. 
The formal arrangement of statues 
and seats, with high-cut hedge form- 
ing the property border, though well 
designed, may be criticized as inap- 
propriate to our climate, and not ex- 
pressive of our simplicity of living. 
The rose garden is a pleasant place, 
with its fountain, lily pond, and ex- 
edra. The latter, with growing plants, 
b e tween concentric semi-circles of 
columns, is a charming thought, but 
perhaps is placed in too exposed a situation. ' ' The scheme, 
as a whole, is a trifle too formal, but expresses well the 
station in life of its owner. The final review shows a 
marked improvement in the successive steps of this design. 
Mr. Titus, profiting by criticism, has shown much discern- 
ment, and has excelled in a general grasp of the condi- 
tions most important in the problem." 



V 



r r r 



as* m 






5ecoso Hoop Plan • 




Fir«T <~;_o,,o Plan 

T SQUARE CLUB SCHOLARSHIP COMPETITION. PLANS OF 

THE HOUSE. 

Richard L. Watmough. 



" rffiffi 



ELEVATION OF THE HOUSE. 
Richard L. Watmough. 

"Mr. Andrew J. Sauer's design is the plan of a house 
inadequate to the needs of an owner as described in the 
program. It lias, further, a serious fault in its basement 
kitchen and service. In elevation, this house surpasses 
its competitors in that quality of 'local character' so 
emphasized in the requirements. In the ground plan, 
possibly an undue prominence has been given to the 
formal garden. The various gardens are well placed, hut 
the kitchen garden and greenhouse lack relation to the 
formal garden. The raised green for games at the ex- 
treme south, with its border of fruit trees, is attractive, 
and the arrangement of small terrace, seats, and fountain 
is a fascinating bit of detail. The stable plan is one of 
the best submitted. The driveway, parallel to the street 
and passing by the front door of the house, was adversely 
criticized, as was the monotonously long covered arbor. 
The trees on property lines, to shut out adjoining estates, 
secure a considerable degree of privacy." 

"Mr. Richard L. Watmough excelled in the design of 
the house. It is a house meeting the requirements of 
the owner in greater degree than any others. It is dig- 
nified, conveniently planned, and provides ample room 
with little wastefulness. The exterior is well disposed in 
mass, simple and chaste in detail, and has local character. 
The placing of the dormer windows in the roof and the 
narrowness of the front terrace at the portico have been 
remarked." 

The results of the competitions have demonstrated the 
wisdom of the innovation. The standard of work has 
been high, the club meetings have been well attended, 
and a spirit of seriousness and interest has prevailed. It 
is very earnestly to be hoped that the scholarship may 
be continued a permanent feature of the year's work, 
with a possible improvement in the programs by some- 
what differentiating the problems, to the end that partici- 
pants meeting with scant success at first may not be pre- 
vented by discouragements from deriving the greatest 
benefits possible, in latter contests. 

Mr. TitUS, the winner, is fundamentally a T Square 
('lull man, not having had the advantage of academic 
training in architecture. Hi- has been an indefatigable 
worker in design, and lias won many mentions. Last 
year he received the gold medal of the club. He has 

twice been honorably mentioned in competition lor the 

lolm Stewardson Memorial Fellowship. 



I70 



TIIK BRICK BUILDER 



Fire-proofing. 



SOME INCONSISTENCIES IN MODERN FIRE 
PROOF DESIGN. 

l;\ J. K. FREITAG. 

( ( Cud II itcd. ) 

THE prevalent use of Stone and marble may also be 
cited as among the familiar misuses of incombusti- 
ble materials. Strictly speaking, the use of granite and 

marble especially should be avoided in any structure 
where the combustion of its own contents, or the com- 
bustion of any neighboring structure, would produce a 
temperature sufficient to destroy these materials. .Such 
limitations, however, are generally overbalanced by the 
architectural requirements of the exterior treatment. It 
would certainly be unfortunate for the appearance of our 
cities if all granite and marble facades were abolished 
because subject to possible injury by fire, and yet the 
cases of the Chicago Athletic Club building, with its 
beautiful sandstone front completely destroyed above the 
third floor, and the Home Insurance Building in New- 
York, where the marble front had to be largely replaced, 
testify to the cost of reconstruction where such materials 
are employed and subjected to severe test conditions. 

This danger, however, will gradually grow less as the 

interior finish and contents receive more consideration, 
and as our cities become more and more fire-proof as a 
whole, — communities of fire-resisting structures, rather 
than conglomerations of commendable tire-proof build- 
ings surrounded anil menaced by highly inflammable and 
dangerous neighbors. Hut for use in important load- 
carrying capacities, where not reinforced or supported by 
approved fire-resisting materials, the use of granite, 
marble, slate, etc., must surely constitute an inconsistency 
in modern design. Isolated polished granite columns, 
often supporting great loads, may be cited as familiar 
examples, as well as the more frequent use of marble and 
slate stair-treads. It has been said that 90 per cent, of 
the staircases in modern fire-proof buildings would be 
found utterly unreliable in the event of fire, either for the 
escape ot the inmates, or for the use of the firemen. If 
such stone treads are used, they should be placed over 
cast- or wrought-iron treads, which would then support 
the slate or marble even after disintegration. 

As regards the features of fire-proof construction 
which are more popularly regarded as requisite, such as 
floor and roof construction, and the employment of 
proper materials, the tide of current practice and favor 
has undoubtedly turned for the better: but in our re- 
quirement II., vi/.., the general internal plan or design 
necessary to make structures fire-proof, independent 

n of the materials used, much of even greater im- 
portance remains to be done. Major considerations 
are largely overlooked for minor ones, and attention is 
diverted to trivial matters of detail while broader and 
more essential general features are let't to care for them- 
selves. 

Vital principles independent of the materials employed 



or of the equipment provided for extinguishing fire, com- 
prise such questions as the subdivision of areas, interior 
light shafts, stairways, and elevator shafts. 

The most noticeable cases of unrestricted floor areas 
occur in the so-called department stores, where the man- 
agement seeks to secure large areas unobstructed by 
division walls, in order that the customers may be duly 
impressed by the extent and completeness of the store. 
This hazard is extremely difficult to overcome, as any 
attempt to subdivide the large areas to suit the various 

component departments would require constant change 

to care for the expansion and shrinkage of these depart- 
ments under their varying needs of growth and season. 
The task of surrounding and effectively fighting a fire of 
Large area is also a much more serious matter for the fire 
department, and for this reason a maximum undivided 
area in city buildings is usually prescribed by the city 
building ordinances, and by the fire insurance compa- 
nies. 

Division or curtain walls are nevertheless to be strongly 
recommended, and all openings connecting apartments 
separated by fire-proof walls should be provided with 
approved fire doors. 

Office buildings, apartment houses, and hotels gener- 
ally require little attention as regards the subdivision of 
large areas, but the proper insulation or protection of 
dangerous areas, such as boiler and machinery rooms, 
here becomes of the utmost importance. 

The prevalent use of interior light shafts and Open 
stair-well holes and elevator shafts certainly constitutes 
the greatest inconsistency to be found in present methods. 
With what care and attention are floor systems and column 
protection provided, and then, to light floor areas re- 
moved from wall windows, open light shafts are intro- 
duced, extending usually from the ground floor to the 
roof, where the area is covered by a large skylight; <>r, if 
this common evil does not exist, open stair wells and 
elevator shafts run through the building from basement 
to roof, forming continuous Hues and the most effective 
means of communication possible between the various 
floors. 

The following extract is taken from a valuable paper 
entitled "Light Wells and Other Vertical Hazards, as 
Found in Department Stores," by Mr. E. U. Crosby, 
formerly manager of the Underwriters' Bureaus of New 
England, now general agent of the North British and 
Mercantile Fire Insurance Company. 

"The light well, as now arranged, may be considered 
the greatest vertical hazard, but there are others. 

"The original small store had a stairway, the growth 
of which has kept pace with that of the building. We 
now find several stairways, at least one of which is apt to 
assume grand proportions and extend from basement to 
second or third story, if not to the top of the building. 
At times this is in or adjoining the light well, or by itself 
is used for spread of light and for ventilation. All such 
stairways are unenclosed, and at times are made use of 
for display of wares. 

" The use of elevators increases yearly. Some Stores 
have from one to two dozen. They are not enclosed, 
much less cut off. and they are frequently located with 
stairways. " 

These comments, applied particularly to department 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



171 



stores, are quite as applicable to hotels, apartment houses. 
or office buildings. Innumerable instances may be cited 
to show that such open communications throughout build- 
ings are the causes of rapid spread of fire, and consequent 
damage, as they are likewise the means of transmitting 
water or smoke, with the attendant menace to stock con- 
tents, and the lives of those within the structure. 

The remedy cannot be found through the use of any 
horizontal shutters or hatches. These, if made to work 
automatically, seldom operate when required, and it is 
impossible to secure any such system which will be smoke- 
and water-proof. The passage of smoke or water is often 
quite as serious from the standpoint of insurance as actual 
flame, and smoke spread from floor to floor may cause 
panic or suffocation to the inmates. The only consistent 
remedy is to be found in isolated stairways and elevator 
shafts, completely enclosed by fire-proof partitions, and 
provided with satisfactory fire-resisting doors. If this is 
claimed to be impracticable, attention is called to the fact 
that both stairways and elevator shafts have been con- 
structed in this manner, and they are neither inconve- 
nient nor unsightly. In elevator doors, wire glass will 
permit observation by the operator at each floor, or some 
such automatic signal device may be used as is now em- 
ployed in large office buildings, where passengers are indi- 
cated by an electric flash light in the elevator car to 
notify the operator. 

In the same paper previously quoted, Mr. Crosby 
recommends as follows: — 

" Stairs and elevators should be in brick shafts with 
spacious entryway on each floor within each shaft. A 
standard slide fire door should be hung at the shaft side 
of each opening into the entryway, permanently secured 
open by a 600 deg. F. solder releasing device. This is to 
insure that the door shall not be closed by hand in time 
of panic, and yet will close automatically at a high tem- 
perature. There should be two or more door openings 
from each floor into each shaft. They should extend but 
part way to the ceiling, thus reducing the tendency of 
smoke to escape in that direction. The normal draught 
would be toward the ventilating duets, and should be 
sufficient to reduce the clanger of hot-air and smoke 
explosions. 

" The placing of doors at shafts is open to criticism 
inasmuch as they might be closed while people were yet 
alive within the burning room. We believe this can be 
met by concealed sliding doors, operated by an automatic 
device located near the floor, and requiring as high a 
temperature at that point as would be obtained by the 
presence of flames. 

" These shafts, with glazed brick, tile, or mosaic walls, 
should present a pleasing appearance, and. above all, 
afford a sense of security to the customer which some 
day may be a feature in the popularity of a store." 

The third requirement made of consistent fire-proof 
design, i. e., exterior precautions to prevent the commu- 
nication of fire from or to adjoining property, is one 
which concerns duty <>r obligation to adjacent property 
holders, as well as considerations of self-interest. Fire- 
proof construction hardly deserves its name until lire can 
be confined to the apartment in which it started. Fire- 
proof floors, roofs, and partitions are provided without 
question to confine fire within the spaces limited by these 



constructive features, while the exterior walls are left 
witli numerous openings which menace neighboring 
property, or which subject the building itself to hazard 
from the close proximity of neighboring buildings of 
dangerous character. 

The principal danger, whether that of from adjoining 
buildings or to adjoining buildings, will largely depend 
upon circumstances, but ideal conditions should make 
the latter consideration quite as important as the former, 
" and if an architect should be required to draw specifi- 
cations for a building adjoining others with knowledge 
beforehand that its entire contents, from cellar to roof, 
were to be totally consumed, and he were under a bond 
to pay damages to surrounding property, he would not 
be more severe in his exactions than should a building 
law protecting neighboring rights in the enjoyment of 
property." ' 

In event of the contents consisting of large quantities 
of combustible materials, self-interest also demands that 
wall openings shall be capable of confining the lire, in 
order that it may not spread from floor to floor by means 
of such exterior openings. The cases of the Chicago 
Athletic Club building fire and the Livingston Building 
fire in New York, as well as innumerable other instances, 
serve to show the danger from this source. And now 
that this factor of hazard is becoming recognized, the 
means of remedy are at hand to supply the demand. 
The ideal solution may not have been reached, but very 
acceptable methods are certainly to be had. For ware- 
houses, stores, etc., the standard tin-covered fire shutters 
are still used with great efficiency on alleys or rears where 
the appearance does not constitute an important feature, 
but for more conspicuous locations and on the fronts of 
all classes of buildings, a more sightly arrangement than 
exterior hanging shutters is necessary. 

This want has been met by the introduction of solid 
metal or metal-covered window frames and sash, in com- 
bination with Luxfer prisms, wire glass, or plate glass 
electro-glazed in relatively small panes. Architects and 
owners are now very generally familiar with many tests 
which have been made with such windows, designed to 
act as fire retardcrs, but it is to be hoped that apprecia- 
tion will be shown by a more general adoption of such 
admirable features. Nor should the use of such fire- 
resisting windows be considered as applying only to 
mercantile buildings. They could and should be used in 
all exposed cases in hotels, apartment houses, and office 
buildings. If the Luxfer prisms or wire glass are ob- 
jected to because of the hindrance to outlook, a combina- 
tion frame may be used, such as is now on the market, 
in which the lower sash is divided into three vertical 
panes, the two side ones being glazed with wire class, 
while the center one is electro-glazed with one-quarter 
inch plate glass in panes three or four inches square. 

With the care at present bestowed upon the construc- 
tive features of buildings intended to confine and resist 
lire, the continued use of plate and German .class for 
large and frequent exterior openings constitutes an in- 
consistency which must, sooner or later, give way to 
more approved and rational methods of protecting e 
rior doors and windows. 

1 Set " How to Build lire proof," l>y K. ('. Moore, I hi Bill KBI ILDI k. March and 

April. . 



*7 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Selected Miscellany. 



NOTES FRI >M NEW YORK. 

Prophesying is always dangerous, and, in fact, could 
be dune with more security a month from now, hut there 
are conditions in force at present which certainly enable 
us to obtain a clew as to what the near future has in store. 
It is more certain every day that the slow but sure de- 
cline in the prices of building materials to a normal point 
is beginning to revive operations which were checked by 



Among the leading news items is the announcement 
that a new company has been formed for the purpose of 
erecting an eighteen-story office building directly oppo- 
site the new Custom House site. The building will be 
known as the Maritime Building, and devoted chiefly to 
Shipping interests, and will be erected from plans 
by Henry J. Hardenburgh ; cost, about one million 
dollars. 

\V. W. Astor will build under a twenty-year lease a 
ten-story hotel on the site of the Hotel Stonington, on 
Broadway, between 45th and 46th Streets. William C. 




PARK PAVILION, K\NS\S CITY, Mo. 

Terra-Cotta Columns made by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co. 
Van Brunt & Howe, Architects. 



the sharp advance six months ago, and to give courage to 
those who have been holding off. There are a number 
of actual projects of which we have heard, which are only 
waiting until the close of the dull summer season before 
they are started. To feel the pulse of the building trades 
one must consult the architects. From what we hear, 
they are quite dull this summer, and many of them are 
enjoying well-earned vacations; in fact a sensible ten- 
dency of this closing year of the century seems to be 
for men to take as long a period as possible during the 
summer for rest and recuperation. 




Muschenheim, the proprietor of the •■ Arena," is the 
lessee. These undertakings show that renting conditions 
are such that, coupled with the current prices of building 
materials, owners of big properties and capital see a 
profit in work executed at the present time. No better 
argument could be formed than this in support of the 
general opinion that the fall will develop a generous 
activity in all branches of the real estate market, for after 
all, the prosperity of real estate depends upon renting 
conditions. 




PANEL FOR POST-OFFICE, NEWPORT, k\ 
Winkle Terra-< ■ itta 1 )o. Mai 



TYMPANUM PANEL OVER ENTRANCE, ST. AUGUSTINE CHURI H, 

PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta <.'"., Makers. 

Kuian & Russell, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDE R 



173 



NOTES FROM PITTSBURGH. 

A beginning has at last been made on the 
new Union Station for the Pennsylvania Com- 
pany, and the old station, which was built 
after the riots of 1877 as a temporary 
structure, has been torn down. The new 
building is to contain the general offices of 
the company. The changes include the rais- 
ing or lowering of all tracks of the entire 
Pennsylvania system and the doing away 
with all grade crossings in the city. 

Several new bridges across the Allegheny 
are being talked of, and the government en- 
gineers have reported that the present 
bridges are too low and should be raised. 
As this would cause a great change in the 
grades of adjacent streets, there has been 
considerable objection from property holders 
in those neighborhoods. 

There has been considerable newspaper 
talk about the proposed addition to the Car- 
negie Institute; some have advocated the 
building of a separate building, while others 
have even proposed moving the present 
building across Forbes Street and then build- 
ing the addition. However, as the plans of 
Alden & Harlow have already been approved, 
this discussion seems a little too late to have 
much effect. 



Among work soon to be let may be men- 
tioned the ten-story office building for the 
Central District and Printing Telegraph 
Company, on Fourth Avenue, Alden & Harlow, 
architects. The same firm have also prepared plans 
for a Carnegie Library, to be built at Duquesne, Pa. ; 
cost, $300,000. 

Charles Bickel is the architect for a new office build- 
ing, to be built at the corner of Fourth Avenue and Grant 
Street. 




ST. PAU1 S CHURCH, CHIC \'.". 

Roofing tile furnished by the Ludowici Roofing Tile Co. 

11. J. Schlacks, Architect. 

NOTES FROM ST. LOUIS. 

A number of important buildings which were con- 
templated for this season have been either postponed 
or abandoned altogether, and the work that is being 
done is in the way of smaller warehouses and residences. 

The new building for the Knox Estate, corner of 
Broadwav and Franklin Avenue, which has been de- 




Terra-Cotta Fire-proof Construction. 

NEW PRUDENTIAL BUILDINGS, NEWARK, N. J. 

Executed by the Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick ('•'. 

1 ,, orge 15. Post, Architect. 




'1 1 n .1 Colta Fin prool < onstruction, 
M .w PRUDENTIA1 BUILDINGS, NEWARK, N. J. 
Executed bj the Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick 1 
George is. Post, Architei 1 



174 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



signed by Mauran, Russell & 
Garden, will be of brick and 
terra-cotta, in the English Re- 
naissance style. 

T. C. Link lias been appointed 
architect for the new Capitol 
Building at Jackson, Miss., which 
will cost $1,000,000. Mr. Link's 
plans were adopted from among 
those submitted in the recent 
competition for the building. 

E. C. Klipstein was the suc- 
cessful architect in the recent 
competition held for the new 
Kirkw 1 HighSchool Building. 

After numerous efforts to 
commence the building of a new 
city hospital t<> replace the one 
destroyed by the cyclone some 
years ago, there now seems to be 
a prospect of something being 
done, the Board of Public Im- 
provements having draughted an 
ordinance with a view to proceed- 
ing with the work. A com- 
mission was appointed some 
years ago to prepare prelimi- 
nary plans, contemplating a 

hospital on the pavilion plan 
to cost $1,000,000, but the finan- 
cial condition of the city has 
prevented commencement on the 
work. There is now available 
about §240,000. and a fund 
accruing for building purposes 
per'year. 




I 1.1 [LDING, FIFTH AVE-. AND 19IH s I R I I I. 
NEW YORK CITY. 

Executed in white semi-g cotta. 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

Robert Maynicke, Architect. 



at the rate of 850,000 




f*^ 



^3 






ft f 




\iZ*^S2^Z2Z5*Z^^>?Z2 



P \ NEL. 
Made by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Ci 



Percy & Polk have 
for a business buildin] 
handsome Hale 
Buildin g on 

Market Street. 
It will be of 
ric hly-o r n a - 
mented wh i t e 
terra - cotta in 
tin- Byzantine 

Style. The same 
architects have 
in hand a resi- 
dence for the 
widow o f the 
late Robert 
Louis Steven- 
son, the novelist. 



William Moo- 
ser has been 

appointed archi- 
tect to the new 

Hoard of Works. 
I 1 is duties will 



NOTES FR< >M 
SAX FRANCISCO. 

The building business con- 
tinues good with every evidence 
of further improvement through 

the winter. The general char- 
acter and design of structures 
show a marked change for the 
better. There was §1,160,000 
more expended during the first 
seven months of this year than 
for the same period of last year. 

Two competitions were lately 
decided, the open one for the < >ak- 
land free Public Library, the gift 
of Andrew Carnegie, in which 

Bliss & babble were the success- 
fid architects, both of these gen- 
tlemen coming, some little turn- 
back, from the office of McKim, 
Mead & White. The contract 
has just been let for S.jy.ooo, 
and calls for the building to be 
finished March 1 S, 1901. The 
materials will be light gray brick 
and terra-cotta. 

The other competition, a lim- 
ited one for the Mutual Savings 
bank Building, was awarded to 
Curlett & McCaw: the cost will 
be in the neighborhood of §500,- 
000, and the material will be either 
brick and terra-cotta, or sand- 
stone. It will be entirely fire-proof. 

let contracts amounting to §100,000 

;. seven stories high, adjoining the 




I ERMIN \L. w ARNER BUILDING, 

PHIL \ 1 » I . I Mil \, PA. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 
C. W. Bolton, Architect 

consist in pass- 
in.- on plans and specifications for new buildings or 
chancres in old ones. 



THE RRICKRUILDER 



*75 



<? 



1 



t 



. -j- 



. / 



3 



S3 



IN GENERAL. 

Henry Maurer cV- Son, manufacturers of fire-proof 

building materials, of New York City, are erecting and 

furnishing a 30-ft. front stone dwelling house, three 

stories high, at Ogontz, Pa., wherein 

they are using their latest system of 

floor construction— the "Herculean" 

Vffi^rll terra-cotta flat arch; this system eliini- 

l (ytj* |j nating the use of iron beams and making 

an absolutely fire-proof building. Much 

interest is being manifested by the 

building fraternity in this operation. 

Edward R. Diggs & Co., of Wash- 
ington, I). C. and Baltimore, Md., are 
furnishing for the U. S. Government 
Printing Office, at Washington, I). C, 
about 1,250,000 of their light-colored 
impervious front brick (this being one 
of the largest light-face brick contract 
ever sold in this country). Among 
some of the other operations using 
their brick are the following: Guardian 
Trust Building, Baltimore ; Winchester 
City Hall, Winchester, Va. ; apartment 
house r6th and U Streets, N. W., 
Washington; the Bond Building, New 
York Avenue and 14th Street, N. W., 
Washington. 

The Columbus Face Brick Company 
has been awarded the contract to furnish 
its " Ironclay " flashed brick for the 
New Electric Power House 
of the Manhattan Railway 
Company, of New York 
City, said to be the largest 
power house in the world. 

James A. Davis & Co., 
Boston, have beenawarded 

the government contract 
which calls for 15,000 bar- 
rels of Portland Cement at Portland Harbor, 
Me. They also have contracts to supply 
their Alpha and Lehigh brands of Portland 
Cement for the New Cambridge Bridge, 
Boston; Red Bridge Dam at Three Rivers, 
Mass. ; Boston Electric Power House, 
Boston, and Edison Electric Power House, 
Boston. 



Among the contracts recently placed with 
the Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company 
for their cream white and gray front brick 
is the new building for Adams & Co., Sixth 
Avenue and 21st Street; new office building 
at Broad Street and Exchange Place (about 
t, 000,000 white brick), stores and lofts. Fifth 
Avenue and 19th Street, all of New York 
City; gray brick for the Jenifer Building, 
Washington, D. C. ; Seaboard Air Line 
Depot, Petersburg, Ya., I). Wiley Anderson, 
architect; St. Andrews' Parish House, 
Richmond, Ya., same architect. 




.-.'• 







[See 



Wii 



K 




E 



IE £ l3l 3d 



iiliiiilpi 



2. 








NORTH AMERICAN TRUST COMPANY BUILDING, NKW YORK CITY. 

Bruce Price, Architect. 

Front Brick supplied by the Powhatan Clay Mfg. Co. 

Fire-proofing supplied by the National Fire-proofing Co. 



PILASTER AND 

J A Ml!. 
BANK, WATER- 
TOWN, MASS. 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta 

Co., Makers. 

C. H. Brigham, 

Architect. 




T 



p wil . VPAR1 MENT HOUSE, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

New Jersey Terra-Cotta ( Maki ra 



A SERIOUS DAMAGE SOON 
REPAIRED. 

HE Hydraulic-Press Brick Company, 
by which we mean both the parent 
company in St. Louis and the branches in 
the various large cities of the country, has 
repeatedly won a name for itself by the 
excellent quality of its manufacture and 
the even value of its products, no less than 
by the thoroughly business-like methods by 
which it conducts its affairs. The excellence 
of its equipment and management has been 
shown in a very interesting manner by the 
results of a lire on the night of May 1.4, 
by which the works of the Washington 
I [ydraulic-Press Brick Company were almost 
entirely destroyed by fire, nothing being 
saved but the office, the stables, and the clay 
sheds. These works, consisting of engine 
and machine houses, shops, kiln sheds, 
warehouses, etc., cover an area of about ten 
acres and are one of the Largest and most 
important of the 1 1 yd raid ic- Press Brick Com- 
pany group. They are situated at Waterloo, 
\'a.,a few miles from the city of Washington, 
Realizing at once that a disaster oi 
this sort would mean a great deal to 
the architects and builders who are de- 



176 



THE RRICKBUILDER 



■Lar*-- «Ja r-** 




fflsjfc? 1 . 






?3u.: -■: f^.. 



WASHINGTON HYDRAULIC-PRESS BRICK 
PI \N I , MORNING \l" 1 1 is 1 [RE. 



pending upon the output of the yard, it was determined 
to at once draw upon the resources of the company in 
such a manner as to put the Washington works on its feet 

with the least possi- 
ble delay. As Mr. 
W. N. 1 1 raves, gen- 
era] superintendent 
of the Hydraulic 
yards, was confined 
to his house by 
injuries received in 
a recent accident, 
President Sterling 
hastened to Wash- 
ington, while the 
remaining officers 
of the company, 
after consultation 
and conferences with the railroad officials and their own 
local managers, decided to dismantle and ship bodily to 
Washington from the works of the parent company in 
St. Louis, two presses with all connections complete, 
ready for operation. At the same time the chief mill- 
wright and builder of the company was sent on from .St. 
Louis with all the needed drawings of buildings, and 
authority to employ all requisite assistance; while skilled 
employees of the company were hastened to Waterloo to 
wreck the destroyed machinery and to load it upon ears 
for shipment for St. Louis, where it could be repaired 
and thoroughly restored to its original condition, so it 
could take the place of the presses shipped East from St. 
Louis. It was promised that in thirty days the Washing- 
ton works should be in operation again. 

The first shipment from St. Louis was on May 26, and 
reached Waterloo on the ^ 1 st. The remaining three ears 
of machinery reached their destination in an equally short 
time, and no difficulty was experienced in obtaining all 
the earpenters and brick masons needed, so that new and 
substantial buildings, built of brick, were under roof 
before the machinery was all in place; and so successfully 
was the work planned that on June 1 <> a telegram was 
received by the St. Louis office, stating that the machinery 
was working to its full capacity and everything was in satis- 
factory condition. The promises made had been fulfilled 
in twenty-eight days, and the Washington Hydraulic- 
Press Brick Company has since been running day 
and night to regain lost time. As the damage to the 
stoek of bricks was 
comparatively lighl 
there has been no 
interruption of ship- 
ments and orders 
have been prompt- 
ly (died. This 
shows what good 
executive ability 
with means and men 
behind it can accom- 
plish i n an emer- 
gency. We print 

herewith two photographs, one taken the morning after 
the fire, and the other just thirty days later. These tell 
better than any words what had to be done. 




w \siii\<, 1 1>\ m iiRAi 1 IC-PRES 
PLAN I , I lllk IV 1>AVS Al I ER 



BRICK 

IKK. 



THE ATELIER FIT/WILLIAM. AUDITORIUM 
BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

PERSONALLY CONDUCTED BY F. .1. FITZWILLIAM, \ PUPIL OF 
D'ESPOUY, \\I(o won THE GRAND PRIX DE ROME IN THE 

YEAR 1.SS4. 

SPECIAL SKETCH COMPETITION. 

DURING the past year many draughtsmen have 
asked if there was not some way by which they 
could work at their homes and send or bring their studies 
t<> the atelier for criticism; so, in accordance with this 
demand, we shall, beginning with the month of Sep- 
tember, Kjoo, inaugurate a special nine months' series of 
sketch problems, which are intended to be worked up 
spontaneously without criticism. < hie of these problems 
will be issued each month from September to June eacb 
year. Every effort will be made to maintain these pro- 
grams of as lively an interest as can be, and the best 
solutions each month will be awarded prizes as stated 
below. Send your design and $1.00 for entrance into 
September competition, or send S.x.oo and become entered 
for all nine of the competitions from September, 1900 to 
June, 1901. On October 1, we will remail it to you, 
postage prepaid, with a full and complete critical analysis 
of its faults and merits and whatever prize (if any) it has 
been judged worthy to receive. The names and ad- 
dresses of prize winners will be announced each month. 

For the month of September, 1900 there will be 
twenty-five cash prizes, aggregating $145.00, divided as 
follows: One first prize of $30.00; two prizes of $15.00 
each; three prizes of S10.00 each; four prizes of $5-00 
each; five prizes of $3.00 each; ten prizes pf $2.00 each. 

PROGRAM FOR SEPTEMBER. 
A FOUNTAIN NICHE. 
Preamble. In a suburban district of a city of two 

hundred and fifty thousand people, it is proposed to eut a 
roadway around the base of a hill which extends in a 
rapid slope upward from the sea. A wall low enough 
not to obstruct the view shall separate the driveway from 
the sea, and the hillside of driveway shall be elosed by a 
perpendicular wall of masonry. This wall is to be 
eapped by a balustrade for the protection of a pedes- 
trian's walk loeated on the hillside at that height. The 
total height of this wall including balustrade shall not 
exeeed 2(> ft. Thus a broad roadway for vehicles at the 
lower level nearest the sea. and a narrower way for 
pedestrians on a higher plane, will run parallel each to 
each and to the coast line. 

Requirements. -The object of this problem is to de- 
sign the hillside wall, and particularly a drinking 
fountain for horses in connection with this wall. In 
addition to the fulfilment of practical requirements, this 
fountain should be architecturally adorned ; and since it 
is imperative that it shall occupy as little of the roadway 
as possible, the fountain shall be in the form of a grand 
niche, intersecting the hillside wall and extending be- 
neath the pedestrian's walk. The horse trough, how- 
ever, shall occupy space on the driveway. The water 
will be supplied by artificial means, and the fountain shall 
be entirely of masonry. 

Drawings. A plan, a section, and an elevation show- 
ing a portion of the wall on either side are required, all 
at the scale of ,•'',. in. equals 1 ft. The rendering will be 
left to the discretion of the designer, but the paper must 
be eut to the uniform size of 10 by iS ins. 

Send drawings unmounted to The Atelier Fitzwilliam 
on or before September 30, 1900. 

Any deviation from the program of requirements will 
debar the candidate from the competition. No further 
instructions are needed or will be given. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

SEPTEMBER, 
1900. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY HV 

ROGERS & MANSON-, 
85 Water .Street, Boston, Mass. . . 1'. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Tost ( >ffice as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12. 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada #5.00 per year 

Single numbers 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union f,Ci.oo per year 

Subscriptions payable in advani 1 . 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fireproofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



AMERICAN FARMHOUSKS. 

WHEN Hamlin Garland, some years since, published 
his tales of Western prairie life, the impression 
of hard, grinding, thankless poverty and dreary, hope- 
less surroundings, which he depicted, brought home to 
many of his readers the realization of conditions which 
are but too often ignored. Agriculture in itself is one 
of the noblest of callings, and the farmer is almost the 
only producer in the Commonwealth who is self-support- 
ing; and yet the average farmhouse is a most dissolutely 
dreary and artistically barren habitation, and Mr. Silen- 
cer's paper on the subject, in this issue, ought to arouse a 
deeper appreciation of the possibilities of agricultural 
architecture. Theoretically, farm life is all that is ideal, 
and the open air existence is the charming return to 
nature for which we all sigh; and if our farmers could lie 
induced to give to the construction and adornment of 
their houses but a tithe of" the thought and the money 
which is lavished in many cases upon the barns, stables, 
and pig pens, there would be no cause to complain of 
the habitations of the American husbandmen. Mr. 
Spencer views the subject from the standpoint of the 
artist as well as the architect. The possibilities of the 
farmhouse appeal to him as they should appeal to the in- 
habitants, and he is able to show that it is not necessary 
to endure the frightfully uninteresting and almost hope- 



lessly commonplace structures which are now the rule, 
but that the fifteen thousand well-built, comfortable, 
roomy houses of wood, brick, and stone ought, for every 
reason, to multiply until the six million flimsy, wooden 
farmhouses have shrunk to the limitations only of the 
persistently shiftless farmers. Our readers doubtless re- 
call the very pointed story by Mary E. Wilkins, published 
a few years since, of how a determined farmer's wife 
forced her husband to provide for her a shelter at least 
as good as that he offered his horses, showing how "the 
Revolt of Mother " brought about a regeneration of the 
farm architecture. Mr. Spencer has made a special study 
of the American farmhouse, and he has brought to it an 
appreciation and a degree of talent which has given 
promise of most excellent results. It ought not to be diffi- 
cult to evolve a more rational, more artistic, and more 
hygienic treatment of our farmhouses, It is at root 
quite as much ignorance as lack of artistic appreciation 
which permits our farmers to be content with what they 
have, and once we can get them aroused, once they can be 
made to feel that a well-built brick house is cheaper, 
more conducive to health, more lasting, as well as better 
looking than any of the wooden structures, such as are 
now the rule, it will not be difficult to predict the num- 
bering of the days of the prairie shanty. Every other 
country in the world builds interesting farmhouses. We 
did once, as Mr. Spencer's illustrations show, andnowwe 
must turn around, and if we do not revert entirely to tin 
fashion of our Xew England forefathers, we can, at least, 
take a measure of their spirit and put it into permanent 
forms of masonry construction, such as were very often 
beyond the reach of any but the richer colonial fanners, 
but are now possible for every one. 

Burnt clay, as a material for farmhouse construction. 
has everything to recommend it. It is comparatively 
unknown here for the reason that, up to twenty or t wenty- 
tivc years, it was in many parts of the country a more 
expensive material than wood. But any traveler through 
Holland, through the rich valley of the Po, or through 
the central counties of England can testify to the prev- 
alence of brick farmhouses; and surely if the peasants 
of those countries are able to build picturesque and 
rational brick farmhouses, there is but slighl excuse for 
the free farmers of our own country. 

Example, after all, is a better teacher than precept, 
and it is hoped that the compel it ion lor the design of a 
brick farmhouse, which appears in this number, will bear 
its part in developing possibilities. When our bright 

young architects want to amuse themselves with a pas- 
time sketch, ii is more apt to take the form of something 
rural than civic, and a farmhouse is more apl to appear 
under the facile pencil than an arch of triumph. The 



ITS 



T 1 1 E B RICK B U I L D E R 



problem is certainly fascinating enough, and it ought to 

have called out very interesting sketches. 



WHAT IS AN ARCHITECT? 

IN a recent number of the Inland Architect and Netus 
Record, there was a very interesting editorial on 
what the modern architect should know. We agree 
thoroughly with the editorial in its main points, but we 
would take issue on the idea that the paths of the archi- 
tect and engineer cross, and that it is necessary tor an 
architect t<> be primarily, or even largely, of an engineer- 
ing bent of mind. The Inland . Ircliitcct states that older 
architects are aware it is not usually difficult to obtain 
draughtsmen who are, or say they arc, artistic, but that 
it is difficult to find those who are competent to lay out 
in a proper and capable manner the details of any con- 
siderable structure. < Mir own experience has been directly 
the contrary of this. It is rare that a draughtsman can 
be found who can be trusted with any considerable degree 
of artistic license in designing a building. The real 
architecture, by which we mean the design as distinct 
I rom merely practical considerations, is the hardest part 
of the whole problem to solve. We never have found 
any lack of thoroughly competent draughtsmen with en- 
gineering tendencies, who could be safely entrusted with 
a very wide latitude in the designing of a structure. An 
architect is obliged t<> possess a wide range of knowledge 
and experience, and he must know and thoroughly under- 
stand the mechanical and engineering details of his pro- 
fession, but this part can be acquired by any one with due 
diligence and application ; whereas the finer qualities of 
design result not merely from years of serious training, 
but also from the possession of that intangible something 
which we may call genius or inspiration, but without 
which no architect can be really successful. If the archi- 
tect undertakes t<> compete with the engineer on his own 
ground he will be beaten hands down, but it will be a 
sorry day for the art of this country when engineering 
considerations are to take precedence of pure design; and 
our advice to a young man would be first and always to 
study design, beauty, purity of line, fitness of material, 
and, if he is a man of only ordinary mental endowment, 
he need have no difficulty in solving nearly all the en- 
gineering problems associated with the largest buildings, 
and the few such problems which would be too much for 
him would be of a nature which he ought to place in the 
hands of a competent engineer in any case. 



brick will appeal to our constructors to an extent which 
will create as great a revolution in the methods of private 
construction as has taken place already in our commercial 
work. 



STEEL IX SMALL BUILDINGS. 

ANY one who has had occasion to familiarize himself 
with the construction of dwellings in the larger 
European cities cannot fail to be impressed with the ex- 
tent to which steel and masonry arc used therein as com- 
pared with what is the practice in this country. The last 
few years has seen an enormous expansion in the use of 
steel for public buildings, but we have not yet reached a 
point where the building public appreciates the necessity 
for masonry constructions in dwelling houses, at least not 
in dwelling houses outside of the solidly built lines of the 
principal streets. We believe the time is fast coming, how- 
ever, when the advantages of a combination of steel and 



TIN-: PALAZZO DEL POPOLO, ORVIETO, ITALY. 

SI >ME eighty miles north of Rome on a great isolated 
tufa rock stands the mediaeval town of Orvieto. 
The perpendicular sides of the plateau rise, streaked 
and stained with the gorgeous colors of age, above the 
level valley through which runs the railway to Rome. 
A remarkably steep cable tramway conveys the passen- 
gers from the station to the top of the plateau, landing 
them at the entrance of the winding main street of the 
ruinous old town. Such tourists as stop at Orvieto are 
generally attracted by the splendid cathedral and its 
works of art, and few find it to their taste to pass more 
than one night in the old hill town. The houses, built 
of the coarse, black volcanic stone, many of them window- 
less and dropping to decay, the repulsive filth of the 
alleyways, and the somewhat sullen looks of the popula- 
tion contrive to give Orvieto a gloomy and forbidding 
appearance. Squalor and emptiness are seldom pic- 
turesque ; merriment and color are found more in crowded 
populations than in those decimated by poverty. 

This dilapidated condition of Orvieto is expressed in 
the photograph of the rear of the Public Palace, which 
we present this month as our frontispiece. The massive 
and time-stained walls, which, with their yawning open- 
ings, frame the disheveled heads of the motley population 
harbored in these rooms which have been the stronghold 
where many a potentate and civic dignitary has upheld 
the honor of Orvieto, are characteristic examples Of the 
construction of most of the city. 

Little is left of the original architecture of the Palazzo 
del Popolo, except the splendid row of triple windows, 
with their delicate columns and tracery, and curiously 
decorated archivolt which spans the entire motif. The 
great archway extends through the building, and on the 
front side nearer to the main street there is a flight of 
broad steps leading up to a balcony, as was common with 
Italian municipal buildings. The coarse character of 
the masonry is clearly indicated by the photograph. 
The building was erected during the twelfth or thirteenth 
century, and although much ruined is an interesting link 
in the chain of famous Italian town halls. 

Aside from its dilapidated state. Orvieto is a place 
which the traveler, in search of impressions, wi'l hardly 
care to miss. The imposing mass of its craggy plateau, 
as it first conies into sight from the train, the flight up- 
wards on the funicular tramway with picturesque peas- 
ants and market women, the entrance through the black 
tunnel under the fortress, the interminable main street 
which has to be traversed to find the inn then the inn 
itself with its vast brick-paved bedrooms and gloomy 
halls, whose depressing effect is, however, happily neu- 
tralized in the dining room by the copious tlasks of the 
-odd red wine of Orvieto, which adorn the tables, all 
these contrast with the cathedral facade, blazing with 
mosaic, and the gorgeous sunsets which stream over the 
level valley and old Ltruscan city, rich with its memo- 
ries of over a score of centuries. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



179 



American Farmhouses.' 

BY ROBERT C. SPENCER, JR. 

THE student of rural domestic architecture must he- 
content to find his pleasure chiefly in the enjoy- 
ment of field and woods. The average American farm- 
stead, and its weather-beaten, ramshackle, wooden build- 
ings and unkempt surroundings, adds but a doubtful 
charm to the landscape. The fine old relics of colonial 
days, which still exist in New England and the South, 
were the country seats of gentlemen who had other 
resources than the soil. They were not farmhouses. Out- 
side their own provincial environment they have not 
even served as prototypes for the homes of the real 
farmers whose acres are their sole support. 

Disregarding such pioneer makeshifts as the log 
cabin, the " dug-out " and the " dobe " hut, we have, in 
the United States, a vast territory presenting every di- 
versity of climate, topography, and vegetation, over 
which is thinly scattered some six million flimsy wooden 
farmhouses. Besides these, in the older and richer farm- 
ing communities, there may be, all told, possibly fifteen 
thousand well-built, comfortable, roomy houses of wood, 
stone, or brick, which have some characteristic architec- 
tural or pictorial charm, adding color and pleasing inter- 




FARMSTEAD NEAR TOPSHAM, ME. 

est to their natural environment, and offering suggestion 
and inspiration to the architect. 

Even in the rich farming sections of the older States, 
there are many rural habitations so brutally bald, ugly, 
and forbidding that it may be said of our own benighted 
heathen, still deaf to the gospel of beauty, that they live 
in a land "where every prospect pleases and only man 
is vile." 

Amid the freshness and beauty of the fair open 
country, one cheerless or unsightly house seems, by con- 
trast, more discreditable to a highly civilized and pro- 
gressive race than a whole row of them in a city. 

Poverty and struggle are not alone accountable for 
poor housing. Many a countryman who is well-to-do, 
even wealthy, lives in the most primitive and comfortless 
fashion. The average farmer, more especially in the 
rougher parts of the South and West, does not know 
how to live. He and his, toil hard and get little of the 
higher side of life in return. Having the same social 
instincts and needs as other men, he isolates himseli in 
the midst of a large tract of land, and during the long 
winter months, when there is little outdoor work to do, he 
and his unfortunate family are often shut in like hermits, 
and cutoff from convenient intercourse with their fel- 
lows, to drag out a dull, depressing, animal existence 
amid bare and ugly surroundings. Often the children 

1 Copyrighted by Robert C Spencer, Ir. 



cannot even attend school. In most European countries, 
doubtless, as a result of the feudal system, where for 
mutual support and defense the homes of the serfs and 
dependents were grouped near the manor or castle, the 
lonely isolated farmhouse is less common. In France, 
England, Russia, and Scandinavia the owners or workers 
of a number of farms group their houses in a little ham- 




ol, 1) SHINGLED BARN, PHIPSBURG, ME. 

let with its school, its church, and its smithy, going out 
in all directions each morning to the distant fields or 
vineyards, and returning at dark to chat awhile after the 
evening meal with friends and neighbors, talking politics 
or indulging in mild gossip. 

The same communal arrangement was forced upon 
our early New England settlers by the hostilities of the 
Indian tribes, and on the outskirts of the smaller cities 
and towns still remain many delightful examples of 
Colonial farmhouse architecture. But with the banish- 
ment and subjugation of the Indians, and the beginning 
of the era of settlement upon government lands, with its 
requirement of five years' actual residence thereon before 
title could be established, the lonely isolated farmhouse 
became common. In the "Western Reserve," in the 
.South, and in Michigan and Wisconsin it was at first 
built of logs. Farther west on the prairies it was a cheap 
shelter built of pine lumber or merely a sod house con- 
structed from the humble material nearest at hand. ( >n 
the Pacific slope, with its kindly climate, the simplest and 
rudest housing sufficed. These were the homes of the 











* 
















iij 


St *«»*»•» '.jgrWB*- 






- 






Br«| 



1 VRMH0USE NEAR I \ GR VNGE, III. 

pioneers. The day of the log house is passing, and the 
sawmill has long been at work devouring the forests for 
lumber to ship to farms cleared originally in the midst of 
the virgin woods. The sod house and the " shack " are 
but temporary makeshift shelters, and the cheap frame 

house is taking their plate to remain until the era oi 
wood makes way for the era of brick and stone. 



i8o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




FARMHOUSE ON KENNEBEC RIVER BELOW BATH, ME. 

Each generation will see better and more substantial 
buildings on our farms: but while the present system of 
single isolated habitations so widely prevails, the old 
difficulty of keeping the boys on the farm will remain, 
and there will be no little diminution in the stream of fresh 
blood which the cities, vampire-like, draw from the coun- 
try. And never was there greater need than now to 
make rural life attractive to the children of the farms. 
The glimpses of the great, alluring world, gotten through 
visits to the nearest towns, through study at school and 
the reading of books and papers, impel the restless, eager 
youth, weary he knows not why, not of the mere grind 
of toil, but of the heart and soul starvation that is part 
of a life without recreation or beauty. The country is 
not everywhere beautiful. Amid the hills of New Eng- 
land, or the mountains of Tennessee, the rudest mind is 




SKKIi II 1^ R. C. SPENCER, .IK. 

conscious of nature's loveliness. But what of the endless 
sweep of prairies where even the wild-flowers, by endless 
multiplication, become as weeds, and the horizon line- 
is broken only by a few farmsteads with their straw 
stacks, windmills, and puny trees ? As seen from a 
railway train the prairie farmhouse is as lonely as a 
passing craft at sea. The shimmering corn fields and 
floor-like meadows stretch away to the horizon's circle, 
and the farmsteads, with their clumps of trees, are like- 
islands dotted wide upon a boundless ocean. There is 
a certain vastness and freedom there as of the sea, but 
the great everlasting flatness has no feature of interest, 
no focal point of natural beauty or grandeur to rest the 
eye. There is, indeed, the beauty of the skies, and the 
play of light and shadow, sunshine and storm, over the 
great level. The rain passes, and in the west a rifted 



cloud opens at the touch of one slant ray, and far out 
upon the gloomy plain a golden finger touches the earth, 
and a windmill gleams wet against the rumbling dark- 
ness, as the thunder rolls and the tassels of the corn bow 
gently before the dying wind. 

Winter comes, and the prairie is a frozen waste, across 
which the bitter winds drift the Stinging snow-dust, until 
every flimsy, wooden farmhouse shivers on its founda- 
tion, if, mayhap, it have any foundation better than posts 
driven into the ground and a banking of dirt and leaves. 
When the thawing weather comes the unspeakable roads 
of bottomless muck stand out black against the surround- 
ing snow, and travel is well-nigh impossible. And the 
homes themselves, what do they offer of comfort and 



\- 



' 



, i, j. ■ 









Win 







SKETCH BY R. C. SPENCER, JR. 






beaut}-' We all know them, and the helpless poverty of 
ideas expressed by the average farmhouse. It is just one 
degree smaller and cheaper and more cheerlessly com- 
monplace than the average mean little house which the 
speculative builder "puts up" in the humbler suburbs 
for poor clerks and working-men. 

It has never occurred to their builders that even at 
the very small outlay to which the average farmer is 
confined, some pleasing effects of proportion and mass 
might be got, more lasting anil beautiful materials used, 
more interior comfort and more domestic conveniences 
planned for. The women of the household, particularly 
if they are of foreign origin and peasant antecedents, are 
literally hewers of wood and drawers of water. The 
pump has replaced the well with its old oaken bucket, but 
the pump is out in the yard and not in the kitchen. 




"1- 



• . 



r 



- 



. 









>klv l > U \;\ R. C. SPENCER, JR. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



181 




A SOUTHERN FARMHOUSE. 

Sinks are luxuries for the few. Dish water is thrown 
out near the kitehen door. Probably not more than one 
farmhouse in twenty has a furnace or a plumbing system 
of any kind. In nearly every house, and this is equally 
true even in New England and in the thriftiest parts, one 
sacred room is dedicated and set apart to fashion and 
ceremony. It is the "parlor " idea, which runs through 
all modern domestic architecture, expressed here in a 
peculiarly absurd yet pathetic form. Shut up, unused, 
and frigid, except on rare occasions, musty with disuse, 
and its walls ghastly white or covered with some poor, 
pale paper, a few chromos and faded photographs in hard 
black frames, and all of the other evidences of poverty of 
taste and imagination, the so-called "best room" is cut 
out of the already modest ground plan, leaving the family 
to live in kitchen and dining room, and to eat in the 
former oftener than in the latter, where the atmosphere 
reeks of coarse cookery, stale tobacco, and dirty boots 
and clothing brought in by the men from the fields and 
barns. 

Of sanitary, bathing, or laundry conveniences there 
are usually none. Thousands of farmers have never 
heard of such things. Thousands who have heard of 
them and might afford them scoff at them. Housework 
is drudgery at all times, and during haying and harvest 
it is slavery. The pictures given in some of our recent 
fiction of hard grinding farm life with few touches of 
softness or beauty to relieve them are not too darkly 



drawn. Picture to yourself the boyhood life of a David 
Harum. The fiction of Hamlin Garland, Mrs. Peattie, 
and E. V. Smalley gives no exaggerated impression 

of actual and common rural conditions, where farms are 
isolated and the struggle against poverty is endless and 
bitter. 

The Esquimaux Indian with his wood and hone carv- 
ing, his basket weaving, and implement-making has 
more to occupy and develop his creative faculties than the 
toilers of the prairie in whom the love of beauty and the 
desire to create gradually die; where the lively imagina- 
tion of childhood is starved and dwarfed by the hard 
reality of a one-sided material existence. To one of those 
warped and undeveloped natures art is a strange and 
foreign thing, to be mistrusted and shunned because not 
understood; because enjoyed and patronized by the 
favored rich and the idle-born; a thing for weak women 
and lazy men. 

From infancy the child of the farm must be taught to 
truly see form and color, the mind to understand, the 
imagination to create, and the hands to do for the pure 
pleasure of doing. In the country isolation must cease, 




BARNS ARE IN 
THIS DIRECTION 




PLANS, SOUTHERN FARMHOUSE, 



A SOUTHERN FARMHOUSE. 

houses must draw together about the schoolhouse as a 
center, and there must the children have the beneficent 
teaching of the kindergarten, the spirit of which should 
not be withdrawn as the pupils pass from childhood, but 
should pervade all the years of schooling. Loving 
beauty, knowing its value in life, sensitive to its myriad 
forms, the farmer of the future will then 
value beautiful surroundings as well as boun- 
tiful crops. Realizing the benefits and ad- 
vantages of combination and cooperation, he 
will work intelligently lor the development 
of little communities, wherein, bv united 
effort, comfort and conveniences of living, 
now rare, may be enjoyed by all. On the 
industrial side of his calling he will perfi i I 
such combinations of capital and of business 

interests as to make the earning of an inde- 
pendent and comfortable living a certainty 
for the reasonably careful and industrious. 
Trusts and the "plutocrats" will no longer 
be his bugbears, and his sons will no longer 
seek the city in search of uncertain fortUE 
Among the factors working toward II 
improved conditions of rural Life are' the 
efforts of educators to improve COUntr 



l82 



T II E K RI C K BUI L I) E R 



schools, and to make them more available to the farming 
population; the spread of the grange idea promoting 
social intercourse, mutual improvement, and the coopera- 
tive idea; the establishment in the most progressive 
States, of farmers' institutes as a phase of State university 
extension; the good roads movement and the work of 
agricultural schools and colleges. 

Finally, hundreds of thousands of agricultural and 
family papers are sent broadcast among the farmers 
every week, reaching many humble homes where the 
illustrated magazines are never seen and books arc few. 
Some of these have well-edited columns on the arts and 
handicrafts, and several of the leading farm and family 
journals have taken up the farmhouse problem in a way 
which ought to do much good to awaken their subscribers 
to the neglected possibilities of rural life in respect to the 
home and its environment. 

Doubtless the majority of those to first feel the force 



barn builder has been progressive and ready to spend 
money within the limitation of wooden construction and 
according to his means. It is in the matter of the house 
that he has signally failed. Here his intense natural 
conservatism, joined to force of habit in crude ways of 
living, has stood in the way of progress. The journals 
he takes have always dwelt chiefly upon the practical 
details of his business, leaving the home itself, the center 
and soul of the farm, to the rude hands of the ignorant, 
unprogressive country builder. Of recent years, with 
the perfection of cheap methods of photographic repro- 
duction, the country has been flooded with ready-made 
designs for houses of every si/.e and cost, planned for all 
sorts and conditions of men except farmers. These 
designs are most of them so bad that it would be fortu- 
nate if the country people had escaped their blighting 
influence. Hut in the hands of the village builder they 
are made, with some changes in the line of cheap eon- 







i_ ar*a 



A WISCONSIN FARMHOUSE. 



of these pleas for better homes will be the wives and 
daughters. In time the sterner males will yield to good 
and persuasive influences; and when once the movement 
for a really good rural architecture has begun, they may 
be expected to take quite as much pains to comfortably 
house their families as to properly shelter stock and 
machinery. Up to the present time the typical American 
country barn has been better planned and better built 
than the average farmhouse. In the building of barns 
and outhouses, as well as the construction of labor-saving 
agricultural machinery, Yankee skill and brains have 
evolved a type which, from a purely practical standpoint, 
is superior while it lasts to the better-built foreign 
models of brick and stone. Unhampered by any fear of 
being accused by neighbors of foolish extravagance in 
building as long as the ends sought are purely "prac- 
tical," without taint of aesthetic "foolishness," or weak 
catering to needless refinement of living, the farmer as a 



struction, to serve for the new homes of the wealthier 
and more ambitious farmers. We have all seen these 
fearful and wonderful structures with their ridiculous 
little towers and turrets, or their now antiquated mansard 
roofs and cupolas, betokening the exceptional prosperity 
and munificence of the owners. Begotten by blind 
custom, conceived in a commercial spirit and born of 
commonplace mediocrity, there is little hope for the cause 
of a progressive, Living, native, domestic architecture 
in these piles of plans and elevations run off by the yard 
by men who care little or nothing for architecture as a tine 
art. The small minority of our architects who arc able to 
design well-planned, livable, and thoroughly delightful 

farmhouses are as a rule too constantly and profitably 
employed with Large and important commissions to be 
interested in the sort of building to which the humble 
means of even the wealthier farmers would confine him. 
So that unless the devil is fought with fire and the best 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



183 



ideas of our ablest designers and thinkers are placed in 
the hands of the farm people, the illiterate and unscrupu- 
lous plan-merchant, who never lets art interfere with 
business, will continue to be the only architect the farmer 



carpenter is no longer the painstaking student of the 
most dignified architectural precedent, as he often was 
in colonial days. He makes plans in order to get 
"jobs," and gets all the money lie can out of them. In 






■*■ 



SJ • 





J. 

1 






■V 





., ■.„ 





- 










A WISCONSIN FARMHOUSE. 



knows until there is a larger and more intelligent demand 
for beauty in the home and its surroundings. 

In our present intensely commercial period the village 




5LCO/ND FLOOR 
PLAN 




HS5T FLOOR 
PL AM. 



PLANS OF WISCONSIN FARMHOUSE. 



New England, until recently, the traditions of earlier daws 
have been followed in a humble way in farmhouse work ; 
but now, even there, the same beastly " modern " abomi- 
nations of the lathe and the band-saw are beginning to 
appear in all their brazen impudence. 

In presenting some of my own designs for American 
farmhouses, as suggesting a few of the possibilities which 
the problem offers to the architect, a very few words of 
explanation will suffice. The " Fieldstone Farmhouse," 
the "Wisconsin Farmhouse, " and the "Southern Farm- 
house " (planned for the more temperate Southern 
regions) were recently published in two well-known farm 
journals, and have also appeared in several of the late 
architectural club catalogues and in Brush a 111/ Pencil. 
They were intended for rather small families, keeping 
not more than one servant, and would require the male 
help in some cases to occupy separate quarters near by, 
this being a good plan on very large farms where several 
hired hands are steadily employed. One or two men 
may be accommodated in the house, and would commonly 
be treated as members of the family, where help of a 
superior class can be had. 

The only saving in labor and expense made possible 
by providing extensive quarters for help in part of a 
farmhouse is in heating them in winter, although even 
here a central steam or hot water apparatus instead of a 
hot air furnace would wipe out even this consideration. 
In the average Northern farmhouse neither tin- man's 
room nor the family bed rooms have any proper provi- 
sions for heating. Moreover, in mixed communities, or 
where rough, menial, or uncongenial help has to be em- 
ployed, the family life is much better and freer where the 



1 84 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




I.AKF.SIIIF. FARMHOUSE. 



hands are cared for separately. There are ideal American 
farming communities where as many as half a dozen 
hired men and boys, friends or relatives of the patriarchal 
employer, sleep and eat together, under one roof, in the 
most congenial and democratic fashion, — all equals and 
all good, wholesome, intelligent members of one big 
family, in which all cooperate for the general good. 
Such big families require generous housing, but are the 
exception rather than the rule. For hired help under 
such conditions, a separate wing with bed rooms on the 
ground floor, readily increased by lengthening or adding 
a second story, or both, as growing needs require, seems 
to be the best arrangement. A one-story house gives a 
large attic, which, if properly lighted and ventilated, also 
affords generous sleeping accommodations, which may be 
readied bv a staircase direct from the entry by the men 
whose goings and comings would otherwise often disturb 
the family. The " Lakeside Farmhouse " was designed 
for one of those ideal situations of which architects love to 
dream, and which do actually exist in many parts of 
America. The building is intended to accommodate 
several boarders or city relatives during the summer, and 
suggests the country house rather than the ordinary 
farmhouse. The separate entrance for hired help with 
an enclosed staircase gives them a private thoroughfare 
to their rooms in the attic, where rough or menial help is 
employed. This drawing was made primarily to show 
the possibilities of beautiful farmhouse sites. The 
"Wisconsin Farmhouse" presents the pleasing low roof 
lines of the story and a half cottage, yet avoids the 
practical shortcomings of that type; the floor beams over- 
hang to receive the rafter thrust, while the bed rooms 
each with windows in two walls carried close to ceiling 
and fitted with casement sash give the best possible 
ventilation, and insure cool rooms at night if there be 
any air stirring. The kitchen is simply a large alcove in 
the dining room. This compact arrangement completely 
screened from the living room makes the work very 
simple, everything being within easy reach; while any 
steam or fumes from the cooking range are cut off by a 
low arch about 6 ft. above the floor, and drawn off by a 
large ventilating register in the chimney. The rear 
porch may be enclosed with wire screens and meals 
served there in hot weather and on gala occasions, or 
where family and help do not mix at meals; the living- 
room readily becomes dining room as well. 

In the library or office, quiet and privacy may be had 
fin- study, correspondence, receiving friends, keeping farm 
and household accounts, and transacting farm business. 



With the exception of the Fieldstone Farmhouse in 
which brick might be used quite as effectively as stone, 
the construction is of the balloon frame type, with a 
covering of cement rough cast on metal lath. With some 
slight modifications each could be built of brick, and 
thereby made more durable and beautiful at a small in- 
crease of cost, which would be fully offset by the sub- 
stantial and permanent character of the house thus ob- 
tained. The days of the flimsy, '• clapboarded " frame- 
house are numbered, and it is to be hoped that the farmers 
who seem to prefer bricks wherever they can be cheaply 
obtained will realize that solid brick construction, proof 
against weather, growing mellow rather than dilapidated 
with age, is the best investment in the long run. 

The other illustrations, mere camera notes, present 
interesting and typical examples of native American, 
rural architecture. Note the picturesque homeliness of 
the northern Xew England type the best built and the 
most clearly defined and, perhaps, the best suited to 
Northern conditions. Here, and occasionally in the West 
where Xew England ers have settled, the typical farm- 
house is a long rambling structure, with the sacred 
"parlor" and guest room at one end and the barns and 
workshop at the other. In Northern regions where old- 
fashioned winters with deep drifting snows still reign, 




II RSI 1'I.ooR, I.AKKSIDK FARMHOUSE. 



Til E B RICK IU T I L I) E R 



x«5 




A LAKKMDE FARMHOUSE. 



the convenience and comfort of this type are obvious. 
Of course, a separate and larger barn for stock is usually 
required, although examples may be seen where, through 
various sheds, a house is united with a great barn, large 
enough for all purposes. A few changes in the plans of 
these rambling farmhouses would eliminate the most 
serious defects now found in even the best of these build- 
ings. These defects, some of which are due to per- 
verted ways of living, are: first, a connection between 
kitchen and barn too short or inadequately shut off 
against odors; second, incomplete or inconvenient laun- 
dry, fuel, pantry, and other working arrangements; 
third, lack of bath room and sanitary conveniences; 
fourth, and perhaps most serious of all, lack of a large, 
sunny, attractive living room or combined dining and 
living room in place of the frigid, old-fashioned state- 
parlor held sacred to memorable occasions, such as wed- 
dings and funerals. One needed feature, seldom pro- 
vided, is a roomy entry, set apart for the male members 
of the household in which they may remove dirty boots 
and overalls, and clean themselves up properly before en- 
tering the kitchen or living rooms. Often toilet and 
wardrobe conveniences may be -provided in the laundry. 

In planning and placing a house in a sharply rolling 
country, such advantage of the site often may be taken 
as to provide easy and convenient access to the house and 
barn on two levels, giving an added charm to its various 
aspects seldom found in the level prairies. 

Concerning the use of brick in the construction of 
American farm buildings, there is little to he said for the 
reason that the cheapness and availability of wooden con- 
struction have been sufficient cause hitherto for the 
almost universal use of wood. Scarcity of small local 



brick kilns and 
scarcity of ma- 
sons have been 
a n a t u r a 1 ac- 
c o m p a niment 
of the a b u n- 
dance of saw- 
mill products. 
S ubst a n tially 
built fa rm- 
houscs of brick 
arc quite com- 
mon in parts of 
( )hio and I ndi- 
ana, and they 
will be found 
here and there 
in Illinois. Mich- 
igan, and Wis- 
consin w i t li i n 
fifty miles ol 
brick -in a k in g 
i enters, Some 

of the most 
interesting ex- 
amples of brick 
farm buildings 
arc to be found 
in New Eng- 
land, where the 
English c o 1 o- 
n i s ts brought 
from across the 




SECOND I I oon, I \KI slid I \ KM III H SE. 



1 86 



T HE RRICKBUILD E R 




A FIELDSTONE FARMHOUSE. 



sea their predilection for substantial and enduring build- 
in ^ materials. In order to build according to the ways 
of their forefathers, they took a great deal of trouble to 
secure bricks, either by importation, or by burning their 
own bricks where 
stone was not 
available or suit- 
able for the pur- 
pose. The accom- 
panying ske t C h 
of the old " Gar- 
rison House " or 
"SpencerHouse" 
at old Newbury, 
Mass., supposed 
to have b e e n 
built prior to 
i 640, a n d the 
" Lee Farm " on 
the Kennebec 
Rive r, b c 1 o w 
Bath, Me., repre- 
sent two inter- 
esting examples, 
both of w h i c h 
are standing to- 
day as proofs of 
the durability of 
burnt clay laid 
in very ordinary 
mortar. The 
bricks in the 
" porch " (so- 
called) of the 




PLANS, A FIELDSTONE FARMHOUSE. 



former are carefully molded by hand, and it is quite 
probable that they were imported. The walls of the 
"Lee Farm," now more than one hundred years old, are 
over two feet thick, and the bricks, to judge from their 

softness, were 
burned near by 
long before there 
were any regular 
kilns in the Pine 
Tree State. 

Altogether, the 
farmhouse prob- 
lem in this coun- 
try is a most in- 
teresting one; 
and as the cheap 
and temporary 
houses f the 
first settlers and 
their immediate 
descendants fall 
into dilapidation 
and decay, it is 
to be hoped that 
we shall enter on 
an era of more 
substantial, liva- 
ble, and attrac- 
tive homes for 
the millions who 
till the soil and 
form the back- 
b o n e of the 
nation. 



THE RRICKBUILDER 

" The Brickbuilder ' Competition. 
III. 



187 



A FARMHOUSE. 



CRITICISM AND AWARD BY R. CLIPSTON STURGIS. 

THE drawings submitted in this competition seemed 
to me of unusual excellence, and a large number 
show thought and study. It was sufficiently difficult to 
select a half dozen to place above the rest, and it was 
still more difficult to rank these. In considering the 
problem, there were three main points: first, the general 
layout, — the arrangement of the buildings on the land, 
their relation to each other, for convenience and for 
aspect, both very important in a farm, and their group- 
ing as an architectural composition ; second, the plans 
in detail, — the arrangement of the rooms in the house, 
to give to the farmer some measure of retirement, with 
pleasant exposure and outlook, and yet give him easy 
supervision of his farm buildings , and the arrangement 
of the barn to make the care of the stock easy, and to 
give them good quarters, and to provide accommodation 
for the necessary implements and for the farm produce; 
third, the exterior treatment, which should be simple 
and farm-like in character, and yet substantial and pleas- 
ing. 

"Countryman" was awarded the first place, because 
on the three counts he appeared to have done most 
toward solving the various problems, but there is cer- 
tainly a very narrow margin between his design and the 
two placed second and third. 

At first sight " Countryman's " weak rendering preju- 
dices one against him ; but if one studies the design care- 
fully he is forced to admit that his general arrangement 
of the buildings could hardly be improved upon. It is 
unquestionably a farm. The great farmyard is the cen- 
tral feature, and the buildings are grouped about it so as to 
give the house the best position for view and aspect, and 
yet leave it in command of the barn; and the barn 
stretches out to face south and southeast. The garden 
occupies the right place, not too important, but easy of 
access and away from the more every-day side of the 
establishment. If "Countryman " had merely extended 
his hedge to enclose a small front door yard, it would 
have seemed a quite perfect arrangement. Then the 
house is well planned, all the rooms are pleasant and 
sunny, and the men's rooms occupy the right place at the 
north end toward the barn. The summer kitchen is the 
only doubtful room; a cooler position with more cross 
ventilation would have been preferable. The barn is 
excellently planned, horses, cows, and pigs grouped 
round a working center, with adjacent paddocks. One 
would have liked the carriage room a little nearer the 
horses, and the paddocks are hardly sunny enough for 
winter, which is the time they would be most used. The 
exterior is the weakest point of the whole design, but 
even this is largely due to the feeble drawing. [f well 
executed on these very lines it would be a pleasing 
group, and the only doubt is whether the designer knew 
how good his design might be. 



" In Haste " is placed second. His general plan is 
not quite as good as the first. It is a little more like an 
accidental grouping than a studied arrangement, but it 
has all the charm which such a plan often has. There is, 
perhaps, a little too much of elegance in the forecourt 
treatment of the ground between house and barn, em- 
phasizing unduly the unbusinesslike side of the place. 
The house plan is first-rate, convenient, comfortable, 
homelike, and the barn is fairly well arranged; but here 
again the real farm is a bit in the background, with scant 
Space, rather out of the way, allotted to the wagons and 
implements. The paddocks seem somewhat confused 
with sheds. The exterior is wholly charming and suit- 
able; quite the best of the lot. 

Third place is given to "Seigniory." His general 
plan is quite different from either of the others. The 
buildings are not grouped around a center, but are rather 
two groups merely touching at one point. It is a per- 
fectly logical and defensible scheme well carried out. It 
gives importance to the house, and yet places it where it 
is in easy communication with the barn. The approach 
to the house is very simple, and yet has a certain dignity, 
and the extension of the road straight across the front of 
the barn makes an excellent thoroughfare. The house is 
extremely well planned. The rooms are good, well 
placed, and in proper sequence; and the back porch, open- 
ing two ways, and the sheds and ice house show thought. 
The barn would be very good but for its exposure. The 
main face is southeast, and the central building, which is 
high, would cut off all sun in winter from the cow stable 
and cow yard. The reversal of stable yard and cow yard 
would have obviated this, but the pigs would then have 
been too close to the house. Approaching the main floor 
of the hay barn up an incline is always a good plan if 
grades suggest it, but as indicated here, it would mean a 
long run to give a grade sufficiently easy for hauling up 
heavy loads. The exterior is distinctly the weak point 
of this design, and the rendering is not sufficiently defi- 
nite to explain the author's intention. It suggests a 
brick or stone house cemented rather than an exposed 
brick wall, and one questions whether the gables are 
coped with stone or with brick, and whether the cop- 
ing is flat or pitched. A few more strokes of the pen 
would have made this clear. It is well to save un- 
necessary labor, but unwise to omit anything which is 
essential. 

"Reuben" receives first mention largely because of 
his very good exterior, charmingly rendered. It is not, 
however, a solution of the problem. It is not a farmer's 
house and barn, but the house of a man of country taster, 
who, besides his horses and carriage's, keeps some cows 
and pigs. The "barn" is really a stable with a cow 
barn attached. There is no great space for storing 
crops, nor for the wagons and implements necessary to 
farm work. The garden, placed between house and 
barn, adds further to this impression. The man who 
owned this charming place would not have the farm 
hands sleep in his house. 

'fhe second mention is given to "Kb," a good 
sensible design; house and barn well placed and both 
fairly well planned, an exterior which is sound com- 
monsense sort of work and which would look well in 
execution. 



1 88 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




- GrtouHD Ftoon 

a Living Room- 

b Hall >. 

c? office 

d Kitchen 

e piaiui ■ . 

f sumnter Kitvhcn • 

9 P.mTries 

>i Bnck H*.li 

i Wens "Rooms 

J Covered V*y 

k Arm )>fipi*n<eAt% • 

; i .,,,■, .-...'. ■• 

n *(.»•« SftiNa . 

o Loose- Box ■ 

p meed Room %• Sh©& ■ 

[ef-y • 

r Cow& 

s Loose Rox 

■T Ct\vi-i,>ge Koom 



A.C©w^ifKVi5aAjsf *i 



& ' , .V- ?} 

I . I ■ ' 



j _ i ^j 

. , j . , 

■View looking at Kous 



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X'SI 



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' r ' ». - 

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1/lt* lookmjS ert 1 




FIRST PRIZE DESIGN. 
Wilfred A. Morris, Cambridge, Mass. 



HOU5E, 

ft.*- cCaa**j v2ctt*vv, 
E>.~- »5jJtKv^ OSvtrvny 



BARfi. 



c.—(?o~x4t 






C . ~ C<7vo .STSotrfu, 




SECOND PRIZE DESIGN. 
William L. Phillips, Rochester, X. V. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



189 




THIRD PRIZE DESIGN. 
Henry Loomis Curtis, Philadelphia, Pa. 




FIRST MENTION. 
George P. Kiefer, Milwaukee, Wis. 



190 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




SECOND MENTION. 
Walter W. Bonns, Milwaukee, Wis. 




DESIGN SUBMITTED BY CHARLES W. KILLAM, BOSTON, MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDKR 



K,i 



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■DBICKDVILDEB ■ COADETITIO^ °^VMDEB • HI 
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6CCQ/IO * 

PLOT ■ PLAN- 



DESIGN SUBMITTED BY f. MELVILLE MILLER, BOSTON, MASS. 










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P - . M L ; : — . 

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S-sfc <C#f^|fr^W\=i£ 



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E-LtVATiON OP ttAKM 

"Brickbuildek" Comkltition Mo IE 

: , I 'ai r's (VlB 



DESIGN SUBMITTED BY W. W. DE VEAUX, NEW YORK, X. V. 



I 9 2 



T HE BRICKBUILDER 



Fire-proofing. 



PRACTICAL FIRE TESTS. 

Til E numerous tests th;it have been conducted by the 
British Fire Prevention Committee since its incep- 
tion in 1897, after the great Cripplegate fire, supply much 
valuable information on the relative fire-resisting quali- 
ties of various materials used in building work, and, as 
the committee have no mercenary motives, the results 
obtained by them may be regarded as being perfectly 
accurate and trustworthy. The committee's testing 
station is at the side of Regent's Canal, London, and 
their tests are conducted in brick huts 10 ft. square in- 
side, which are supplied with gas through large mains. 
The temperatures are recorded by means of two Rob- 
erts-Austen pyrometers, connected with the huts by 
wires. 

In these articles it is proposed to deal with the fire tests 
that have been made with different kinds of ceilings, 
columns, doors, lire curtains, floors, glazing, partitions, 
protective coverings, and non-inflammable wood. 

Ceilings. — Architects and builders have constantly 
before them the problem of protecting ordinary residen- 
tial property against that rapid spread of fire common to 
buildings where the ordinary partition and the ordinary 
floor are chiefly used. As the substitution of a solid floor 
or partition would be too costly, attempts are made to 
find something which will supersede the usual lath and 
plaster covering used for ceilings and will check the fire 
sufficiently t<> give the inmates a chance of escape. As 
vet only two ceilings have been tested by the committee, 
- one made by the Asbestos and Asbestic Company, Ltd., 
of London, and the other by Messrs. I). Anderson & Son, 
Ltd., and J. C. Broadbent & Co., Ltd., of London. The 
first ceiling was constructed with 2 by 8 in. spruce 
joists, spaced at 15-in. centers, with two rows of solid 
2 by X in. bridging; the flooring was of 1 -in. boards. 
Laths of St. Petersburg" fir, rent or split, were used, and 
were Spaced } £ in. apart. The plaster consisted of 350 
pounds of Danville asbestic plaster to 2 bushels of Stam- 
ford graystone lime slaked in 50 gallons of water; a 
layer i's in. thick was put on, and the plaster was 
brought down the walls about 6 ins., forming a cove. 
The area of the ceiling was 100 ft. in the clear. Three 
weeks (spring) were allowed for construction and drying. 
The object of the test was to record the effect of a 
smoldering fire of fifteen minutes' duration at a tem- 
perature not exceeding 500 degs. Fahr., followed by a 
fire of half an hour, gradually increasing from 500 degs. 
Fahr. to 1,500 degs. Fahr., followed suddenly by the 
application of water for three minutes. The following 
is a summary of the effect: No perceptible difference in 
the ceiling was observed during the progress of the test. 
The application of water caused no injury to the ceiling. 
No portion of it fell down, either during or after the 
test. When examined, after the test, cracks had de- 
veloped over the surface of the ceiling, many about T > ( . in. 
wide. Some of the wood laths were charred, but none 
had ignited. 



The second ceiling tested consisted of 3 by 9 in. deal 
joists, spaced at 19-in. centers, and resting 4 1 - ins. on 
the walls at each end. A slag-wool slab 1 in. thick and 
5 ins. wide was screwed at the end of each joist on both 
sides. The flooring was of "x in. boards, and the ceiling- 
was formed of slag-wool slabs 1 ; 4 ins. thick (reduced to 
i'j ins. thick when pressed into position, as the slabs 
consisted of slag-wool enclosed between galvanized wire 
netting). Round the walls of the hut a wood molding 
was fixed, forming a cornice and covering the slag-wool 
which projected below the "h in. match-boarding ceiling. 
The tire lasted an hour, the temperature gradually in- 
creasing to c,8oo degs. Fahr., followed by the immediate 
application of water for two minutes. When examined 
after the test, the joists and flooring were sound and not 
damaged by tire. 

Columns. — Though certain fire tests had been made 
at Hamburg and New York, there had only been one 
attempt at really systematic and independent testing, 
namely, at Brooklyn, I". S. A. ; and the committee 
thought proper in October, [898, to publish the results 
of the Brooklyn tests with unprotected columns. One test 
was made with a Carnegie steel-box channel column about 
14 ft. high by 12 by 10 ins. ; the plates were % in. thick. 
The temperature was raised rapidly, and the column 
showed signs of failing when it became '•red," there be- 
ing then a pressure on it of 48.06 tons. Strength by 
Cordon's formula: Breaking strength per square inch. 
45,630 lbs.; area of cross-section. 15 sq. ins.; breaking 
load, [5x45,630, 684,450 lbs. (342 tons). Actual great- 
est load, cold, 141. 4 tons, with no change of form. An- 
other test was made with a hollow cast-iron column of X- 
in. external diameter, 1 -in. metal, and about [3 ft. high. 
This column also began to fail when it became "red." 
the pressure being then 84.8 tons. The strength by Cor- 
don's formula was as follows: Breaking strength, 902,000 
lbs.; safe load, 1X902,000, 180,400 lbs. (90.2 tons). In 
a test with another cast-iron column a jet of water from 
a ; 4 in. nozzle was thrown on it several times after heat- 
ing it. The last time the heat was raised to i,;oo (leg., 
fahr., the iron being then a "bright red " color. The 
column was beginning to yield by bending just before 
the last application of water; but it was apparently un- 
affected by the water. 

Poors. — A number of fire tests with doors have been 
made by the committee, two doors of different woods be- 
ing generally tested together. The first test was 
with a solid-framed door of 2-in. teak. The door was 
6 ft. by 2 ft. 5 ins., and was hung in a 4 by 3 in. rebated 
teak frame to open outwards; the test lasted one hour, 
the temperature gradually increasing to 2,000 deg. Fahr. 
After twenty-four minutes flame showed between the 
bottom edge of the door and the sill, and at the end of 
the hour flame burst through all joints, the door collaps- 
ing five minutes afterwards. On another occasion a 1 -.h 
in. four-paneled pine door and a 1 "h in. four-paneled 
pine door were tested together, the former being 6 ft. 
6 ins. by 2 ft. 7 ins., and the latter 6 ft. 6 ins. by 2 
ft. 4 ins. ; both were hung in 4 by 3 in. rebated frames 
to Open outwards. The fire broke through the 1 -h in. 
door in nineteen minutes, at a temperature of about 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



193 



1,400 deg. Fahr., and this door was destroyed in twenty- 
two minutes. The fire broke through the 1 ■* in. door in 
twenty minutes, at a temperature of about 1,600 deg. 
Fahr., and the door collapsed in twenty-six minutes. From 
the foregoing test it may be taken that the life of ordi- 
nary pine doors in a fire created, say, in a room where 
the windows have been broken and a draught created is 
about twenty minutes, and the additional '_> in. in the 
thickness of the material does not seem to make much 
difference. It will be noted that the teak door stood an 
hour under more severe conditions. 

A most interesting test made by the committee in 
June of last year was with a 2. -in. wood door covered with 
tinned steel plates (26 S. W. G.) and an iron door with a 
frame fv, in. thick and panels % in. thick. The door 
openings were 3 ft. 9 ins. by 7 ft. 3 ins., and the doors 
were hung to open inwards (towards the fire, which 
lasted one hour and reached 2,000 deg. Fahr.). The fol- 
lowing is a summary of the effect: The armored door 
remained in position, though it was much buckled and 
bulged, and the upper part gradually inclined inwards 
considerably, permitting the passage of flame. The 
first spurt of flame over the top of the door was seen 
after five minutes. The iron door remained in posi- 
tion throughout the test, but became red hot, buckled 
and warped considerably, together with its rebated 
frame. The first spurt of flame between door and 
frame was seen after twenty minutes. It should be 
mentioned that whilst the iron door was hung in a re- 
bated frame, the armored door fitted closely against the 
face of the brick wall and had a 3 -in. overlap at the sides 
and top. 

Oak and teak doors were next tested together. Each 
was 2 ins. thick with solid panels, and the door opening 
was 3 ft. 3 ins. by 6 ft. 9 ins. The fire was a fierce one 
and lasted an hour. In five minutes flame appeared be- 
tween the frame and top rail of the teak door, and in 
fifty-five minutes it had extended to the bottom of the 
upper panels, flame also coming through the joints be- 
tween the muntin and lower panels. In fifty-eight 
minutes the door collapsed and fell inwards. The 
oak door stood the test better, for it was thirty minutes 
before flame got through between the frame and top 
rail. In forty-four minutes the fire came through the 
lock rail; in fifty-five minutes the four panels fell out- 
wards, and in fifty-nine minutes the remainder of the 
door fell. As both are used so extensively, it is impor- 
tant to know whether a door of pitch-pine will resist a 
fire for a longer time than one of deal. The doors 
tested by the committee were 2 ins. thick, framed, had 
solid panels, and opened inwards on flic lire side. It was 
found that one withstood the fire almost as well as the 
other, though the pitch-pine door was slightly the better. 
It was twenty minutes before flame appeared over the 
top rail of this door, whereas three minutes before the 
flame had come through this part of the deal door. When 
fifty minutes had expired the upper panels and muntin 
of the pine door fell out, and fire was seen through a 
lower panel of the deal door; both doors collapsed en- 
tirely after fifty-seven minutes. 

A Honduras mahogany door and a poplar door, both 
2 ins. thick, framed, with solid panels, were next tested. 
This proved the former to be much more fire-resisting 



than the latter. In live minutes llame came through 
the joint between the head and frame of the poplar 
door; in ten minutes the door was badly twisted; in 
twenty-four minutes the top west panel fell in: and in 
thirty-six minutes the whole door collapsed. On the 
other hand, it was twenty-six minutes before the flame 
became continuous along the top rail of the mahogany 
door, and this door did not fall till after forty-nine min- 
utes. 

An hour's test with a 2-in. framed Austrian oak door 
and a similar door of American walnut showed that the 
oak was the better. The first spurt of llame appeared 
through the walnut door in fifteen minutes; but this did 
not take place till after thirty-three minutes on the oak 
dour. In forty-two minutes llame came through the 
joint between the top muntin and upper east panel of the 
walnut door; in forty-live minutes the lower west panel 
of the oak door fell out; in fifty-five minutes this door 
collapsed; and three minutes later the walnut door col- 
lapsed. 

So much has been said about the advantages of doors 
constructed in three thicknesses of boarding that the 
committee has decided to conduct a series of tests with 
such doors in order that they may collect some authentic 
data regarding their resistance to fire. The first test of 
the series was with a 2> o in. archangel deal door and a 
similar door of Quebec pine, both constructed in three 
thicknesses and hung to open inwards on to the lire side. 
In thirty-nine minutes flame appeared intermittingly 
over the top of the deal door, and in sixty-live minutes 
the upper part of this door was considerably burnt, and 
flame was seen through several small holes in its lower 
portion. The pine door stood better, for sixtv minutes 
elapsed before flame appeared over the top of it; ten 
minutes later, after water had been applied, the two 
inner thicknesses were found to be practically burnt 
away, and the outer thickness (which was for the most 
part in position) was much damaged. 

The following table summarizes the particulars given 
of these tests with doors: 



Material of Ooor. 


c 

\t 
aw 
E-S 
H 


u 

c 

B« 

S £ 
&« 

0.0= 

S ° 
- 


Result. 


Teak, 2 in., solid framed 


_>. IK 1 1 


24 mill. 


Door collapsed alter 65 minute--. 


Pine, 1 <* i n.. f i) u r 












Hi niin. 


1 >oor destroj ed in 22 minutes. 


Pine, 1 "k i ".. f 11 r 












20 111 in. 


I luiir destro) ed in 2(1 minutes. 


Armored, -• in. . . . 


2,1 1 N ' 


5 min. 


1 1. " n 1 1111. lined in position, lint was 

much buckled. 


in. n. us in. frame, ', 








in. panels . . . 


l,OO0 


20 min. 


Door remained in position, hut was 

much buckled. 


Pitch Pine, 2 in., solid 








panels 


2,0 1 1 


10 min 


Door collapsed alter s; minutes. 


1 leal. 2 in., solid panels 





17 min. 


57 minutes. 


Honduras Ma li oga n y. 








2 in.. Solid panels 





1 s min. 


)■) minutes. 


Poplar, -■ in., solid panels 





5 min. 


\<> minutes. 


Austrian < )ak, -• in., solid 








panels .... 


2,OCO 


ti nun 


55 minutes. 


Ann , lean Walnut. 2 in., 








solid panels 




1 5 min. 


58 minutes. 


Archangel Deal. 2Sfj in., 








t li i- e e thicknesses 




\t) 111111. 


1 ppei pan considerably i> u r n t 

alter (is minutes and llame seen 

through several holes below. 


Quebec Pi n <■, 2 ! » in.. 








1 li 1 e e thicknesses 


2,000 


60 min. 


Vftei 70 minutes two inner thick- 
nesses burnt away, and oul 








badly damaged. 



r 94 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Selected Miscellany. 



NOTES FROM NEW YORK. 

It is not surprising that I am obliged to report that 
the month just passed has been one of extreme dullness 
among architects and builders. No one expects to find 
an architect in his office during August, and if he dors, 
considers himself lucky. Then, too, the man who has 



Speaking of the architectural office boy reminds me 

of an incident which occurred in one of the large offices 
here. Plans were under way for a large building to he 
built by the Duchess de 1! . and the drawings were all 

carefully labeled with her full title vis., Mine, the 
Duchess de B — , etc. On one of her visits, while she 
was in the private office with the architect, a certain 
drawing was wanted and the office boy was sent for it. 
Upon its arrival the architect expressed a doubt as to its 
being the one wanted, but the boy spoke up, f'Oh, yes, 




RESIDENCE OF VUSTIN CORBIN, 20. SPOKANE, WASH. 
Cutter & Malengren, Architects. 
(Reproduced by courtesy of the Washington Brick, Lime and Manufacturing i 



invented a new material which will revolutionize build- 
ing methods and do away with brick, plaster, wood, iron, 
and concrete deserves a rest, for his lot has been hard and 
he has not always had a satisfactory two hours' chat with 
the leading architects whom he has visited; in fact, more 
often he has simply left his card which the unfeeling archi- 
tect used for memorandum or " ticking " purposes. Even 
the festive office boy seems to be subdued and has lost his 
ambition to make beautiful wash drawings of the orders. 



sir, dats de one; don't you see her name on it. Mamie the 
I hichess ? " 

It is encouraging to he able to report that work upon 
the new public library will soon be begun. Bids for the 
foundation work have been presented to the Park board, 
and the names of the successful bidders will be announced 
within a week. 

Work upon the East River bridge, which was progress- 





SPANDRE] . 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

Willis ('.. Hale, Architect. 



MADE FOR THE NEW POST OFFICE BUILDING VI NEW 

PORT, KV. 

By the Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



'95 



ing so favorably, has been stopped completely 
for the last three weeks owing to a strike. 

While so much has been said of the con- 
struction of the high building above ground, 
comparatively little attention has been given 
by others than professional men to the vast 
engineering feats which must be accomplished 
before the building reaches the grade line, 
and it is a matter of surprise to the layman 
that so much time is spent, proportionately, 
upon the underground work. Upon study it 
will be found that the diffieulties to be over- 
come are enormous and are never twice alike, 
and sometimes it takes just as long to put in 
the foundations for a tall building as to put 
Up the entire superstructure. There are two 
very interesting examples of skilful founda- 
tion work which are now under way, and will 
amply repay any architect or builder who can 
spare a little time to study them. They are 
at the corner of Broad Street and Exchange 
Place, and at the corner of Wall and William 
.Streets. 




We take pardonable pride in the fact that 
the only American architects who were 
awarded gold medals at the Paris Exposition were New 
Yorkers, viz., McKim, Mead& White and Boring & Tilton. 

Bradford L. Gilbert, of this city, has been elected 



FINISHED Roll, II TILE CEILINGS VND FLOORS, MASSACHUSETTS GENERA1 

HOSPITAL BUILDING, BOSTON. 

Work executed by R. Guastavrao Company. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 

Supervising Architect of the South Carolina Interstate 
and West Indian Exposition. 



fill 



[ffl 



dtSfi 



- Ill 



m pit 

il in in I" lliuimmn! 

us m in in mm mm m 

l ill ill III III III ill II! 

I III IK 
[ III in ' 
,111 III 1 

[llf"! 




SOCIETY A XI) CLUB NEWS. 

The second monthly meeting of the Executive Hoard 
of the Architectural League of America was held 
August 7, 1900. 

There were present Joseph C. Llewellyn, president; 
Richard E. Schmidt, (dee-president ; August C.Wilmanns, 
treasurer; Emil Lorch, corresponding secretary; Hugh 
M. (i. Garden, recording secretary, and Prof. Newton A. 
Wells and Robert C. Spencer, Jr., members of the Board. 

The chief business transacted was the assignment of 
the Standing Committees of the League as follows: 
Publicity and Promotion, the Chicago Architectural 
Club; Ethics and Competition Code, the Architectural 
League of New York; Exhibition Circuit, the Cleveland 
Architectural Club; Foreign Exhibit, the T Square Club, 
Philadelphia; Current Club Work, the St. Louis Archi- 
tectural Club. 

The Committee on Education will be appointed at a 
later date. The monthly meeting of the Executive Hoard 
is held the first Tuesday of each month at S o'clock, at 
i_m.S Association building. Chicago. 



UNION TRUST VND SAVINGS BANK BUILDING, CINCINNATI, 

OHIO. 

Built of gray Norman brick, made by the Columbus Brick and I 
Cotta Companj - 
D. H. Buraham & Co., Ai 



WE are in receipt of the Syllabus of the T Square 
Club. Philadelphia. The perennial enthusiasm 
which has placed this organization in the foremost ranks 
oi our American architectural bodies is evidenced in 
every page of this most carefully prepared recital of 
what the T Square Club proposes to do. We confess to a 
feeling of wonder that a professional society of this sort 
can keep up the interest and so successfully bring into 
line the possibilities of its own members in the various 
functions which it undertakes. Most of our older archi- 
tects will remember the day when the profession was 
limited in number, restricted in possibilities, and was 



196 



THE RRICKBU1LDER 








HOLYOKE DAM, HOLYOKE, MASS. 

largely composed of men of mediocre talent, who were so 
afraid of each other and SO fearful lest some one else 
would steal their ideas that anything like cooperation or 
esprit de corps was simply out of the question. It must 
be conceded that the work of bringing architects into 
harmonv with each other and developing the solidarity 
of interests which so conduce to mutual growth is due, 
more than to any other one cause, to the work that has 
been accomplished by the architectural clubs which have 
Sprung up so quickly since the move was first made less 
than twenty years ago. The maxim that it is not good 
for man to live alone certainly applies with force to the 
practice of architecture. It is from the mutual helpings, 
the keen but friendly competition of ideas, and the glow- 
ing friction of kindred minds that possibilities of real 
growth arise. The T Square Club Syllabus gives one an 
idea of how this cooperation may be brought about, and 
it ought to serve as a soil of campaign document for all 
the architectural clubs; for while the work varies in 
different cities, the objects are essentially the same 
everywhere. The calendar of competitions is of the wid- 
est scope, including ecclesiastical, suburban, commercial. 




national, rural, civic, and municipal work, with competi- 
tions arranged in a most delightfully suggestive manner: 
and though the announcement for October 24 of a "fall 
Smoker and Bumper with an evening devoted to the 
cultivation of the muses " is suggestive of other things 
than Yctruvius or the Ecole des beaux Arts, we cannot 
but feel full sympathy with the introduction of the play- 
ful into the serious line of study which the program 
indicates. It is announced that the success of last year's 





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HOLYOKE DAM. HOLYOKE, M \ss. 

Showing construction in which Alpha Portland Cement (James A. Davis 
& Co., New England Agents) was used. 

competitions has assured the continuance of the T Square 
Club Traveling Scholarship for the year 1901. 



MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. 

The Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Floors are em- 
ployed in the new government mint at Philadelphia. 

The Hartford Faience Company, Hartford, Conn., is 
adding another new building to its rapidly growing plant. 

C. W. Collignon, architect. Birmingham, Ala., has 
associated himself with W. C. Knighton for the practice 
of the profession, and would be glad to receive manu- 
facturers' samples and catalogues. 

In the Johnson Free Library, now being erected at 
Hackensack, N. J., Rossiter & Wright, architects. "The 

Herculean " terra-eotta Boor arches, which require no 




GROUP BY I. I. OSTERLING, ARCHITECT. 
Perth Ambo) Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 



GROUP FOR THE UNION DEPOT, COLUMBUS, OHIO. 
The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 



THE BRICKRUILI) E R 



197 








PANEL BY J. E. R. CARPENTER, ARCHITECT. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

iron beams, are being- supplied by Henry Maurer 
& Sons, New York City. 

The National Fire-proofing- Company is delivering 
at the Broad Exchange Building, Broad and Exchange 
Streets, New York City (winch will be one of the 

largest build- 
ings in the 
world), e i g h- 
teen thousand 
feet of fi r e- 
proofing daily. 

The Ohio 
M inin g <.V 
Manufaeturing 
C o m p a n y, 

5 h awn e e , 
Ohio, will sup- 
ply their bricks 
on the follow- 
ing new con- 
tracts : C a r- 
negie Library, 
Atlanta, Ga. ; 
Masonic Tem- 
p 1 e, Li m a, 
Ohio; General 
Electric Build- 
ing, Minn e- 
apolis, Minn. ; 
Hollingsworth 

6 Call ah a n 
Building, Youngstown, Ohio; School Building, Glen- 
dale, Ohio; School Building, .South Evanston, 111. 

E. E. Gorton, a graduate of the Ceramic Department 
of the Ohio State University, and for the past four years 
employed as chemist at the factory of the American 





PANEL BY GEORGE li. POST, ARCHITECT, 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 




RESIDENCE AT LOUISVILLE, KY. 

Built of mottled white brick, made by the Ohio Mining and Manufacturing 

Company. 
Mason Maury, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta & Ceramic Company, has accepted a position 
as superintendent with the Ohio Mining and Manufactur- 
ing Company. 

The following are among the orders which have been 
taken during August by the New York Architectural 
Terra-Cotta Company: Apartment House for Walter 
Stabler, East 39th .Street, New York City; Yale Club 
House, West 44th Street, Xew York City; Bond Build- 
ing, Washington, D. C. ; Factory for The Benj. F. Smith 
Company, Pawtucket, R. I.; Schools Nos. 131 and 154. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Gurley Building, Troy. X. Y. 

The illustration in our August number, entitled " Park 
Pavilion, Kansas City, Mo., Van Brunt & Howe, archi- 
tects," should have been entitled " Pergola for the Board 
of Park Commissioners, Kansas City, Mo., John Van 
Brunt, architect." Again, the illustration, entitled 
"Panel for Post Office, Newport, Ky.." was. in fact, a 




TERR \ toll \ I' \N1-.I . 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 



GARGOYLE l:\ MORGAN .\ WALL, VRCHITECTS. 
Si I. on is Terra Cotta Company, makers. 



I..S 



T 1 1 E B RICK B U I L I) E R 



panel designed by George I*. Mason for the new office 
building of Berry Brothers at Detroit. 

The Union Akron Cement Company, Buffalo, is sup- 
plying Akron Star Brand Cement on the following new 




KEY FOR WINDOW B\ SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE, 

VRCH1 I EC I S. 

American I ' rra I otta and Ceramic Company, makers. 

contracts: Addition to United States Sugar Refinery, 
Waukegan, 111.; addition to the Illinois Sugar Refinery, 
Pekin, 111.; building for the Genesee Stucco Works. (>ak- 
field, X. V.; Government Building, New York State 
Building, and Allbright Art Gallery, at the Pan-American 
Exhibition, Buffalo. 

Charles Bacon, Boston agent for Sayre & Fisher 
Company, is supplying 300,000 brick for the new resi- 
dence of Mrs. John L. Gardner, Fenway, Boston, W. T. 
Scars, architect: also brick on the following new con- 
tracts: Barristers Hall. Boston, Shepley, Rutan ^\ 
Coolidge, architects; Gahm Building, Boston, Hartwell, 
Richardson & Driver, architects; Peabody residence. 
Fenway, Boston, Peabody & Stearns, architects; school- 
house. Winchester, Mass., George F. Newton, architect. 

The Penn Buff Brick and Tile Company, Newark, 
N. I., are supplying their " Blue Ridge" enamel brick 




rrrfi 



UPPER PORTION or THE N Asr.s OFFICE BUILDING, TOLEDO, 

01110. 

on the following new contracts: Front of Salinger Block, 
Rochester, X. II., W. I'.. Smith, architect; stable at 
Pride's Crossing, Mass., Little & Browne, architects; 
apartment house, 40th Street and Sixth Avenue, New 
York City, Charles A. Rich, architect: factory of the 
Weston Electrical Instrument Company. Waverly. X. 
J.. Thomas Cressy, architect; St. Agnatins College, New 
York City, Schickel & Ditmars, architects. 



WANTED.— A first-class architectural draughtsman, 
designer, and colorist. Permanent position for the right 
party. Address, stating salary. 

Harry E. Forney, 
National Exchange Bank Bldg. Wheeling, W. Va. 



MONTHLY SKETCH PR< >BLEM ( IF Till-: ATELIER 

FITZWILLIAM, AUDITORIUM BUILDING, 

CHICAGO. 

MANAGED DIRECTLY BY I. J. FITZWILLIAM, A PUPIL OF 

D'ESPOI Y, Wllo won 1 iik i,K\M) PRIX DE ROME 

1\ I 111. <i I. \ R I N.X4. 

* I "*HESE problems are to be worked up as sketches and 
1 not as finished drawings, the problem being spon- 
taneous in execution and the detail in the nature of in- 
dication rather than that it should be laboriously drawn. 
One sketch problem is given each month from Septem- 
ber to [une. The program for the month of October, 
1900, is announced below; scud your design and .Xi.oo at 
any time during the month of October, and on Novem- 
ber 1 it will be rem ailed to you, postage prepaid, with a 
written detailed analysis critical of its faults and touch- 
ing upon the merits of the design. In addition to this 
will be sent whatever prize (if any) its rank deserves. 

For the month of < tctober, 1900, there will be twenty- 
live cash prizes as follows: One first prize of S30.00; 
two prizes of S15.00 each; three prizes of S10.00 each; 
lour prizes of $5.00 each; five prizes of $3.00 each; ten 

prizes of ,S:,oo. 
PROGRAM FOR OCTOBER. A COUNTRY CHAPEL. 

A Protestant congregation in a rural district has de- 
cided to demolish the frame building now used by them 
as a place of worship, the object being to replace it with 
another structure of about the same size and seating 
capacity, but of more substantial material and modem 
design. 

The congregation is one appreciative of good archi- 
tecture and they can afford sound construction, but ex- 
cessive cost should be avoided in the solution of this 
problem. The new chapel will stand alone in a clearing 
in the heart of a grove; being thus placed in total isola- 
tion from other buildings, the effect of each separate 
facade should be considered by the designer. Provision 
shall be made on the exterior of the chapel for erecting 
in a suitable manner a bell to announce the hours of 
service. This feature may be in the form of a tower or 
otherwise. 

The church membership numbers 200, but seats for 
100 additional shall l>e arranged. This capacity may be 
with or without a small gallery, bearing in mind that 
85 ft. is the limit which the greatest dimension of the 
plan shall not exceed. 

Drawings. —A floor plan, ami one perspective show- 
ing the front and one side of the chapel, all at the scale 

of ;■_, of an inch equals 1 ft. The rendering of the 
problem is left to the discretion of the designer, but the 

paper must be cut to the uniform size of 10 by 18 ins. 

Send drawings unmounted to The Atelier Fitzwilliam 
on or before ( let. 31, 1900, and do not deviate from the 
instructions Efiven above. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

OCTOBER, 
1900. 




y. 



si 

5 



y 

< 

X 



I! 
U 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12. 1892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1S93, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers . 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ....... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : — 



Agencies. — Clay Products . 

Architectural Faience . . 

,, Terra-Cotta . 

Brick 



PAGE 
. . . II 
... II 

11 and III 
. . .111 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



„ Enameled Ill and IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 

THE old saying in regard to the expensive character 
of lessons which are acquired by experience cer- 
tainly does not seem to be applicable to some phases of 
recent American architecture. On the contrary, our 
architects have had several opportunities to acquire most 
valuable lessons by experience which has come easily 
in a pleasant form and has left a lasting imprint. The 
Buffalo Exposition is the latest of these experiences 
and promises to be extremely valuable in its lessons. 
The buildings which have been projected at Buffalo are 
similar in character to those which were erected at 
Chicago, in that they are practically huge plaster of Paris 
models; and in so far a-- they are of a temporary nature, 
they have afforded opportunities for experiments which 
we would hardly dare attempt in more serious construc- 
tions, the Buffalo buildings, however, differing from the 
Chicago constructions in the lavish use of color. It is too 
early yet to say whether we, as a nation, will ever use- 
color in a natural, spontaneous manner; but beyond any 
doubt the Buffalo Exposition buildings will set a pace 
which we will have to live up to to a very considerable 
extent, and it is doubtful whether we will ever be again 
as easily satisfied with pure white plaster as we were in 
the Court of Honor at Chicago. The Buffalo fair has a 
riot of rich tones and polychromatic architecture. Con- 
sidered as sketches, as artistic attempts, the buildings are 
eminently satisfactory and reflect the greatest credit upon 



their designers. We believe this same sentiment will be 
echoed by the visitors to the fair next Spring, and the 
lavish coloring will remain as a characteristic of this Pan- 
American Exposition. The throwing off of the restraint 
which is so hard to avoid in public architecture, the 
development of the imaginative qualities, the opportu- 
nities for breadth and vigor in treatment of details, — make 
this an object-lesson by which the whole profession, no 
less than the architects immediately concerned, will be 
sure to profit. There is, however, just one word of cau- 
tion which we feel constrained to voice. We have had a 
good many of these temporary staff structures of late 
years. So long as they are regarded as sketches, as 
merely studies, their influence cannot fail of being good; 
but we must not take them too seriously, nor assume 
in our permanent work all of the freedom or eclecticism 
which is so delightful in the temporary buildings. In 
detail, as well, we can permit ourselves a great license in 
a building, which, if it is wrong, will not leave a lasting 
mark on our architecture, and we can enjoy a sketchy, 
off-hand treatment of details both in mass and in its parts 
which would not pass muster for permanent work, but 
the danger would be that not only our younger men who 
receive strong impressions from this Exposition, but also 
the elders who will have awakened within them the 
delight of imaginative architecture, may be tempted to 
consider too seriously these ephemeral structures. It is 
our belief that the present acknowledged decadence of 
modern French architecture is ascribable in no incon- 
siderable degree to the license which has apparently been 
considered not only permissible, but desirable, in the de- 
signing of the French Exposition buildings. The en- 
trance" arch of the present Paris Exposition certainly is 
the culmination of the tendencies which began way back 
in 1855. Our Exposition buildings thus far have been 
worthy representatives of the best efforts of our own 
architects. The lessons have been learned and are con- 
stantly being applied; but we must take all our expe- 
rience with reserve, and it would be a sorry day for 
American architecture if all our public buildings were to 
be designed in the lavish manner which is so fascinating 
in Exposition structures. 



SOMETHING less than two years ago. steel made a 
rapid and unprecedented jump in price, going far 
beyond any previous quotations. Whether this rise was 
clue to an unexpected large demand, or was the result of 
combination among steel manufacturers, we arc unable to 
determine, but we do know it had an immediate effect in 
checking building operations and postponing for a con- 
siderable period the prosperity in structural work which 
we are all anxious to witness. Within the last six months 



2 00 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Steel has returned very nearly to normal ([notations. A 
good illustration of the fluctuation in prices is afforded 
by the recent acceptance of a bid of $2,411,000 for the 
new bridge over the East River in New York. Four 
months ago the lowest bid for the same work was 
$3,321,000. The difference between the two represents a 
saving of nearly $1,000,000. In very many cases, owing to 
the greatly increased proportion of steel which enters into 
modern buildings, a fluctuation in price, such as is repre- 
sented by the above figures, would be sufficient to turn a 
losing investment into one which would pay very fairly 
on the amount of capital involved. It is to be hoped that 
it will be many years before this country will witness 
such extraordinary prices, tor so essential a material, as 
prevailed up to a very tew months ago. 



"THE BRICKBUILDER" COMPETITION. V. 

A VILLAGE BANK TO BE BUILT OF BRICK OR 
TERRACOTTA. 

PROGRAM. 

A BUILDING, to cost in the vicinity of twenty-five 
or thirty thousand dollars, is to be built facing a 
village green, around which on opposite sides of the 
square will be grouped a public library, the village 
church, the schoolhouse, and the court-house. The 
building is to be one story in height and is to be used 
tdr a small bank. The interior is to contain a main 
banking room across the front, which is to measure not 
less than 24 ft. in width by 15 ft. in depth. In the 
rear will be a small considting room on one side, about 
<S by 12 ft., and a directors' room, 12 by 16 ft., in 
the center, the two occupying the full width of the 
banking room, with a small ell to contain the vault, 
accessible from either the directors' room or the banking 
room, and a small lavatory. The banking room is to be 
preceded by a small portico. For the purpose of this 
competition only the sketch design of the exterior need 
be considered. The design is to follow substantially the 
above-described plan, such variations, however, being per- 
missible as are desired to obtain a picturesque treatment. 
The design is to be of such nature as is suitable for being 
carried out in burnt-clay products. The height of the 
story in the main room may be varied, but should not be 
less than 12 ft. in the clear. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED: A perspective sketch 
design, made in black ink with no wash work, upon a 
sheet measuring 150 ins. wide by 10 ins. high. The 
drawing is to be signed by a 110111 de plume, or device, and 
accompanying the same is to be a sealed envelope with 
the noin deplume on the exterior and containing the true 
name and address of the contestant. 

Drawings are to be delivered, flat, at the office of The 
Brickbuilder, 85 Water Street, Boston, on or before 
Dec. 1, 1900. For the three designs placed first, The 
Brickbuilder offers prizes of twenty-five, fifteen, and ten 
dollars, respectively. All premiated drawings are to be- 
come the property of The Brickbuilder, and the right is 
reserved to publish any and all drawings submitted. Mr. 
C. H. Blackall, of Boston, has kindly consented to judge 
and criticize this competition. 



THE CHURCH OF SAX AMBROGIO, MILAN. 
ITALY. 

AMONG the round-arched Lombard churches of north 
Italy none occupies a more prominent place his- 
torically than San Ambrogio of Milan. Founded in the 
fourth century by St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, on the 
ruins of a temple of Bacchus, rebuilt in the ninth century 
by Bishop Anspertus, aided by the munificence of King 
Louis the Pious, and again almost entirely rebuilt in the 
twelfth century with its galleries and atrium, its walls 
have witnessed the coronation with the " Iron Crown " of 
many a Lombard king and German emperor. The " Iron 
Crown" which takes its name from a thin band of iron 
said to have been forged from one of the nails of the true 
cross, and enclosed by its hoop of gold, has been kept at 
Monza since the time of Frederick Barbarossa, but the 
pillar at which the coronation oath was taken is still 
preserved under the lime trees in the piazza, and the 
church is a perfect museum of ecclesiastical antiquities. 
The high altar, with its silver and enamel decoration 
of the ninth century, remains intact, together with its 
beautiful canopy, and the crypt contains the tombs of 
Saints Ambrose, Protasius, and Gervasius. The church 
also contains early mosaics and several frescoes. After 
the massacre of Thessalonica in 389 the gates of this 
church were said to have been closed by St. Ambrose 
against the cruel Emperor Theodosius. 

The fine atrium which separates the building from the 
noisy street and gives it the quiet seclusion so necessary 
for a place of worship seems to have preserved the archi- 
tectural characteristics of the original building. Con- 
structed of brick, the simple forms of the columns and 
arcades, and the five great but unequal arches of the 
facade, relieved against the deep shadows of the loggia, 
make, with the two guardian towers, a most dignified and 
solemn, though severe, architectural composition. A 
simple but strongly corbelled cornice runs around the 
atrium and up the slopes of the gable, in which no clear- 
story is expressed. The capitals of the columns are of 
the curiously carved, blocky style common in Romanesque 
work. 

Altogether the entrance facade of San Ambrogio is 
an agreeable change from the too much neglected west 
fronts of many Italian churches. With the architects of 
north Italy the arcade was the favorite motif of decora- 
tion. Used in successive stories as at Pisa, or in single 
galleries only as at Piacenza, or with columns omitted 
and arches reduced to the size of successive units of a 
string-course as in dozens of other Italian churches, it 
gives a sparkling and brilliant shadow which a flat cornice 
never attains, and it became the most commonly used ex- 
terior decoration in the northern part of the peninsula. 
Its effect, however, was seldom dignified, and to the 
northern eye, unaccustomed to the brilliant coloring and 
sunshine of the south, even appeared at times trivial. 
This detect is splendidly avoided at San Ambrogio. 
Nothing can exceed the solemnity and depth of the great 
arches which overlook the atrium, and the simple and 
majestic lines of the piers and roof, with their guardian 
towers, which seem to correspond so well with the grim 
memories of the German tyrants who assumed the im- 
perial power under their gloomy shades. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



!OI 



The Designing and Planning of Rail- 
way Stations. II. 

BY ALFRED HOYT GRANGER. 

IN a former paper on the planning of railway stations 
I offered some suggestions as to arrangement, loca- 
tion, and architectural treatment of small suburban and 
country stations. It is my purpose now to apply the 
same line of thought to the larger city stations. 

There are but three general treatments of plan : the 
head house, with perhaps a wing Hanking the tracks, for 
baggage, freight, and express; the side house, which is 
the suburban station on a large scale; and the " island " 
station, situated between the tracks. 

Of the first character is the station at Minneapolis, 
Minn., for the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway. 
Though this station is used by but one corporation and 
is very small in comparison with such terminals as the 
Reading at Philadelphia, and the new South Terminal at 
Boston, its plan contains the necessary features for a city 
station, and from its very smallness is more easily to be 
studied. 

The building stands upon a corner of two principal 
streets, with ample approaches from each. The main 
feature is, of course, the general waiting room, which oc- 
cupies the court of the building. It is two stories in 
height, and lighted from the ceiling as well as from the 
end toward the tracks, this end being almost entirely of 






;. M. .v ST. PAUL KA1I.WW STATION, MINNEAPOLIS, 
Frost & Granger, Architects. 



PLAN, C. M. A ST. PAUL RAILWAY STATION, MINNEAPOLIS, 

MINN. 

glass. The interior treatment, as shown in the photo- 
graphs, is entirely of brick and terra-cotta, with a wooden 
ceiling and marble floor. Up to the spring course of the 
arches the walls are wainscoted with a cream white, dull 
enamel brick. The terra-cotta trimmings and the walls 
above this enamel wainscoting are of a golden tone in 
color, which gives a luminous effect to the interior. 
Around this inner court are arranged the women's wait- 
ing room, women's retiring room, lavatories, check, 
parcel, and telegraph and smoking rooms, with the ticket 
office and lunch room placed nearest the train shed, 
where they are most accessible to the 
traveling public. 

Between the station proper and the 
tracks and baggage rooms is a large 
covered esplanade or "midway," di- 
rectly accessible to the street. This 
feature, which is now of almost uni- 
versal use, prevents confusion in the 
handling of large crowds. For con- 
venience at times of excessive travel, 
extra ticket windows should be ar- 
ranged opening directly upon this 
" midway." 

The baggage and express rooms 
are always preferably located in a 
separate building, which must be ac- 
cessible to the " midway," and in 
every case should contain, besides 
necessary baggage and express rooms, 
a small room for employees and ample 
lavatories for same. 

Although from an architectural 
standpoint one line large arch separat- 
ing the station building from the 
train shed at the street ends of the 
••midway" is desirable, it was thou- lit 
best in this ease to use two arches, so 
as to divide the crowd, the outgoing 
passengers to pass the extra ticket 
windows through the opening nearer 
the station, without conflicting with 
incoming passengers, who reach the 
street directly through the archway 
nearer the tram shed. 



202 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




MAIN WAITING ROOM, C. M. a ST. PAU1 RAILWAY STATION, 

\II\M \l'< >1 IS, MINN. 

Every city station should be placed far enough back 
from the street t<> allow space for cabs and other vehicles 
without interfering with regular traffic. If this is not 
possible, then a covered court should be arranged for all 
calis and carriages, as has been very happily done in the 
Baltimore and Ohio station in Chicago. 

Each entrance to a city station should be provided 
with a covered shelter over the sidewalk to protect people 
entering or leaving carriages. Often an interesting 

feature can be made of this canopy by treating it as a 
French marquee, and hanging it from the building by 
ornamental wrought-iron chains. 

The upper stories of the Minneapolis station are de- 
voted to offices and emigrant accommodations. The 
waiting rooms for emigrants are directly accessible to 
the " midway " by exterior stairways. 

The exterior treatment of this station is broad and 
simple. From the fact of its being an office building as 
well as railway station, it was deemed necessary to de- 
sign a clock tower to give the building more character 
as a station, a feature which we do not always recom- 
mend. 

The first story is treated very simply in granite, with 
lar^'e, square openings and no ornamentation beyond a 
molded water-table and string-course, with some bold 
moldings around the entrance archways, which, being of 
equal importance, are treated alike. Above the bold 
string-course crowning the first story the materials arc 




pressed brick and terra-cotta, similar in tone and of a 
golden brown; the roof and upper portion of the tower 
being of copper. 

A far different problem is that of the Union Pacific 
station at Omaha. Here the tracks are in the valley 
between two hills, connected by a broad viaduct 25 ft. 
above the track level. 

All the roads from the East using this station termi- 
nate at Omaha; and for the convenience of passengers 
changing from the Eastern to Western hound trains, or 
vice versa, it was deemed best to locate all waiting rooms, 
etc., at the lower level, leaving only a large vestibule and 
check room, with stairway and elevators, at the viaduct 
level. This great vestibule is treated as an entrance 
archway, built of pressed brick, dee]) yellow intone, with 
Bedford stone trimmings. The pediment is eventually 
to be richly carved, and to be surmounted with a bronze 
eagle standing upon a globe. 

The whole of the station proper is upon the track 




C. M. A ST. PAUL RAILWAY -I A I Ion, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 



FIREP] \( !E, LADIES WAITING KooM, C. M. a ST. PAUL RAIL 
WAV STATION, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

level, and is directly accessible to the streets at this level, 
and also from the viaduct by an inclined roadway built 
by the railroad company. 

This station belongs to the side-house cla.^s, and the 
" midway" extends the entire length of the main build- 
ing and far enough beyond to admit passengers to res- 
taurant and baggage room. 

The location of the lunch room, as shown on the plan, 
is in this ease unique, and not in our judgment desirable. 
It was adopted for the convenience of a very large per- 
centage of the traveling public, who have no occasion to 
enter the station proper. 

The general arrangement of floor plan is exceedingly 
simple, and explains itself. The materials used in the 
main waiting room are marble, brick, and terra-cotta, 
with a wood and plaster ceiling. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



203 



The wainscoting, up to the spring 
of the arches, is Vermont green mar- 
ble ; the brick and terra-cotta, fawn- 
color; and all woodwork, birch stained 
a rich mahogany color. The floors 
are of marble slabs. It is the ulti- 
mate intention to fill the empty panels 
of the arches with mural paintings, il- 
lustrating features of Western Indian 
life. The treatment of the grand 
vestibule at the viaduct level is simi- 
lar to that of the main waiting room 
(excepting its ceiling, which is a 
barrel vault concentric with entrance 
arch), and is, like it, to be ultimately 
decorated. 

Throughout, an effort has been 
made to plan and build a railway sta- 
tion, and nothing else. The peculiar 
situation of this station decided the 
railroad companies to use umbrella 
sheds connected by a broad cause- 
way, instead of one large covered 
shed. For many reasons this form of 
shed is preferable, as it is simple to 
care for and much more open and 
cleanly. 

The "island" form of station is 
unusual in a city terminal, though it 
is to be used in the new stations at 
Pittsburgh and Nashville. All 
through trains pass on either side of 
the station; while trains starting or 
ending at the point where station is located use stub 
tracks in a train shed at one end of the building. 




UNION STATION, OMAHA, NEB. 
Frost & Granger, Architects. 



ling of large crowds of people and large quantities 
baggage, and in design to adhere to simple dignity 



of 
of 





PLAN, UNION STATION, OMAHA, NEB. 



In designing any kind of a railway station, large or 
small, the essential point in plan is to facilitate the hand- 



proportion with but little ornamentation, and, above all, 
to make the building express its purpose. 




UNION STATION, om \ll\, NEB. 



1 \ n i\ S 1 \ i n i\, 1 i\l \ 11 \, Nil:. 



>o 4 




INK 



STATION, OMAHA, NEB. 



w 



A USE FOR BAD COLOR BRICKS. 

E are accustomed to see old houses, with otherwise 
plain brick walls, relieved at conspicuous places 
by brick patterns. -V favorite pattern is the diamond, or 
a semi-circular arch in imitation of an opening. In fact, 
our forefathers disliked anything approaching a broad 
and absolutely plain surface. These designs in brick are 
very rarely seen in modern buildings, and one of the 
reasons for this, no doubt, is that brick walls generally 
have more openings than those of yore. But we saw 
something like a revival of this in a house wall the other 
day; only, the architect, instead of selecting bricks of 
definite tint to make the relief work conspicuous, pre- 
ferred to make his designs in parti-colored bricks that had 
in fact been imperfectly fired. The result, even from an 
artistic Standpoint, was not bad, and we shall doubtless 
see more of this species of decoration. This departure 
ought to suit briekmakers very well, for they would be 
enabled to dispose of bricks of bad color, though perfectly 
si mnd, at a fair price. ( >ur brick walls are too plain, and 
we welcome this revival of an almost lost art."—- British 
C layzuorker. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The "Village Bank' Series. 1 I. 

BV CLAUDE FAYETTE BRAGD0N. 

A letter from Michelangelo Jones, junior member of the 
architectural firm of Renn and Joins, to his partner, 
Vitruvius Renn, who is traveling in Italy. 

"... I am happy to inform you that our plans for the 
Citizens' Bank, of Brickville, have been accepted. I have 
just returned from that charming village and my first 
interview with the directors. You will remember my 
ancient interest in the place, dating from the time when. 
by the terms of "Id Ploughman's will, it became a co- 
operative, profit-sharing community. The business which 
he founded has increased enormously since his death, 
and Brickville is now. I am told, the largest manufactory 
of horseless agricultural machinery in the world. The 
village lies in the midst of a vast and fertile plain, from 
which, on clear days, the mountains are visible, each 
peak Hying a white flag of snow. The whole country 
is not unlike a newer, broader Lombardy, virgin and 
unhistoried. Strangely, or perhaps naturally, enough, 
Brickville reminds one of some Lombard city let loose 
from its confining girdle of walls. All the houses are 
built of an exquisite salmon-colored brick, native to the 
place, the streets are bowers of green, and the gardens 




'<C}F FOVNTAIN 

STATVE 
H bOAT H. 

1 CLUB 
J MVSEVM 
KPARK 
L SHELTER. 
M DWELLINGS 

MAP OF A PART OF THE VILLAGE OF BPJCKVILLE 
SHOWING LOCATION OF PRINCIPAL BU1LDING52S- 




MAIN WAITING ROOM, UNION STATION, OMAHA, NEB. 



1 PROGRAM. 

The problem is to be treated primarily from a pictur- 
esque standpoint. The building is assumed to cost in 
the vicinity of twenty-five to thirty thousand dollars, and 
be only one story in height, the interior arranged for a 
main banking room, a small consulting room, a directors' 
room about 12 by 14 ft., a vault measuring outside of the 
brick walls X by 10 ft., and any other interior arrange- 
ments which may seem suitable. The main entrance is 
to be preceded by a small vestibule, and the building it- 
self should be set back not less than 10 ft. from the 
street line and be isolated on all sides. The site is sup- 
posed to be a level one, and the bank will be in close 
proximity to the public library, the village church, the 
schoolhouse, and the court-house, which together will 
form the center of a town of a few thousand inhabitants. 
The design is to be of such nature as is suitable for 
being carried out in burnt-clay products. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



205 



and parks are gay with flowers; while overhead the sky 
is only less blue than the gorgeous ultramarine of an 
Italian summer. 

' The village has been laid out with considerable skill 
and forethought, the principal buildings — that is to say, 
the court-house, library, school, and church — being 
grouped about a public square in the center of which 
stands a fine memorial fountain by Rodens. I was 
delighted to find that the bank site also fronts this 
square, being a little triangle at the intersection of three 
streets. I send you a tracing of part of the village map, 
which shows the whole thing clearly, together with a 
print of the sketch I submitted to the directors. The 
plan which seemed to fit the site best, and to fulfil the 
simple conditions of the problem, worked out in the most 
natural way into something so resembling some of the 
little brick buildings one sees in Tuscany and Lombardy 
that the style chose itself. I mean to pay great atten- 



you have commissioned us to prepare plans. It is. there- 
fore, only necessary here to touch upon such matters as 
are commonly embodied in an architect's specification, 
since they arc not susceptible of a graphical presentation. 

"Ma rERiALS: The building is to be constructed so far 
as possible of incombustible materials, your excellent 
local brick and terra-cotta for the exterior walls, Spanish 
tiles for the roof, steel for the floor beams, and for the 
interior finish American Verde antique marble, glazed 
tile or faience, and plaster. 

" The counters, furniture, and other woodwork will be 
of mahogany, finished dark, and the screen which 
separates the public from the working part of the bank 
will be of bronze above a wainscoting of marble. The 
wicket openings in this screen are to be provided with 
plate-glass shelves, supported on bronze brackets. 

" Lighting : The building is to be abundantly supplied 
with natural light in every part, the main banking room 



A SEAT AND SUNDIAL 

B VETTIBULE 

C SPACE FOR. PUBLIC 

D TELLER'S CAGE 

E BOOKKEEPERS 

F VAULT 

G LAVATORY 

H CONSULTING ROOM 

I DIRECTORS' ROOM 



ELEVATION 




PRELIMINARY SKETCH FOR THE CITIZENS' BANK OF THE VILLAGE OF BRICKV1LLE. CLAY CO. 



tion to what Mrs. Van Rensselaer calls ' structural finish ' 
on the exterior. I propose using a twelve-inch brick laid 
up in Flemish bond with dark headers, and a broad gray 
joint, something like that used in the fine new Museum 
of Science and Art by Philadelphia's aggregated archi- 
tects. What little detail there maybe —in the cornice 
and entrance, principally — I'll study from early Italian 
models. That treatment of brick and terra-cotta it seems 
to me impossible to excel. Luckily, our library contains 
Strack's excellent work on the subject. If you go to 
Bologna, please make it a point to see if Emilia has any 
photographs that you think would help me." 

From Messrs. Jones and Renn to the Directors of the C iti- 
cciis' Bank of Brickville. 

"Gentlemen: The preliminary drawings which we 
submit herewith indicate with sufficient clearness the size, 
style, and arrangement of the bank building for which 



being lighted by five high windows opposite the entrance, 
two windows in the public space, and a skylight in the 
apex of the dome. This latter is to be glazed with 
stained and leaded glass, which may be illuminated by a 
cluster of electric lights above and behind it. Side 
brackets conveniently placed in all the rooms, a row of 
single lights along the top of the bronze screen, and desk 
lights, with swivel arms and green shades, will insure 
ample artificial illumination. 

"Heating wo Ventilating: The building will be 
heated by means of hot water. All radiation will be in- 
direct; that is, pure air heated to a proper temperature in 
the basement will be introduced into the various rooms 

through wall and floor registers. 

"All rooms will be ventilated into flues connecting 

with the main ventilator at the highesl pari of the dome. 

"Plumbing: All plumbing appliances will be of the 

very latest and best pattern. The white earthenware 
fixtures will be set in and upon counter-sunk marble 



206 



THE BRIL'KBUILDER 



slabs, all exposed piping will be 
nickel-plated, and all woodwork of 
mahogany, attached to the marble 
and earthenware with nickel-plated 
trimmings. 

"Decorating: The prevailing 
colors of the main banking room will 
be dark green and white, the color 
of the marble wainscoting; pale ^reen 
and white, the color of the tile floor 
and of the faience above the wain- 
scoting; bronze, the color of the screen ; 
red brown, the color of the furniture; 
and pale yellow ochre, the color of 
the dome, though it is hoped that the appropriation for 
this part of the work may be sufficient to employ a 
mural painter of reputation to carry out some more am- 
bitious scheme of decoration for the dome consistent with 
the nature and style of the building. 

" Cost : Two estimates of cost have been made, one by 
Messrs. Rough & Ready, contractors of Millamours, 
amounting to §23,800; and another by us, amounting to 
§25,951. It is our opinion that the expense, exclusive of 
decorating and furnishing, can without difficulty be con- 
fined to §25,000." 

A letter from Mr. Joins to his friend, Vivette Redforth. 

"My dear Vivette: You alone of all my friends 
have seemed interested in what the others call my fan- 
tastic and mystical ideas concerning the art I practise. 
Perhaps this is because, occupied as you are in weaving 
romance into workaday lives, you are surprised to dis- 
cover in me one to whom his daily task is itself as excit- 
ing and absorbing as a romance: but I fancy that with 
your wide sympathies and keen intelligence you are in- 
terested in the thing for its own sake, as I am. 

" My practical-minded partner contends (with excellent 
reason) that the object of a work of architecture is to ful- 
fil certain definite conditions in an economical and ad- 
mirable way, and in fulfilling, to express these conditions. 
The truth of this contention I am surely the last to deny, 
but further than this I claim that the architect, who is 

also an artist, will, in work- 
ing out his problem, instinc- 
tively and inevitably obey 
certain laws of beauty which 
reveal themselves to him as 
he progresses, with the re- 
sult that his work becomes 
surcharged with a thousand 
m v s t e r i ous meanings of 
which the beholder may be 
unconscious, but which ex- 
cite, charm, and attract hi 111 
like the thought of buried 
treasure. A work of archi- 
/ i / \| \ tecture, it seems to me, be- 

' « comes a work of art solely by 

reason of sonic such excess 
of beauty. 

" However, I did not start 
to deliver a lecture, but to 
tell vmi about a little bank 





building I have been designing, which interests me hugely 
because it affords a better chance than usual to follow out 
sonic of my pet theories. I have just written a letter to 
Mr. Renn telling him all I thought he would like to know 
of the village, the site of the building, and the general ar- 
rangement and style I followed; another letter to the di- 
rectors regarding the cost, the convenience, and a dozen 
other stupid and necessary things, and now to you I offer 
the kernel of the whole matter, the one thing that made it 
so worth while to me, — 'The cherry in the cocktail.' 
(You know the story: indeed, I think you told it to me.) 

" The site happens to be a triangle, and as the building 
is to occupy nearly the whole of it. that must approxi- 
mate a triangle too. The most perfect of all triangles 
is, of course, the equilateral. A building of exactly that 
shape might be very distressing; but it is conceivable 
that a building founded not too obviously Upon the equi- 
lateral triangle, its every proportion being determined by 
it, might partake of some of the perfections of the gene- 
rating figure. To have the triangle everywhere present. 
yet nowhere too apparent, like the flavor of onion in a 
salad, — that was the idea with which I set to work. 

"Architecture, you know, is related to space in the 
same way that music is related to time, that is to say. 
one of its functions is to divide and subdivide space 
rhythmically and harmoniously. Failing in that, it is 
only a three dimensional noise. The plan, section, and 
elevation of my building, then, must all make music to 
the eye. So, like the equal and regular beats into which 
music is divided, I first marked off my paper into a num- 
ber of equal equilateral triangles. ' As is the great ', so is 
tin small " (says I to myself, says I), and if the whole 
building is to conform to an equilateral triangle, every 
part of it must do the same. It's like the vertebrate, 
which is nothing but a system of little spines; the tree 
which repeats itself in every leaf. On this pattern of tri- 
angles I traced the plan of my building, as you see it in 
the sketch. The interior proportions of the dome 1 estab- 
lished by means of a single equilateral triangle. (The 
dome of the Pantheon happens to be of this proportion 
too. ) The same principle applied to the elevation yielded 
equally satisfactory results. 

All this may seem to you too much like reducing art 
to a formula. It isn't as easy as it looks, and the last 
appeal is always to the eye, and not to geometry, just 
as in music the last appeal is to the ear. " I've told you 
only a part, but this letter is already too long. I hope I 
haven't bored you with all this; I had to talk it to some- 
body, and. as so often before, turned naturally to you." 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



207 



Church Architecture in Materials of 
Clav. 

ARCHITECTURAL readers and others in search of 
authentic data on this subject cannot do better 
than refer to The Brickbuilder, vol. 5, pages 88, 
89, and 90, in which St. John's R. C. Church, Johns- 
town, Pa., is illustrated from scale details and photo- 
graphs of the completed work. We have not yet seen 
the actual building, but judging from these illustrations 
and other particulars obtained from the architects, 
it would more than repay the cost of personal in- 
spection. Such a bold and, we believe, successful 
venture could not fail to interest, in a special de- 
gree, those who contemplate a similar extensive use 
of clay products in conjunction with structural steel. 
That which a few years ago would have been de- 
cried as a far-fetched theory in church architecture has 
been submitted to, and has withstood, the test of profes- 
sional criticism. Original ideas are not always workable, 
but here is one that must now be accepted as a palpable, 
permanent reality in advanced practice, opening up a 
vista of unexplored possibilities. In this, the concluding 
paper of a series, we have space for but one additional 
illustration. It, however, will serve to show the exact 
relationship existing between a really effective belfry 
and the main tower, which, with its sculptured frieze of 
life-size figures, remains the most commanding feature 
in the composition. 

The building throughout is of brick and terra-cotta: 
the former a fire-flashed buff; the latter made to match 
as nearly as possible the prevailing tint. There is there- 
fore nothing surprising in the statement that, after a test 
of four years, a building con- 
structed of such materials re- 
mains proof against the effects of 
a smoke-laden atmosphere, even 
in a region so intimately associated 
with coal and iron. 

One other example selected 
from a great number must now 
suffice. For this we turn to the 
West End Presbyterian Church, 
105th Street and Amsterdam 
Avenue, New York, designed by 
Mr. H. F. Kilburn. Here we 
have a good type of what may be 
described, in general terms, as a 
modernized Romanesque exterior, 
on which there is nothing to be 
seen save brick and terra-cotta 
from water-table to the cross on 
apex of tower. With the interior 
we are not particularly concerned 
at present, except to remark that 
the plan admits of an uninter- 
rupted auditorium, suitable to a 
service in which the sermon has 
always been considered an essen- 

" C h'u RcT, ro HNS- ti;i1 feature - The Sl >' k ' a PP roacheS 
Romanesque, perhaps, more 

TOWN, PA. \ , ' ' . 

Beezer Bros., Architects. closely than it does Renaissance. 




though the tall campanile and round arches are common 
to both. In detail, too, we find these styles about equally 
represented ; also the classical fret and honeysuckle, 
the Norman zigzag, the spiral angles found in early 
French Renaissance, and the lozenged shafts of Venetian 
( rothic. 

It will not, we hope, be supposed from this that the 
architect has resorted in any degree to what journalists 
are wont to call " paste and scissors " practice. This 
building is not in any sense a copy of something that ex- 
ists elsewhere, nor has it been garbled piece-meal from 
contemporary work. With a copious architectural vo- 




FIG. 25. WEST KM) PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, AMSTERDAM 

AVENUE AND 105IU STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

11. F. Kilburn, Architect. 

cabulary, so to Speak, from which all have been free to 
help themselves, he has formulated new thoughts, con- 
veyed new ideas, and tin's, too, in a style of phraseology 
at once apt and idiomatic. All that has been, or ever 
can be, written in our language resolves itself into an 
alphabet of twenty-six letters. The letters in themselves 
are common property, but marshal them into words, 
sentences, paragraphs, etc., and we have a composition 
more or less original, appropriate, and expressive. The 
man who does this, and docs it well, gives to his work a 
certain character and individuality, with which his name 
may become lastingly associated. Mr. Kilburn has nol 

attempted to invent a new alphabet of architectural 

forms. He has contented himself with a selection oi 



208 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



such as best suited his purpose from among those " of 
different tongues and nations." all of which have done 
duty for ayes. These he has transmuted through the 
medium of a trained intelligence, composing the units 
into members, the members into groups, and the whole 
into a well-ordered assemblage. Indeed, the several 
components are so placed that a latent affinity seems 
to spring up where, in less skilful hands, incongruity 
might have been expected. Whether viewed as a 
whole, or as to the relationship of its parts, there is 
hardly a discordant note in what is virtually an original 
composition. 

This example is more ornate and a trifle less mascu- 
line than the one with which Mr. Waterhouse has fur- 
nished us; but while the plasticity of the material is ac- 
centuated in the free use of ornament, it cannot be said 
that anything has been overdone. That elaborate arched 
entrance and the fine triple windows have a setting of 
plain wall surface that preserves an equilibrium, impart- 
ing to the building an air of 
!i ( i m 1 1 g e neit y and repose. 
Moreover, the richness and 
varietv of these features are 
obtained at much less cost 
than might be supposed from 
a cursory view of the work 
when set, a circumstance that 
seems to call for some ex- 
planation. This is due chiefly 
to the fact that the design 
lends itself to an arrangement 
i if jointing that produces the 
greatest possible repetition of 
shapes obtainable from a given 
number of molds. In other 
words, the number of shapes 
is small when compared with 
the number of blocks, — a 
safe test in fixing the relative 
cost of manufacture. The 
average size of the blocks is 
much less than could have 
been desired, but this draw- 
back is offset to some extent 
by the greater convenience 
and immunity from risk in 
handling. This is true of the 
pilasters, capitals, voussoirs, 
etc., of which the several en- 
trances are made up, and es- 
pecially so of the modillion 

cornice immediately above. The two triple windows 
and the two rose windows in the gables, the coping on 
said gables and the four pinnacles at the intersections, 
resolve themselves into simple units, most of which can 
be repeated many times without appearing monotonous. 
The band-courses that alternate with brick have the same 
surface treatment throughout, chaste and unobtrusive in 
design, but none the less effective on that account. The 
dormers and corbelled balustrade below are alike on all 
sides of tower; while a single miter and one or two run- 
ning pieces built up in successive courses constitute the 
pointed roof. The cross forming apex is the only block 




ENTRANCE, 
CH 



on the building that has not been duplicated, a distinc- 
tion to which it is surely entitled. 

The first impression that one yets on approaching 
this church is a mellow harmony of color, in which a 
tawny buff predominates. The terra-cotta is of a slightly 
lighter tint, and no attempt has been made to imitate the 
subtle variations in the brick, which, as will be seen 
presently, is due to different conditions of manufacture. 
Neither tame nor obtrusive, the terra-cotta stands on its 
merits, not offering to decry, or with any desire to disown 
humbler members of the same family, but with just 
enough contrast to form a convenient and effective line 
of demarcation. The last and most enduring impression 
produced by an examination of this building is: The de- 
cree of elaboration and seeming varietv of detail that can 
be obtained by a surprisingly small number of individual 
units. Herein lies the great secret for which architects 
invariably seek, and often fail to find a key: How to 
reconcile the artistic and commercial exigencies that arise 

in using SO many cubic feet of 
terra-cotta. 

The growing popularity of 
speckled brick, in shades vary- 
ing from yellow buff to dark 
brown, is seen in the extent to 
which they have been used in 
recent church building. A 
demand has now arisen for 
Speckled terra-cotta that will 
match such shade of brick as 
may happen to be selected. 
Some architects take it for 
granted that anything procur- 
able in brick can be duplicated 
in blocks of a larger size, see- 
ing that both are of burnt clay. 
This assumption is far too 
sweeping, for though to some 
extent true, it is subject to 
important limitations. To 
meet this demand, some man- 
ufacturers have gone the 
Length of using the same clay 
mixture, and burning both 
classes of goods in the same 
kind of kiln, hoping thereby 
to insure with greater cer- 
tainty the results sought after. 
Theoretically this line of 
procedure would appear 
eminently feasible, but the 
practical difficulties encountered are not always easily 
o\ ercome. 

In the first place, a piece of clay forced into shape 
under pressure in a steel mold will not be a perfect 
match for another piece pressed in a plaster mold and 
finished by hand. The surface texture, after burning, 
will differ in each case, and so also will the color. This, 
however, as compared with other drawbacks to which we 
are about to refer, is really a minor consideration. In 
attempting to burn terra-cotta under the same conditions 
as invariably prevail in the production of Pompeiian brick 
all expectation of uniformity in color must be abandoned. 



V, ES I END PRESBYTERIAN 
URCH. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



209 



In an open fire, as distinguished from a muffled kiln, 
tongues of flame impinge in a haphazard way on the 
goods. In clay that contains varying percentages of in >n , 
this intense heat produces corresponding degrees of oxi- 
dation. The surface likewise becomes disturbed by a 
pimply excrescence, or it may be slightly pitted by the 
exudation of iron that has melted and disappeared. 
Similar manifestations will appear in blocks of terra- 
cotta, but in such irreg- 
ular and erratic fashion 
as to destroy all hope of 
reasonable uniformity. 

There are many sup- 
plementary agencies, 
more or less capricious in 
their action, that are dif- 
ficult, if not impossible, 
to control. Among these 
we have the quality as 
well as the degree of 
heat, the character of 
the gases that generate 
in the kiln, depending on 
the amount of air allowed 
to enter during the sev- 
eral stages of burning, 
also during the process 
of cooling. S o me of 
these are fairly well un- 
derstood, therefore under 
control ; some are mat- 
t e r s of conjecture on 
which authorities differ; 
while some are, as yet, 
beyond the ken of ac- 
knowledged experts. On 
one thing they do agree, 
however, and that is, the 
glorious uncertainty of burning terra-cotta in an open 
fire. Of course, in the case of brick, this necessity has of 
late been accepted as a positive virtue; for it is the varia- 
tion so caused that has created the demand, and given 
them such widespread popularity. Not so with rela- 
tively large blocks of terra-cotta, the several positions of 
which have been pre-determined, and which cannot be 
classified at will, or shifted into new combinations. 
When set in position, the light and dark blocks alternat- 
ing in such way as to render the difference still more 
conspicuous, we get an unpleasant reminder of terra- 
cotta making as it existed among us some ten or fifteen 
years ago. The fact is, that this variation of color, which 
gives added charm to the small units, becomes an eyesore 
in terra-cotta, wherein the blocks are necessarily large and 
rarely interchangeable. 

The same objections that have been urged against 
open firing on the score of color hold good in the equally 
important matter of fit and accuracy of dimension. The 
surfaces cannot be held true, the members will not take 
up with each other at the joints, and the shrinkage scale 
amounts to a mere approximation on which no positive 
reliance can be placed. Something, no doubt, depends 
on the point of view from which these shortcomings 
seen by architects. One man will insist on perfectly 




FIG. 27. TRIPLE WINDOWS, 
WEST END PRESBYTE- 
RIAN CHURCH. 



even color, close joints, good lines, and much mechanical 
exactitude; another will aim at an antique, rugged pic- 
turesqueness. In the latter case some of the defects just 
enumerated would instantly disappear, while others 
would take on a new attractiveness. We have seen work 
of the kind referred to used on factory and storage 
buildings with excellent effect. On recently erected 
power-houses, etc., it gives an impression of strength, 
durability, and titanic force in admirable keeping 
with the character of such buildings. These, how- 
ever, are exceptions to the general rule, and must lie 
judged by a far different standard from that which pre- 
vails in the class of work which we have had under 
consideration. 

When an architect calls for terra-cotta to match his 
brick, — a not unusual nor yet unreasonable requirement, 
— the manufacturers are still at liberty, we presume, to 
adopt the best-known method by which the desired re- 
sult may be attained. We are not betraying any trade 
secret in saying that there are ways in which any shade 
of Pompeiian brick can be duplicated in terra-cotta, and 
still preserve a degree of uniformity equal to that of 
stone. It has been done frequently of late in the regular 
course of business, with complete success; and we all 
know that what man has done man can do, if he exerts 
himself. Architects do not concern themselves so much 
with the process as they do 
with the product. We have 
not heard of a ease in which 
any one method of manufac- 
ture was specified, all others 
being prohibited. For ex- 
ample, in order to reduce the 
particles of crude iron con- 
tained in the clay from which 
this variety of brick is made, 
a flame of great intensity 
must come directly into con- 
tact with each brick. In a 
muffled kiln, such as is used 
for burning perhaps 90 per 
cent, of all the terra-cotta 
made, no direct flame is per- 
mitted to enter; hence, these 
particles of iron remain inert, 
their presence having no ap- 
preciable effect on the goods. 
At this point, however, prac- 
tical science steps in to assist 
nature, by a further legitimate 
use of her own bountiful re- 
sources. By adding to the clay 
varying percentages of granu- 
lated manganese that will 
fuse at a relatively low tem- 
perature, we get corresponding shades of Pompeiian 
terra-cotta, each of them pre-determined and under 

control. Work so produced will possess a degree of 

uniformity in color, trueness of line, and mechanical 
Illness that would be quite impossible of attainment by 

a haphazard system of burning, under which the all- 
important human factor is, for the time being, entirely 
eliminated. 




in;. 2.S. SPIRE, w ES 1 

END PRESB1 1 1 

RIAN i II 1 RCH. 



IO 



T HE BRICKBUILDER 



Fire-proofing. 



PRACTICAL FIRE TESTS. 

Fire Curtains. —The only tests with fire curtains 
which the committee have as yet carried out have been 
with those made by Mr. Rasmus Bugge. In one instance 
the curtain was 8 ft. 6 ins. wide and 8 ft. high, and con- 
sisted of a woolen material on which three horizontal 
rows of pockets (made of hard-woven cloth) were ar- 
ranged. The object of these pockets was t<> catch any 
water that might be thrown on the curtain from a hose, 
or whatever water trickled down from the perforated 
rubber hose pipe extending along the top. The tempera- 
ture of the fire commenced at 300 degs. Fahr. and in- 
creased to 1,500 degs. Fahr. After a test of half an hour 
the curtain remained in position, though a few small 
holes had been burnt in it at the top. The question of 
protecting door and window openings by the use of fire- 
resisting blinds and screens is an important one, particu- 
larly in connection with buildings in narrow thorough- 
fares; the great Cripplegate tire was an instance where 
the judicious application of these means would have 
checked considerably the spread of the flames. 

Glazing. — About half a dozen tests with glazing have 
been made by the British Fire Prevention Committee, 
though only one of them was a private test. On two 
occasions casements glazed by the British Luxfer Prism 
Syndicate. Ltd., of London, have been tested, the dura- 
tion of the fire being thirty minutes in one case and forty- 
five minutes in the other. The easements consisted of 
electro-glazed squares of plate glass ? 4 in. thick (4-in. 
square), framed with a brass border and fixed in rebated 
teak frames by teak beads; each casement showed glaz- 
ing measuring 3 by 4 ft., and had 10S squares. 

The following summaries show the effect of the fire: — 
In the first test (that lasting half an hour), the squares 
remained in position, but seven out of the 324 (there were 
three casements) were broken, and pieces fell out of 
them. After twelve minutes the whole area of the glaz- 
ing commenced to bulge inwards, and in twenty-one 
minutes the top part of the center casement sagged and 
left a space between the glazing and the teak frame, 
which was charred to a depth of about y 2 in. on the 
inside. No glazing bars were broken or appreciably 
oxidized. The second test (that lasting three quarters of 
an hour) was less satisfactory, for after considerable 
bulging inwards and outwards the glass in two of the 
casements fell in (after about thirty-five minutes), though 
the third casement remained in position. Five skylights 
glazed by the British Luxfer Prism Syndicate, Ltd., each 
showing 1 ft. S ins. by 3 ft. of glazing, and having 45 
glass prisms 4 ins. square, were tested, but four of them 
fell in within half an hour, the highest temperature re- 
corded being 1,225 ( 1 L '~;" S - Fahr. Two tests have been made 
with casements and skvlights glazed with wired glass 
by Messrs. PilkingtOIl Brothers, Ltd.. of St. Helens and 
London. Each of the casements showed 1 ft. <>~« ins. by 
3 ft. 11 '_• ins. of glazing ( ' 4 in. thick) in the clear, and 
though the glass was very much buckled and fused, it was 



unbroken at the end of forty-nine minutes; the highest 
temperature recorded was 1,760 degs. Fahr. The test 
with the skylights lasted half an hour, and at the end 
of that time the glass was intact and had not let fire 
through; the highest temperature was about 1,500 degs. 
fahr. 

A most interesting test undertaken by the committee 
was with three casements; one glazed with ' 4 -in. plate 
glass, one with 32-oz. sheet glass, and one with "lead 
lights." The following is a summary of the effect: 
Within six minutes flame burst through the 32-OZ. glass 
and half the sheet had fallen, the other half falling within 
twelve and one half minutes. After seven minutes the 
lead glazing collapsed, and after twelve minutes the fire 
came through the % -in. plate casement, the whole sheet 
falling within fourteen minutes. It is important to note 
that all three casements fell in less than a quarter of 
an hour, and no water was applied. The protection of 
the ordinary window and skylight openings has been all 
too long neglected, and the results mentioned above 
should therefore be of special value. 

Partitions. < >ne of the early tests made by the com- 
mittee was with a lath and plaster partition and a brick 
nogged partition. One portion of the former was made 
with wood lathing and the other portion with plain wire 
lathing; while the brick-nogged partition showed two 
kinds of construction, — brick laid flat, and brick on edge. 
Three weeks and a half (spring) were allowed for con- 
struction. At the end of the test (which lasted an hour) 
the lath and plaster partition was practically destroyed, 
the fire breaking through the plastering on wood lath in 
twenty-eight minutes, at about 1.600 degs. Fahr., and 
through that on wire lath in forty minutes, at about 1.750 
degs. fahr. The brick-nogged partition resisted the fire 
for the hour, although the plastering was disintegrated 
and the studs charred. The comparatively long resis- 
tance of these partitions was no doubt due to the fact that 
the plastering went from floor to ceiling, not stopping 
short behind a skirting as is often done in ordinary work; 
it frequently happens that the Hre first breaks through at 
the skirting. 

In November last a test was made with a partition 
erected by the " Gypsine " Brick Company. Ltd., of 
London and Paris. It was 7 ft. 9 ins. by 10 ft., and the 
bricks of which it was constructed were 13,-, ins. long, 
7^ ins. deep, and 3 ' 4 ins. thick. They were made of 
"a mixture, by means of water, of plaster, hydraulic 
lime, some sort of neutral material, such as coke, sand, 
etc., and a fire-proof material, such as asbestos, with an 
addition of sulphuric acid. " The joints on the fire side 
were raked out for - ; K ins. and filled in with fire-clay, the 
whole surface of the partition being afterwards covered 
with a thin coating of the same material. The test lasted 
one hour. A portion of the fire-clay coating fell when 
heat was applied, and a further portion (and nearly all 
the pointing) on the application of water. The bricks 
were sodden with water, but in no place did the fire pass 
through the partition, which, on the outer surface, was 
never hot enough to ignite a match. The partition 
erected by the Mural and Decorations Syndicate, Ltd., 
of' London, consisted of wire lathing stretched between 
rods and having pieces of tcrra-cotta burnt on at the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 211 

T^Twhe^r^ ° f Pla T T re giV6n ''I Cach ; i ; k '- Inferior Cement in the American 

1 he highest temperature reached was 2,130 degs. Fahr. 

On the application of water to the fire side of the parti- Market. 

tion a considerable portion of the setting coat was washed a TirnnTncnviuw ,, , ■ 1 , c .1 
^ff tt,~ Mi.„iA~ * *. 1 A TO I \\ I 1 IIS I AM)I\(. the high character oi the 
oh. I he outside temperature was too hot to bear the V i \ • i ^ , • , • 
v,^T-,ri n,~,,,v.v, „-*.«, • v * i- -u^ , -*• ~ best American and German cement which is avail- 
hand, though not sufficient to light a vesta bv contact. , , • , , 

Tllo fl ^ j;j „„*. 4,-u 1, ^ .• • ,„, al)le in our markets to-day, there is a large amount ot 

lhe fire did not pass through the partition. The test , , , . , , ' .,,,,.?. 

i„„, , „„ , , second and third grade material sold which is more or 
lasted an hour and a quarter. 

a i. -l 1 j j • • ,.,, -, . . . 'ess inferior in quality. 

A match-boarded partition filled in with slasr-wool, ,. ,. , „ , , 

„„ . -, 1 at T-, A . o o t ! , Tr Lnghsn Portland cement was, up to ten or it teen 

erected by Messrs. D. Anderson & Son, Ltd., and Messrs. , . , . ,' 

t n t^.„„j, 4. b r< t 4.J i 4.1. r T -, 1 years ago, our chief source of supply. In 1SS0 nearly 

J. C. Broadbent & Co., Ltd., both of London, was tested ,. . . ,, ,, . . ' 

4.^^4.1,^ 4. r r. -4.-, ., r ,, • , three times as much was imported from ( rreat Bntam as 

for three quarters of an hour with the following result: ... ~ 4. ■ ■ , , , ,, 

I(an , • . , , ,. ,,/ ■ , , from the Continent, but it was largely superseded bv the 

"The internal boarding (3/ ms. was completely de- ~ , ■ ,' r , ,' 

, . ., , , . , , ' , , German cements when the superior quality of the latter 

stroyed, and the slag-wool was fused and blackened on , , , „ .. - r 

,, . .-, , , ° _ ,., , , . „,, became understood. English cements were for many 

the inside face, but the fire did not pass through it. The , , . , , . ,. ,„, . ; 

, .j , j. , . , „,, . years underburned and low in lime. I hey were quick 

outside boarding was sound and clean. The maximum ... , £ ,, , , " '. . 

, „ , T setting and of no great strength, and large quantities 

temperature was 1,840 degs. Fahr. In this case the slag- , , ■ .. TT .. , 0i . . , i 

f , ... , f . 6 were sold in the United States without the name of any 

wool was carefully packed ; on a previous occasion it was . .. r. t , , , T , 

-..,/. . ' reputable firm on the packages. I nder the spur ot com- 

not, and the fire broke through. ..^. ^ .. , ,, . 

petition the quality has now been considerably improved, 

„ _, . ~ _, . so that several brands are to be had to-day which ordi- 

Protectivc Coverings. — The committee have as yet -. .. .,, ., ,. ' 

, , , . , . . , . narily compare very well with the German product, 

only had one test with protective coverings, that with ,.4 , , , . , , , 1 , , 

.j . 1,, ^ . ,f 1 . although they would not even now, probably, be selected 

girder coverings made by the " Gypsine Brick Com- c f . , . . , ' „ ' 

T . .° , % ^ . L; , . . for surface work such as sidewalks. I he great mass ot 

pany, Ltd., of London and Paris. Two steel joists, each , 1 c ■ ■& ,. . , . 

. J . . , , , J cheap and inferior English cements are becoming less 

7 by 2% ms., were placed across the hut; one was covered , . ±. ■ , , , A , , , ' „ , 

. ; , . r .,.,,. common, but their places have been taken by the Bel- 

with the protective material till it was 15X by 9 ms., and gium and American cements of the Eame d wkh 

the other till it was 12% by 4^ ms. Two weeks were wMch the market . g flooded 

allowed for construction and drying. The fire lasted one T r> . ■ r . , ■ 1 . , 

^ to In Belgium cements of several kinds are made. A 

hour, and the highest temperature recorded was 1,740 „ 1 ■ f . .. ■ , , .■ , , . ,, 

s K "^ rock is found there 111 abundance which has nearly the 

degs. Fahr. The following observations were made at ..• t . ,, ., , . 

& fa proportions necessary tor a good Portland cement. Ac- 

the end of the test: — The composition around the „„wr *■ «. «* *t. tt ■* j e* ,- 1 c 

1 cording to a report of the L nited States C onsul, one ot 

larger beam remained attached all round (though it was .1 , ■ . ., £ ■•■, 

& v iS the rocks in use has the following composition: - 
very sodden from the water applied), and the girder 

was not affected. A layer of material $4 ins. thick had Silica T 5- 75 

dropped off the beam of smaller section, the sides showed Alumina 3.95 

vertical cracks, and the material was sodden and easily Iron oxide 1.00 

impressed. Lime 43- IO 

Magnesia .49 

Treated Wood. — The test with certain boards treated Sulphuric acid 5 o 

by the British Non-flammable Wood Company, Ltd., of Carbonic acid and water 35.21 

London, should, perhaps, come under the heading of This is largely burned in its natural condition to sinter- 

ii partitions, " but they were only arranged in this form ing, and a so-called natural 1'ortland cement made from 

for the sake of convenience. The impregnated boards it without further manipulation. Of course, it is very 

were of yellow pine, and were 1 in. thick. There were seldom that this is of normal composition and properties, 

three stages in the test: first, the application of flame for but owing to the economy possible in its manufacture it 

five minutes from one side at a temperature of 1,000 degs. can be put on the market at a very low price. It has a 

Fahr. ; then at the same spot for ten minutes at a tern- corresponding value, and has been largely sold in certain 

perature of 1, 150 degs. Fahr.; and, lastly, at a second spot parts of America under brands having the names of vari- 

for fifteen minutes at a temperature of about 1,300 degs. ous animals, birds, etc. A test of one of these cements 

Fahr. The effect was as follows: No incandescence or from the New Orleans market resulted as follows: 

spread of flame was observed, nor did the material, so Nr „ Mortar Sin( , Morfar , ,,, y 

far as could be seen, contribute in any way to the spread Tensile. Crushing Tensile ( rushing 

of flame. The surface of the boards was charred. 7 days .... 326 [635 482 

It will be seen from the particulars given in this ~' s •» I'"* 2 "°° [2< ~'> s 

article, and the one preceding it, that the British Fire Pre- This is plainly a very inferior cement. 
vention Committee (of which Mr. Edwin 0. Sachs is the In this country there arc found several inferior forms 
founder and chairman) are doing a most useful work in of cement sold as Portland, which are not of normal coin- 
conducting these independent tests. While disastrous position and character. Among these is a cement which 
fires are so frequent, the science of fire-proof construction was intended for a high-grade material, but which from 
must be pursued and perfected till it is thoroughly effec- lack of care in burning or departure from a normal com- 
tive, and all those who contribute towards this end must position must be sold as second grade. Such a cement 
certainly deserve the unstinted praise of their fellow- now on the New York market analyzes and tests as 
men. follows: 



2 I 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



WAIN SIS. 

Per cent. 

Ignition 3.66 

Silica 21.90 

Alumina 9.08 

Iron oxide 2.92 

Lime 56.00 

Magnesia 3.02 

Sulphuric acid t.62 

Alkalies Undetermined 

Then there is the " improved " cement made by the 
addition of the preceding material in certain proportions 

to natural rock cement, tests of which were given in con- 
nection with those of natural cement, and the ground, 
overburned and partially sintered rock, which is a by- 
product in the burning of natural cements. 'Pests and 
analysis of this material, product, or third-grade Portland 
cement are as follows: — 

Silica, uncombined 6.36 

Silica, combined, SiO a '9-5° 

Alumina oxide AL<> ; 7.74 

Iron oxide FeJ ).. 3.06 

Lime oxide CaO 5 2 -'° 

Magnesia oxide MgO 3.05 

Sulphur SO a 1 .48 

Potassium oxide K a .98 

Soda oxide Na,() 1.16 

[gnition Aq+C0 2 5.30 

SILICA PORTLAND CEMENT. 

Besides these cements there is another class, consist- 
ing of good Portland ground together with about half its 
weight of sand or limestone to an impalpable powder, 
which, if sold on its merits, and at a proper price, is, no 
doubt, of great value and importance, as experiments 
have shown the Portland cement used in this way can be 
made to go very much further than in any other, without 
corresponding loss of strength. The results obtained 
with such a cement were as follows: — 

Cement and sand, 50 per cent, of each, ground to- 
gether: — 

Sand Mortar — t to 3 
Tensile. Crushing. 

7 days 152,160,154 1556 

Portland cement — Normal. 

7 days 160,156,15s 1700 

The cause of this apparently impossible result is that 
the two materials are ground to an impalpable powder, 
and most thoroughly mixed. In this condition the finely 
ground silica serves to till the voids in the sand and to 
join with the cement in making a mortar which will fully 
cover and enclose the sand particles. The smaller amount 
of actual cement is, therefore, able to do the work, in con- 
junction with the powdered silica, that a volume of pure 
cement equal to that of the mixture would do. 

It is important, and in fact necessary, however, that 
the cement and sand should be ground together so 
intimately that they are thoroughly mixed and extraor- 
dinarily fine. As soon as this condition fails to be 
realized, there is an immediate failure in the results. 

For the successful accomplishment of the grinding 
and mixing, the tube mill seems to be the best suited. 
While in practice not more than equal volumes of sand 
and cement have been ordinarily used, most remarkable 
results have been obtained when one part of cement was 
-round with six parts of beach sand. Tests of this 
material with two parts of sand at seven days gave from 
60 to >So lbs. tensile strength. 



SLAG CB MEW I . 

There is another form of hydraulic cement which has 
only of late made its appearance in the American mar- 
kets, although it has been known commercially on the 
Continent since 1882-83. This is called properly slag 
cement, as it is made by grinding slay together with 
slaked lime. Blast furnace slag is used for the purpose, 
and it is, unfortunately, a very variable material in com- 
position, according to the ore in use, the amount and 
kind of (lux, and the temperature. It consists mainly of 
silicates of lime and alumina, but it may be basic. 
neutral, or acid in composition. Physically, it may vary 
very much, some forms being permanent when exposed 
to the weather, and used for ballast or for bricks, other 
forms falling to pieces on exposure. 

The basic form alone is suitable for cement making, 
and this only when it has been granulated by running it 
into water while in a very fluid and thin condition. 
What the effect of granulation is is not entirely tinder- 
stood, but it is evident that in sudden cooling there is a 
different arrangement of the constituents from that 
which takes place on slow cooling. The method of 
granulation is important. It should be done while the 
slag is hot and very liquid, and plenty of water used. 
In the operation sulphur is partly removed. The prod- 
uct is. a more or less sharp, pumice-like, partly 
transparent material, and the residt of the operation is 
that in the granulated form the silica is in a condition to 
combine with lime in the presence of water, gelatinizing 
readily with acids. 

Greenish-gray slays from -ray cast iron are much 
better than the yellow foaming kind, but in any event 
the ratio of lime to silica, Ca< >SiO._,, must not sink as low 
as 1, for slags of this description are useless. It ordi- 
narily runs from 1.72 to .64, so that many kinds are of no 
value. The more basic they are the better. 

With the same operating methods uniform slays may 
be produced at any one furnace, but at different points 
the greatest variety is found. 

Slays for cements must, of course, be free from 
magnesia and not contain much sulphur, but some of the 
latter is lost in the act of granulation. Fresh slays are 
more actively hydraulic. Although on Storage they lose 
some Sulphur, they have not the same lime capacity, but 
are, nevertheless, more reliable. The grinding of the 
granulated slay, like all operations of this sort in cement 
making, must be very thorough. According to Tet- 
majer, it must be so fine that not more than 8 percent. 
shall remain on a sieve of one hundred and seventy-eight 
meshes to the lineal inch. 

The lime used in slay cement is well-burned caustic 
lime free from magnesia, which has been thoroughly 
slaked, or in some instances hydraulic lime, which has 
been found to have no injurious effect on the strenyth 
and a favorable one on the soundness of the product. 
The caustic lime slaked by either the method of packing 
it in baskets which are immersed in water and the satu- 
rated lime piled in heaps for some time, or it is spread in 
layers 4 to 8 ins. deep and sprinkled with water until 
slaked, when it is heaped up under coverand left fourteen 
davs. Then the slaked lime obtained in either way is 
screened from the coarser particles, and finally the finest 
meal obtained by air-blast separators or bolting. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



213 



Machines have also been designed for carrying out 
the operation of slaking rapidly, and at times attempts 
have been made to slake the lime with the water adherent 
to the granulated slag. 

The fine powder is usually stored for some time to 
completely slake it, as much more favorable results are 
obtained with such material. It should then be soft 
dust and free from any hard particles which might event- 
ually become hydrated in the cement and cause expansion 
and checking. 

The ground slag and lime are best mixed by a second 
grinding together in the proper proportion, which lias 
the double object of reducing the product to an even 
more minute state of subdivision, and bringing about a 
thorough mixture, and thus preventing any tendency to 
checking and expansion. 

The best Swiss slag cement from Chonidez, prepared 
in the way that has been described, has, according to 
Tetmajer, the following properties: — 

Specific gravity . . . . 2.63 — 2.75 

Volume weight, loose . . 62.3 lbs. per cu. ft. 

,, ,, packed . 101.0 ,, ,, ,, ,, 

Strength of Mortar, 1:3; German Normal 

Sand in water, 

Water for Mortar, 10.5 per cent. 

Tensile. Crushing. 

7 days 144 — 252 1276 — 1847 

28 ,, 305 — 417 3 l 95 — 3 <s 7° 

84 ,, 45 1 — 55° 4630—5344 

1 year 562 — 660 49 2 9 — 5766 

2 years 569 — 631 5376 — 5948 

Strength of Mortar, 1 : 3, Building Sand. 

Water. Air. 

7 days 203 227 

28 ,, 45 2 2 9 6 

84 ,, 489 3 l 3 

210 ,, 568 356 

1 year 5 I( ) 433 

The proportion of lime added to the slag will vary 
from 25 to 100 per cent., according to the capacity of the 
slag for bases. Tetmajer considers that these and other 
tests, as well as the results of its practical application, 
show that this slag cement is particularly suited to work 
under most varying conditions in water, in damp places, 
out less so in air; and that while it should be allowed 
to set before being acted upon by water, it is less affected 
by it than other hydraulic cements. Its great disadvan- 
tage, on the other hand, he shows to be its tendency to 
form, in air, surface cracks, the more so the higher the 
lime, these being due as much to drying out of the mortar 
and consequent contraction as to deficiency in composi- 
tion. He also finds that as the hardening of slag ce- 
ments is due to the hydrating of the silica of the silicates 
by water, the presence of an abundance of this is neces- 
sary at all stages of the process, and that if the cement is 
allowed to dry out this will come to an end. The slag 
cements, therefore, do particularly well in moist localities. 

Not all slag cements arc as satisfactory as that which 
has been described. Where the slag comes from a 
furnace, the proprietor of which has no interest in mak- 
ing a suitable or uniform product for cement making, 
the resulting cement is very variable and inferior, and 
may give the best material of its kind a bad name. Most 
of this material has been put upon the market in 
Germany. 



Selected Miscellany. 



NOTES FROM NEW YORK. 

The general state of affairs in the building world is 
good, although there is a dearth of large transactions, 
which is perhaps natural at this time of year. 

On October 7, the cornerstone of St. Peter's R. C. 
Church, States Island, was laid. From the published 




VIEW OF GENERAL WAITING ROOM, UNION STATION, 

DAVTON, OHIO. 

Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 

drawings this promises to be a very handsome structure. 
It is in the Romanesque style, and will be built of brick 
with terra-cotta trimmings, — another tribute to the fast- 
growing popularity of these materials for buildings of 
beauty- as well as utility. The architects are George 
Edward Harding and Gooch of New York City. 

My attention has been called recently to an old game 
which contractors from times remote have worked, and 
for which young 
a r c h i t e c t s 
should be on 
their guard. 
The contractor 
will write ask- 
i n g i f, a s a 
favor, you will 
kindly alio W 
him to use a 
brand of roof- 
ing tin of which 
he has a stock 
on hand instead 
of the one 

specified. 1 1 e 







c \i 



PI \i;oin .\ s I I- \kNs, VKCHI I EC I S. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 



H 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



assures you that it is just as good, costs just 
as much, and will save considerable time if 
he can use it. Twice within a year I have 
investigated and found that the article men- 
tioned was worth in one case only half as 
much as the article specified, and in another 
case only one fifth, although we regret ex- 
ceedingly to impute any dishonest thought or 
action to such proverbially honest and up- 
right men as contractors. 

It is hardly necessary to remark upon the 
practice of the acceptance by architects of 
commissions from contractors or manufac- 
turers. Certainly, no architect can be in- 
nocent of the fact that it is not only reprehen- 
sible, but absolutely dishonest. There is, 
however, a tendency to overcome this and 
ease the conscience by accepting gifts of 
more or less value, which is not only just as 
bad, but the architect himself is the worst 
sufferer, as he thus allows a mortgage to be 
placed on his professional life with foreclosure as a sure 
result. I have in mind the case of a friend who upon his 
birthday was presented by a firm of woodworkers with a 
beautiful leather-covered easy-chair. It was done in a 
gentlemanly way and as a token for past favors. The 
architect, although it must have cost him a pang, had it 
sent back in just as gentlemanly a way, felt better for it 
afterwards, and no offense was taken on either side. 




NOTES FROM CHICAGO. 

A number of leading hotel and restaurant proprietors 
are planning the erection of a model cooperative laundry 





DESIGN FOR WILDER HALL, WELLESLEY COLLEGE, WELLESLEY, MASS. 
|. A. Schweinfurth, Arch;' 



S I . JOHN S H0SP1 I \I , SI. LOUIS, Mo. 
Barnett, Haynes & Barnett, Architects. 

plant to cost in the neighborhood of Sioo.ooo, in order to 
do away with the expense and inconvenience of doing 
laundry work on their own premises. Should it prove a 
success, the same people talk of establishing a cooper- 
ative warehouse. 

Mr. Dwight Ileald Perkins has been appointed archi- 
tect of Hitchcock Hall, a new dormitory building to be 
erected for the University of Chicago, and has been sent 
abroad to study the collegiate buildings of England, par- 
ticularly those of Oxford. He will return about the first 
of November. 

The annual meeting of the Chicago Architectural 

Club was held 
at the Art In- 
stitute, Mon- 
day, October 
j. at which the 
following offi- 
cers were 
elected: Pres- 
ident, Henry 
K. Holsman; 
vice-president, 
Robert C. 
Spencer, Jr. : 
s e C r e t a r y, 

Birch Burdette 

Long; t re a s- 
urer, Adolph 
Bernhard. 

1' o n d & 
Pond arc de- 
s i g n ing the 
n e w North- 
western Uni- 
versity settle- 
ment building. 

S he p 1 e y, 

Rutan & Cool- 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 *5 



idge are at work on the plans for several new buildings 
for the University of Chicago, including the new gym- 
nasium. 

Marshall Field & Co. have taken out a permit for a 
new steel and brick retail store building, twelve stories 






D. H. Burnham & Co., and involve a total outlay of 

about §3,000,000. 

NOTES FROM PITTSBURGH. 

The United States War Department has approved the 






• //■' "\ 



881 iii 






ml 111 



ill! 



\:.a 



HI 



•-1, 



r 









. 






SUNNYSIDE, SHOWING ALTERATIONS AND ADDITIONS, FROM THE NORTH. 
William H. Mersereau, Architect for alterations. 



in height, to cover the site of their present retail stores, 
83-99 State Street. The firm secured a permit last 
spring for a building of the same height to cover the 
remaining portion of the block which is now occupied 
by Central Music Hall and the two stores south of 
it. They are ready to cover the entire block with a 



plans of the Pennsylvania Company for the rebuilding of 
their bridge across the Allegheny River; the plans call 
for a bridge of the same height as the present one, and 
this disposes of the question whether the other bridges 
would be raised. 

A large hotel and apartment house is to be built on 




v>^\ .Ms f> 





"SUNNYSIDE," BEFORE ADDITIONS WERE MADE. 

building two stories higher than the present building 
ordinances permit. It is said, however, that only the 
Music Hall end will be built at first, probably beginning 
next spring if present labor difficulties are disposed of 
before that time. The plans have been prepared by 



"SUNNYSIDE," Ml IK ADDITIONS WERI MADE. 

North Avenue, Allegheny, to cost ^500.000. The papers 
announce that the owner has prepared his own plans. 

A library building is to be built at Beaver, l'a. It 
is presented to the town by Mr. Carnegie. 

This recalls the fact that, in several instances, similar 



216 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



offers of Mr. Carnegie have resulted in such bitter disputes 
between factions that he has been obliged to withdraw 



" -i \\\ SIDE. " 



FIR5.T STORY P\.A,N 



OLD 1-UAJSE. 



dotted wimn - rsui\.T in »fc5fe 

MATCHED «(»^ AOOtO IN Ift^S IM HASVUHUTON tCTVWfa 




PLAN, FIRST FLOOR, " SUNN75IDE," SHOWING ALTERATIONS 
\M) ADDITIONS. 

the offer; lately, in one town, an old burying-ground 
was obtained by the trustees as a library lot. After they 




APARTMENTS, 94TH STREET AND CENTRAL PARK WEST, 
NEW YORK CITY. 
E. Ware & Sons and II. S. S. Eiarde, Associate Architects. 
Fire-proofed by the National Fire-proofing Company. 



had care full y 
removed all the 
bodies, the dis- 
pute broke out 
again, the offer 
was withdrawn, 
and now t h e 
town is trying 
to make the 
trustees pay tor 
the w o r k al- 
r e a d y d n e, 
amounting t 
over $2,000 for 
each trustee. 




CAP, CHARLES I. BERG, ARCHITECT. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 



Peabody & Stearns, o4 Boston, have let the contract 

for a new residence on Forks Street, to cost $70,000. 




Kl 5IDI \< is \ \ ST. I oris, Mo. 

Deitering >v Klipstein, Architects. 



NOTES FROM ST. LOUIS. 

It is hard to find a good excuse for the 
continued dullness in the building line, with 
so much activity in other directions, unless 
it is the uncertainty existing as to whether 
the World's Fair will be held here. This 
question is to be determined by the voters at 
the coming election through the adoption or 
rejection of amendments to the city charter 
permitting the issuing of $5, 000,000 of bonds 
in aid of the Exposition, Congress having ap- 
propriated a similar amount conditional upon 
the city expending $10,000,000, the half of 
which it is expected to raise by subscription. 

Mr. T. S. McPheters has completed a cold 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



217 









TERRA— COTTA FIRE— PROOF CONSTRUCTION, FREE PUKLIC 

LIBRARY, NEWARK, N. J. 

Fire-proofing supplied by the Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick 

Company. 

Rankin & Kellogg, Architects. 

storage plant, fronting irpon both sides of Lewis 
Street, near O' Fallon Street, with a capacity of one 
million cubic feet. The building is six stories with a 
basement, and is connected with about two miles of 
main distributing pipe, through which it is intended 
to supply refrigeration to the commission houses. 
The ice plant has a capacity of 120 tons per day. 

Architect Isaac Taylor spent his vacation in Eu- 
rope, visiting the Paris Exposition before returning. 

Mr. T. B. Annan has been appointed chief 
draughtsman and Arthur Ellicott assistant on the 
new City Hospital by building commissioner Charles 
F. Longfellow, the ordinance providing for the erec- 
tion of the building requiring that the commissioner 
make the plans and superintend the construction. 

The competition for the new building for the 
Bank of Commerce resulted in the selection of Mr. 



Taylor's design; those sub- 
mi t t i n g drawings being 
Messrs. Eames & Young, 
Isaac Taylor, W. A. Swasey, 
T. C. Link, and Albert 
Knell. 



NOTES FROM DE- 
TROIT. 



Four years ago building- 
operations in Detroit were 
at the lowest ebb. This 
year and this month they 
are probably pretty near 
their zenith. Buildings are- 
going up everywhere, and 
though operations are es- 
pecially active in residence 
work, there are quite a few 
" holes in the ground " from 
which store, office, and fac- 
tory buildings are rising. A 
few interesting buildings are 
nearing completion : The 
Eastern High School, which 
when completed will cost 
$175,000, of which Malcom- 
son cV Higginbotham are 
architects ; the office building 
for Berry brothers, cost $35,- 
000, and a residence for Mr. 
Wm. M. Finck by architect 
George D. Mason. All of 
these buildings are of brick, 

stone, and terra-cotta, and among the best things, archi- 
tecturally, in the city. 

There have been, and are being, held some interest- 
ing competitions for important work. The plans for the 
Aquarium and Horticultural Building, on Belle Isle, to 
cost $100,000, are about to be placed in the hands of an 




THE GRAY- DUDLEY BUI I D 

ING, NASHVILLE, 

TENN. 

Built of gray standard brick, made 

by the Columbus Brick and 

Terra-Cotta Company. 




SEMI— DETACHED HOUSES, LOUISVILLE, KY. 

Brick supplied by the Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company. 
.Mason Maury, Architect. 



2l8 



T II E BRICKBTI L D E R 




Hakkv Leslie Walker. 



Lewis M. Lawri wci . 



The accompanying drawings of brick cornices are the result of the weekly exercise in design given the class in History of Ornament, at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. It was required to use molded bricks only where necessary, keeping as far as possible to bricks of regular shape. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



219 










CHURCH OF " OUR LADY OF MERCY," BROAD STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. EDWIN F. DURANG, AR- 
CHITECT. 
Roofed with Celadon Roofing Tile supplied by O. W. Ketcham, 
Agent, Philadelphia. 

expert jury, and the outcome is eagerly awaited by some 
dozen architects who have submitted drawings. The 
competition for the Maccabee Temple has resulted in an 
amusing fluke. The committee, after deciding that archi- 
tect George D. Mason had " by far the best plan " and 
that " the others were not in it," agreed to disagree over 
the elevations submitted by Mr. Mason and by Malcom- 
son & Higginbotham, and after a battle of words, 
lasting three hours, finally decided to employ both 
parties jointly to carry out a design. Messrs. George D. 
Mason and Malcomson & Higginbotham are, therefore, 




tITTT T r T _„J.' **"*? — .„-* ^^ -~— ~- *?*? 




imnii 





UPPER PORTION STORE AND OFFICE BUILDING, INDIAN- 
APOLIS, IND. VONNEGUT & BOHN, ARCHITECTS. 
Terra-Cotta made by the Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Company. 




DETAIL ON POST-OFFICE BUILDING, NEWPORT, KV. 
Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

associated architects on this building, which will cost 
about $160,000. 

George D. Mason and Alpheuse W. Chittenden are 
associated on some additions and changes to the interior 




DETAIL EXECUTED IN TERRA-COTTA BY AMERICAN TERRA- 
COTTA AND CERAMIC COMPANY. 

of the Masonic Temple, and Mr. Mason and Col. James 
M. Wood are associated in designing the new Empire 
Theater in Pittsburgh, which will cost $300,000. In archi- 
tectural excellence, appointments, and conveniences it 

9 




PANEL BY ALBERT W. DILKS, ARCHITECT. 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

will surpass any theater of its class in America. It will 
be Empire in style, will have one balcony but no gallery, 
and will seat 2,500 people. 



IN GENERAL. 
On September 29, a meeting was held in Toledo, 
Ohio, for the purpose of organizing the Toledo Archi- 




ORNAMENT FOR CROWN OF WINDOW. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 



220 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



t e c t u r a 1 

Sketch C lul). 
The following 
officers w e r e 
elected : Presi- 
dent, W. A. 
Stevens; vice- 
p r e s i d e n t. 
Frank Hall; 
secretary and 
t r e a sure r, 
G e o r g e I!. 
Rhine. It was 
deci d e d t o 
a p p 1 y for 
membership in 
the Architectu- 
ral League of 
America. 

The Atlanta 
T Square Club 
was organized 
recently w i t h 
twelve charter 
members, who 
represent t h e 
most progres- 



i 01 l M \, HENRY 
I., o I I E N- 
HEIMER, AK 
rill I EC I . 
North w <- s i ern 
'I - i r a-C o 1 1 a 
1 o m p a n y , 
makers, 




DETAIL BY CLINTON >v RUSSELL, ARCH! 

TKC 1 S. 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 
makers. 

sive draughtsmen and young architects 
in the southern metropolis. 



MISCELLANE- 
OUS ITEMS. 

T h e Standard 
Terra-Cotta Works 

a t Perth Amboy, 
X. J., h a V e re- 
sumed business. 

The terra-cotta 

used in the n e w 
Union Station at 
Dayton. < >hio, i 1- 
lustrations of 
which a r e p u b- 
lished in the plate- 
f o r m for this 
number, was made 
by the St. Louis 
Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany. 

The Hartford 
Faience Company, 

Hartford, Conn., 
h a v e opened an 
office in New York 
at i i j ; I! road way. 
R. B. Eves is in 
charge. 



Mr. W. D. Richardson, superin- 
tendent at the plant of the ( >hio Min- 
ing and Manufacturing Company at 
Shawnee. Ohio, gives substantial 
evidence of his thorough knowledge 




of the burnt-clay business in all its phases, in the new 
book issued by that company, and edited by him, en- 
titled "Manual for Brickbuilders. " Within its covers 
there is contained a fund of information relating to the 
manufacture and use of burnt clay, especially brick, 
which will make it a valuable addition to the technical 
library of any architect or builder. The price of the 
work "has been set at fifty cents, but. undoubtedly, it will 
he sent without charge to those who have been, or are 
likely to be, patrons of the company. 

The National Fire-proofing Company have received 
the contract for the new Atlantic Mutual Insurance 
Building, Wall and William Streets, New York City, 
Clinton & Russell, architects. 

The Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company are 
furnishing their salt and' pepper gray bricks for the new 









i I )l I \IN, OSCAR L. 

McMURRY, AH 

CHITEC l . 
St. Louis Terra-Cotta 
Ci impany, makers. 



in i VILS n\ I . l.< IRGE B. ROGERS, \Ki llllh I . 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

Union Station at Columbia. S. ('.. frank P. Milhurn, 
architect; also for the new City Hall at Columbia. 

The Ludowici Roofing Tile Company, Chicago, has 

issued an interesting pamphlet in which is illustrated 
many new railway stations which have been roofed with 

their tile. These illustrations are of stations l>y Frost 
& Granger, Walker & Kimball, W. T. Krausch, bass 
Gilbert, Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, and C. A. Reed. 

architects. 

THE ATELIER FITZWILLIAM, AUDITORIUM 
BUILDING, CHICAGO, 

C* I VES each month twenty-five cash prizes, aggregat- 
j ing $145, for the best designs in an architectural 
sketch competition. At the close of each month a list of 
tlie names and addresses of prize winners are sent to each 
competitor, together with a critical comment on the faults 
and merits of his own design. Any one can enter these 
competitions for ,xi per month. Write for program of 
November competition, "A Two-story Oriel." We 

reserve the right to retain any or all of the prize de- 
signs, and when satisfactory reproductions of these are 
obtainable, a series of them will be sent to each competi- 
tor also. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

NOVEMBER, 
1900. 




< 






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Pi 

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d 
j 

X 

O 
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1—1 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed fiat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ....... #6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

,, Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE Thirty-fourth Annual Convention of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects is to be held in Wash- 
ington, D. C, Dec. 12, 13, 14, and 15. It is doubtful 
whether one American citizen in a thousand is aware of 
the fact that by December 12 it will be exactly one hun- 
dred years since the city of Washington was occupied as 
the seat of government, and the public festivities con- 
nected with the celebration of this anniversary will con- 
stitute an introduction to the convention. A very attrac- 
tive program has been laid out. Among many others, 
two especially fertile themes for discussion are to be in- 
troduced. Mr. R. Clipston Sturgis is to present a report 
as chairman of a committee of conference with the Archi- 
tectural League of America on "Competition, Codes, 
and Cooperation." The relative positions of the Institute 
and League have been discussed and closely considered 
during the past year, especially so at the enthusiastic 
meeting of the Architectural League of America, which 
was held in Chicago in June. It is very easy to miscon- 
ceive the functions of either association, and the ardor 
which is so desirable a factor in all forms of organized 
endeavor can easily overestimate both the good and the 
undesirable qualities which go to make the total ef- 
ficiency of such bodies as these. The Architectural 
League represents a distinctive phase of American archi- 
tectural development. As such it is to be encouraged 



in every way, and is deserving of the support and 
sympathy of all who are interested in the growth of an 
honest, intelligent, and growing architecture. On the 
other hand, the Institute represents the conservative 
force, which is quite as essential as enthusiasm ; it repre- 
sents the restraining influence, without which zeal comes 
to naught, and it must always be remembered that with- 
out the long weary years of seemingly fruitless attempts 
that have marked the past of the Institute, such an 
organization as the Architectural League of America 
would not have been possible. We cannot personally 
feel that there is the slightest interference of field, or 
lack of most hearty cooperative sympathy between these 
two bodies, and the forthcoming discussion at the con- 
vention ought to be able to present the facts in such 
light that the two can be mutually benefited thereby. We 
need both elements. The American Institute cannot 
spare from its ranks the young men who have done such 
good work for the League. It is an honor for both to be 
associated. The results of the discussion, which Mr. 
Sturgis' report, we hope, will arouse, ought to be produc- 
tive of lasting good to both the Institute and the junior 
society. 

Another topic promises to be extremely interesting: 
"The Grouping of Government Buildings, Landscape, 
and Statuary in Washington," with an introduction by 
Mr. Joseph C. Hornblower of Washington, and papers 
by C. Howard Walker, Edgar V. Seeler, H. K. Bush- 
Brown, and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., followed by a 
discussion in which Wm. A. Boring, of New York, D. H. 
Burnham, of Chicago, Cass Gilbert, of New York, and 
Edward B. Green, of Buffalo, are expected to participate. 
This is an array of architectural talent which, when 
brought to bear upon a subject of this importance, is 
pretty sure to bring out many excellent ideas, and there 
certainly is abundant room for improvement in the 
present methods of grouping the buildings at Wash- 
ington. Tibs country is slowly, but, we trust, surely 
growing into an appreciation of the necessity for intelli- 
gent direction of its public buildings and highways, and 
in this connection we hope the Institute will see fit to 
take some action in regard to the proposed addition to 
the White House, which, if we may take the word of our 
contemporary journals, is being conceived in a manner 
calculated to greatly mar the beauty and effectiveness 
of the executive mansion. 



THE various brick companies of New England are 
about to unite for the better management and con- 
trol of the trade, and it seems a lit moment to urge the 



222 



THE B RICK B 1'ILD E R 



advisability of a uniform standard of size for common 
brick. All older countries have seen the advisability of 
this, and have long ago established brick dimensions, 
which are closely adhered to throughout the country, but 

our brick-makers have merely a nominal size, which is in 
practice varied at will. The earliest brick made in this 
country followed the size then common in England, and 
when economy fixed on a slightly larger dimension, we 
did not fix a standard as England did, but allowed each 
firm to make such slight variations as it wished. The size 
was evidently regulated by the size and weight which a 
man could most readily handle all day long. The small 
brick of the eighteenth century were hardly a handful, 
and, consequently, were not economical, for the small 
size did not allow a man to lay a greater number in a daw 
The present dimension is about the extreme in size and 
weight which a man can handle quickly. The Dutch 
brick and the English brick are j'j by () ins. The 
Dutch is about _''( ins. in thickness, while the English is 
j ' 4 ins. ( >ur brick are supposed to be 4 by X ins., and vary 
from j 1 , to :>'_• ins. in thickness. The important propor- 
tion of header to stretcher is very carefully maintained 
everywhere but here; two headers and a joint equal 
one stretcher. Here hardly a common brick in the 
country can be found to answer this simple requirement. 
The pressed brick arc naturally far more accurate, and, 
therefore, we find that common brick, neither bond nor 
course true with face brick. The objections to this 
looseness of dimension are twofold. From the builder's 
point of view, it makes it extremely difficult to lay any of 
the usual bonds with common brick, and yet present a 
wall which shall be workmanlike and sightly, with head- 
ers and stretchers aligning accurately. Such bonds as 
the English, or the English cross bond — that which is 
in gerieral use in Holland - are quite impossible, as two 
headers and a joint must make a stretcher in this bond. 
The difference in size between common and face brick has 
led to various expedients more or less questionable for ob- 
taining bond. blind bond, now pretty generally discoun- 
tenanced, was once common enough. Wire ties have 
been used largely as a complete substitute for bond. 
This latter may be constructionally quite as good as a 
brick bond; but certainly from the architect's point of 
view, the bond which frankly reveals itself on the out- 
side, shows the good construction, and gives architect 
and bricklayer a chance to show variety in design and 
skill in execution is preferable to the wall composed en- 
tirely of stretchers, which, however strong, will always 
look like a 4-in. skin. It is almost needless to say what 
every right-minded designer or honest bricklayer ought 
to think of that whited sepulcher. so often seen to-day, 
— Flemish bond, composed of stretchers and batts. 
From the architect's point of view, it is not only the Ci 
as stated above, but there is also the annoyance of being 
unable to draw or figure accurately until he has ascer- 
tained the exact dimensions of the brick to be used. It 
would certainly be an advantage for the New England 
brick industry if they could now establish a uniform 
brick in true proportion. Such a brick, produced at the 
usual prices (or perhaps one may expect lower prices as 
the result of this trust), would certainly command the 
market here, and might perhaps be the pioneer in estab- 
lishing a general uniform standard. 



THE HILL OF POSILIPO, NEAR NAPLES, 

ITALY. 

Till-: BRICKBUILDER presents this month as its 
frontispiece a view of the historic hill of l'osilipo 
and tile coast road leading to it from Naples. Few large 
cities are surrounded' by such beautiful and storied 
scenery as is the picturesque metropolis of southern Italy. 
From the earliest times these shores have been the abode 
of seekers after repose and health as well as of humble 
toilers by land and sea, and the vine-clad slopes have 
sheltered palace and villa as well as hut and farm. 

The hill of Posilipo, just west of and adjacent to the 
city proper, is a characteristic example of the country 
bordering on the bay of Naples, l'osilipo derives its 
name from I'ausilypon (sattS-SOUci), the villa of the noto- 
rious epicure, Ycdius Pollio, afterwards the property of 
Augustus, which was gradually extended to the whole 
hill. It is covered with villages and charming vineyards, 
reached by long, sloping roads, from which late in the 
afternoon the most entrancing views are to be had of the 
magnificent hay with its islands, and the smoky cone of 
Vesuvius flanked by the more distant mountains of 
Sorrento. Popular tradition assigns a Roman colum- 
barium in the vineyards above the old road as the tomb 
of Virgil. A satisfactory historical foundation is wanting 
to this assertion, but probabilities favor the assumption 
that this is, indeed, the poet's last resting-place. He 
himself informs us that he here composed the "Georgics" 
and the "Jbieid." and he certainly possessed a villa on 
the l'osilipo, and by his express wish was buried here 
after his death at lirundisium [Brittdisi) in 1:. c. 1 <> on his 
return from ('.recce. Petrarch is said to have visited 
this spot accompanied by King Robert, and to have 
planted a laurel. 

The S/nri/ir NllOVa di Posilipo. shown in the illustration, 
starts from the Mergellina, at the west end of Naples, a 
locality that will be remembered as the abode of the 
fisher-folk, with whom Lamartine mentions dwelling in 
his story of " Graziella." 

It at first skirts the coast, and then gradually ascends 
in windings around the southern slope of the hill, finally 
descending in the direction of Pozzuoli. On the left, 
jutting into the sea, are the picturesque seventeenth 
century ruins of the unfinished Palazzo *!' Donn' Anna, 
also mentioned by Lamartine as one of his favorite rest- 
ing-places. Farther up are the famous " Grottos " or 
tunnels, and just beyond the headland, shown in the 
engraving, are the scattered ruins of the villa of Ycdius 
Pollio, extending to the sea and now overgrown with 
broom and myrtle. Nearer the town are the fish ponds 
where the cruel Ycdius was in the habit of feeding large 
lampreys with flesh of his slaves. Here, also, is a small 
theater which belonged to a villa of Lucullus, and a 
temple where mariners sacrificed after a prosperous 
voyage. The entire landscape with its myrtles, olives, 
and stone pines seems saturated with the spirit of classi- 
cal mythology and romance; and from the long upper 
stretches of the road looking down over the villas and 
gardens to the broad expanse of the bay, little imagina- 
tion is needed to people it with the fleets of Roman 
triremes from near-by Miscnum and the pleasure galleys 
of the luxurious magnates who dwelt upon its curving 
shores. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



223 



Byzantine Brickbuilding. I. 

BY H. K. PENNELL. 

7"*HE term " Byzantine " is rightly applied to the style 
of architecture in vogue in Byzantium, the modern 
Constantinople, early in the Christian era. But to sup- 
pose it originated in or was confined to Constantine's new 
capital is to deny the process of evolution, which is as 
apparent in architectural as in physical growth. It was 
the product of environment and circumstance. Spring- 
ing up in the city that was for a while to take Rome's 
place as the seat of the world's wealth and power, it was 
influenced by the classic traditions of Greece and Rome; 
while all the art of the Orient — Syria, Persia, even 
India — was brought to enrich and beautify it. For 
Byzantium was on the thoroughfare of commerce, and 
merchants, as well as artists and artisans, of both East 
and West flocked to the growing metropolis. Through 
this same channel of commerce Oriental art had already 
travelled to Ravenna, when under Justinian it became the 
residence of the Byzantine governor of Italy, and where 
we find some of the best examples of Byzantine architec- 
ture and decoration. Thence this potent influence spread 
to Venice and northern Italy, and even to southern 
France. To Sicily, also, it was carried from Constanti- 
nople by way of the Mediterranean. It is the official 
style in Russia and Turkey to-day. 

It is by no means a difficult matter, then, to analyze 
the Byzantine style and trace it to its origins. The use 




cloister 01 



APPOI.LINARE, NUOVO, RAVENNA. 



and development of the dome is, of course, its chief 
characteristic. We find its precedent in Asia Minor and 
Syria, where, as is evident in the ruins of Palmyra and 
Baalbec, the tendency for some time had been to substi- 
tute curves for straight lines, and arcades for lentils. In 



Rome the dome was familiar as a feature of the Pantheon 
and the Baths of Caracalla. Roman, likewise, was the use 
of marble and mosaics in the treatment of the wall spaces 




is f s ^liffiP 






, 




Mm te&&-™. 





CLOISTER OF ST. APPOLLINARE, NUOVO, RAVENNA. 

Sketch by II. B. Pennell. 

and pavements. To the East, again, is due the fondness 
for brilliant coloring and for ornamenting broad surfaces 
with "all-over" patterns. It must not be supposed, 
however, that Byzantine architects were mere copyists. 
On the contrary, their adaptive power and perseverance 
in working out their own problems of construction made 
their art so unique as to be almost original. If they 
adopted the vaulting methods and materials of their 
Asiatic contemporaries, or if they l'eceived from Rome a 
suggestion for the foundation of their constructive prin- 
ciples, — that of using isolated supports to receive the 
weight, and internal buttresses to resist the thrust of 
their vaults and domes, — it was simply that they might 
accomplish the perfection of the dome on pendentives 
over a square plan, which was their chief triumph. The 
Pantheon is round ; many Syrian buildings of the sixth 
centurv are polygonal; in the cathedral at Bozrah and 
the small church of St. George at Ezra there are at- 
tempts at pendentive construction. It is in Byzantine 
churches that we first find a successful application of 
the dome to square or cruciform plans having piers and 
columns, or aisles, the Byzantine's nearest approach to 
the traditional basilica] form especially suited to the 
usages of Christian worship. 

With this brief review of the origin of Byzantine archi- 
tecture we can study its growth ; its constructive and deco- 
rative methods in general, and in detail, as applied in some 
familiar extant monuments; and its culmination in Jus- 
tinian's masterpiece, the church oi Santa Sophia in Con- 
stantinople, the type par excellence of the Byzantine style. 



- 2 4 



T II E B RICKBIML I) E R 



Following the precedent of both Syrian and Roman 
builders, the Byzantines adopted brick as their chief 
material, it being peculiarly adapted to the molding of 
vaults and domes. Not only in Constantinople, but 
generally in the East, bricks were used profusely. In 
fact, Texier says that even in countries where stone is 
plentiful, architects seem to have preferred bricks to all 
other materials. The church of St. Nicholas at Myra, in 
Lycia, is built almost entirely of bricks. Fine building 
st< me was not quarried nearer to Constantinople than in 
the islands of the Greek archipelago, where to-day the 
Turks obtain a large part of the materials cor their public 
buildings and residences at 1'era. In the early days of 
tlie- rapid renovation of Byzantium, the transportation of 
stone in large quantities from such a distance involved 
great expense and the loss of much valuable time. On 
the other hand, good brick material was easily available : 
the shores of the Golden Horn still furnish excellent 
clayey soil for the manufacture of bricks. These were 
made after the Roman pattern, but more carefully, and 
were larger and better burnt. An especially firm mortar 
Containing particles of broken tiles was used, and laid in 
joints scarcely less thick than the bricks themselves. 
Professor Atchison in his lecture on " Byzantine Con- 
struction" [Architectural Record, June 30, [893), says: 
'• This mortar is called by Yitruvius opus signinum, and 



of many stone Structures. Tin- use of cut stone in vaults, 
however, is not uncommon, and piers destined to bear 
especially heavy weights were often made of stone and 
strengthened by wooden ties clamped with iron. A 




ST. \ I 1 \l E, R \vh\\ \. 



was used as a hydraulic cement, and partly as a material 
to resist heat. It is still used throughout Macedonia, and 
is now called " Khorassan " work. The Byzantines pre- 
ferred their lime made from marble, but used limestone 
when marble was difficult to get or too expensive t<> use." 
Whereas the Romans used rubble faced with brick, ashlar, 
or freestone, the Byzantines, as a rule, preferred brick 
throughout in their walls and piers, and for the vaulting 




• 



- I . VITALE, RAVENNA. 

li by H. H. IVnmll. 

familiar feature of Byzantine exteriors is the alternation 
of courses of brick and stone, notably in Santa Sophia. 
' otherwise, the exteriors are rather unsightly, being devoid 
of even the gracious light and shade afforded by external 
buttresses, and art' scarcely a fitting case for the wealth 
and splendor which they enclose. 

Upon their interiors the Byzantines spared no ex- 
pense or labor. The}' were marvels of color and design, 
and almost baffle description. Panels of rare marbles, 
cut in slabs and set so as t<> repeat or reverse the course 
of the veins and form symmetrical patterns, veneered the 
walls. The domes and vaults above their springing were 
covered with fresco, or, more frequently, with many- 
tinted mosaics on gold, blue, or green backgrounds of 
exquisite hue, which continually remind us that the 
< (rientals are greater colorists than we. Biblical scenes 
and characters were represented. The colossal saints and 
allegorical personages here and there betray the unaccus- 
tomed hand; for the skill to draw the human form was 
Ion,-' uncultivated, through the intolerance in the Christian 
church of anything suggestive of pagan gods. The stone 
soffits of the arches, the archivolts, and spandrils are 

relieved of all appearance of heaviness by the delicate 

tracery of incised acanthus, or conventional forms. The 
capitals, whose inverted pyramidal outlines and massive 
proportions were well calculated to bear the weight rest- 
ing on them, suggest rarely, if at all, the classic orders, 
but show Syrian influence in their minute carving; and 
rudely drawn birds or animals, and the cross and mono- 
grams, are frequent motives of their decoration. The 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



225 



columns themselves were highly polished monoliths of 
marble, often brought over the seas from some demol- 
ished pagan temple in Rome. No attempt was made to 
follow classic traditions in the moldings, which, instead, 
were mere horizontal bands, or, when they marked the 




CAPITAL FROM ST. VITALE, RAVENNA. 

separate stories, cornices of richly carved marble. The 
pavements were of marble in designs formed of single 
pieces of color, or of small geometrical figures carefully 
fitted together. 

In all this the architects of the New Empire profited 
from the work in Syria, or the monuments still preserved 
to them in Rome. In one important particular their art 
is a distinct departure from the Roman, and this serves 
as the line of separation between the two. It was in the 
matter of the construction of vaults. In Rome, light 
wooden ribs or centers were first built, and these were 
enclosed in a network of brick filled in with rubble in 
horizontal beds; the whole was then incrusted with con- 
crete. The vault was thus practically monolithic and 
exerted no thrust. Tne Byzantines, on the other hand, 
after the manner of the ancient Assyrian drain-builders 
aimed to so dispose their materials that they could build 
up their vaults without centerings, practically "in the 
air," as M. Choisy remarks. This was, of course, not 
achieved all at once, but was a development which we 
can trace, though somewhat haltingly, through the con- 
tinual experiments of the centuries. 

The distinct Roman method is apparent in the great 
dome of the Pantheon, built in Hadrian's time. The 
basilica of Maxentius, vaulted by Constantine, and the 
Baths of Diocletian show a similar method, but are 
the last in Italy. At Spalato, in Dalmatia, Diocletian's 
palace approaches somewhat nearer the Byzantine style. 
The vault was built on rows of arches superimposed, the 



spandrils of one row serving to support the springing of 
the next higher. In the two latter buildings we find the 
first indications of other Byzantine characteristics in the 
full-centered arch with the entablature carried round as 
an archivolt instead of a pediment, and heavy moldings. 
After the fourth century we find few examples of the 
thick monolithic Roman vault. 

The parting of the ways between ancient and modern 
Roman construction came early in the fifth century, when 
Bishop Neon introduced from the far East the vault of 
such extreme lightness as to be scarcely more than a 
form to receive the rich garment of mosaics. At the 
same time, circular and polygonal plans, already in 
favor in Syria and used especially in baptisteries like 
that of St. John at Ravenna, were generally reproduced 
both in Constantinople and Italy. Henceforth, the 
problem was emphatically how to erect a hemispherical 
dome over other than a circular plan. The earliest solu- 
tion was to cut off the corners of a square and corbel out 
the pendentives; but an octagon was found to be an 
awkward base. Squinches were used on squares, or 
conches, as in St. Nicodemus and Daphne at Athens. In 
the West the Renaissance architects at Sta. Fosca, Parma, 
and Piacenza resorted to the same device. Justinian 
covered his octagonal church of St. Sergius and Bacchus 
at Constantinople by a circular dome with flutes whose 
points act as ribs, while the rounding parts of the flutes 
coincide with the angles of the walls. A similar experi- 
ment had been tried more than two hundred years earlier 
in the octagonal hall of the Baths of Diocletian. 

These various expedients were merely stepping-stones 
on the highway to the greatest Byzantine achievement, 
that of using true pendentives to fill the triangular spaces 
between the arches on the four sides of a square, and 
erecting the dome on the circular base thus formed. We 
find a primitive example of this solution of the problem 
in the little brick Tomb of Galla Placidia, in Ravenna, 




I \ Mill \ih I Komi |. , VTHENS. 

built in the middle of the fifth century. It lias the form 
of a Greek cross, with barrel vaults over the four arms 
and a spherical dome on pendentives over the crossing. 

An irregularity occurs here, however, in that the dome 
does not spring directly from the top of the arches, and 
the pendentives do not show to good advantage. The 
walls are carried up several feet above the arches, and a 



'.2(y 



THE BRICKRUILDER 



sort of clearstory window — if one may borrow the term — 
is pierced in each one. On the exterior the form of the 
dome does not appear, as it does in Oriental buildings, 
the tiled roof being, instead, a low pyramid in shape. 

To (ialla Placidia, also, is attributed the construction 
of the church of St. Aquilinus in Milan, having an oc- 
tagonal dome of brick on an eight-sided plan. Besides 
affording us much interest as examples of early Byzantine 




TOMB 01 «. \ l I \ l'l ICIDIA, R wi-.w \. 

construction, these two buildings, together with the Bap- 
tistery at Ravenna, show an exterior decorative treatment 
that was later to distinguish the Lombard style. In the 
Tomb, blind arches ornament the exterior ; in the Baptis- 
tery is found a system of double arches carried on corbels 
and wall-pilasters; and in St. Aquilinus there was a gal- 
lery of arches springing from isolated supports, such as 
are familiar to us now on the Cathedral at l'iaeen/.a, built 
nearly seven centuries later. 

The interior of the Tomb, as is to be expected, pre- 
sents a pleasing contrast to the monotony of the exterior. 
One must imagine the bare brick walls once lined with 
marble to the Springing of the arches; the mosaics on a 

background of deep blue, representing figures, birds, and 
animals on the tlat walls, and conventional patterns on 
the vaults; the borders of flowers and fruit in red and 
green and gold outlining the soffits and archivolts; the 
dome of blue, starred with gold, and the gold symbols of 
the four evangelists on the pendentives; these all make 
an ensemble of pleasing harmony. A rather more ambi- 
tious scheme of decoration is carried out in the dome of 
the baptistery, where around a medallion, picturing the 
baptism of Christ, stand the twelve apostles in white 
tunics and mantles of gold. Their proportions scarcely 
follow the "canon of Polyclitus," but there is at least a 
commendable attempt at individualization in their coun- 
tenances, and no little movement in their figures. 
Arabesques, which M. Taine calls coarse, cover the walls. 
The dome is supported by two rows of arcades, whose 
columns and capitals are so varied and ill-assorted as to 
warrant the conclusion that they were appropriated from 
pagan temples. 

The Baptistery is connected with San Vitale, and also 
with the chapel of St. Satyrius in Milan, by the peculiar 
construction of its dome. In each case the dome is built 
up of two layers of hollow pots of terra-cotta, the pointed 
end of one being inserted into the larger end of another, 



carried round spirally from the top of the pendentives to 
the summit of the dome. The domes are thus very 
strong, but light and without thrust. This method is 
still practised in the East, varied occasionally by laying 
the pots as voussoirs. 

Of the church of San Vitale, M. Taine ("Voyage en 
Italic," p. 221 et seq.) says: •• It was built under Justinian, 
and to-day, although marred on the exterior and miser- 
ably repainted within, torn down in some parts, and in 
others built up with inharmonious additions, it is still 
the most Byzantine of all the churches in the West. It 
has a peculiar construction, and represents a new type of 
architecture as far removed from Greek ideas as from 
Gothic. The edifice is a rotunda surmounted by a 
cupola through which light is admitted. Around the 
outside runs a circular gallery in two stories, composed 
of seven smaller half-domes, and the eighth, being more 
spacious, is an apse which contains the altar. . . . To 
support the dome, eight huge polygonal pillars joined by 
round arches form a circle, and columns in pairs till the 
Spaces between. The effect is strange, and the eye. 
accustomed to following a succession of columns, is 
astonished here by the interruptions, by the fantastic 
variety of outlines, by the straight lines cut by the curve 




INTERIOR 



i ! \ I I \ l'l AC'IDIA, k \\ I'.NN \. 



of the vaults. . . . The capitals of the piers and columns 

are covered with clumsy flowers and a coarse network ; . . . 
the elegant Corinthian capital is deformed . . . till it is 
merely a complication of barbarous designs." The 
mosaics are familiar to every one; the Empress Theodora 
and her ladies bearing offerings are ranged on one side 
of the apse, and the Emperor Justinian with his warriors 
and priests on the other. These are considered the rich- 
est of all the Byzantine mosaics, resplendent as they are 
with gold and precious stones. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



:27 



The "Village Bank" Series. II. 

BY LOUIS MULUiARDT. 

IT is comparatively recent that banking institutions 
have been looked upon by the populace at large as a 
matter of primary necessity in every well-established 
community. Every hamlet or village containing a modest 
population, numbering from three to five thousand souls 
or over, has its peculiar requirements and characteristics, 
which are the natural offspring of its social and industrial 
life. 

The familiar village has its churches of various 
denominations, also its schoolhouses, town hall, library, 
museum, theater, or music hall, aside from a variety of 
business houses and residences. Sometimes a village is 
endowed with some special industry peculiarly its own, 
and of sufficient magnitude or importance to the world 
to characterize the locality. 



mercial center of that territory. In such instances, the 
village occupies the important and undisputed position 
of mart to that industrial section; it is the port of com- 
merce in which the townspeople are chiefly engaged in 
providing economical means of exportation of the local 
product, and importing the commodities which constitute 
the natural demand of every well-regulated community. 

The result is, that we generally find in any single sec- 
tion or territory of commercial activity three distinct 
classifications of co-workers, consisting of the employers, 
who, by virtue of their position in life, properly officiate 
in the capacity of owners and financiers, sharing and dis- 
tributing the direct financial returns resulting from their 
industries; secondly, we find the industrial class, who 
represent the intellectual and physical force required to 
execute any marketable commodity. The third class is 
represented by the merchants and general business men, 
who are the immediate officers and agents conducting 




*<* * * * * _„► ' " • n .A * A % 



*^\ '* U g :4 % & 4 & i I /<***! * K ft * * • % 



-.~rf 





A VII.I.AOK HANK. 



Then, again, other villages are surrounded by large 
territories of industrial fields producing coal or fine ore ; 
otherwise, farm-lands producing fruits or cereals. The 
industrial surroundings or local conditions are the direct 
source from which any village is likely to receive its 
greatest endowments from a standpoint of riches. 

There is another class of village which is not endowed 
with industrial life, nor stimulated into activity by the 
inspiration produced by surrounding fields of nature's 
own products; such villages do not, as a rule, find then- 
way into the channels of commerce; they do not, strictly 
speaking, assume any of the characteristics of an indus- 
trial community, and may generally be classed as the 
home of the urbanite. 

In certain sections of every civilized country or State 
where special industries prosper and flourish, we will, 
as a rule, find an exceptional activity prevailing in the 
village nearest adjoining, and properly forming the corn- 



exports and imports, subject to the natural demands of 
a community. Each class has its special work to per- 
form, through which it produces its revenues; each class 
has its local or foreign expenses, and its surplus (provid- 
ing that the community is properly regulated). 

All surplus funds generally seek some form of more 
or less permanent investment, and all moneys not other- 
wise engaged usually find their way to the village de- 
pository, which, by the way, is intended to be the principal 
theme of my remarks. 

The predominating industrial interests of various vil- 
lages are likely to be considerably diversified in their 
nature; however the case may prove to be, the result 
will still present itself approximately identical, in the 
main, to the one related heretofore, and whatever the 
direct source of income to any one community may be, 
the practical result should properly remain the same. 

In respect to the Storing away of surplus funds and 



228 



THE BRICKRUILDER. 



valuable papers, the antiquated methods of concealing 
the same in the earth, or in old chests and Strong boxes, 
are no longer as popular as they were some years ago; 
nor perhaps are featherbeds, stockings, and disused east- 
iron stoves in as general use as one might infer from the 
sad newspaper accounts which are frequently published. 

A bank is now regarded as essential in every thriving, 
prosperous community, and is quite as important an 
institution, in its way. as the church, schoolhouse, city 
hall, or public library. 

A bank is the most convenient institution forconduct- 
ingimportant financial affairs; also, for the safe-keeping 
of funds and valuable papers; for all of which it is 
highly essential that the vaults, likewise the moral 
character of the bank officials, be as strong and reliable 
as possible. It is at times, perhaps, to be regretted that 
the latter cannot be included in the architect's plans and 
specifications. 

The accompanying drawings are intended to illustrate 
the general requirements of a village bank. The gen- 
eral banking room is 
intended for con- 
ducting all banking 
affairs of a more or 
less public or gen- 
eral nature. The 
same should be pro- 
vided with a tile or 
mosaic floor, and 
wainscoted with a 
similar material to a 
reasonable height, so 
that the room may 
be easily kept clean. 
The room should be 
provided with public 
seats and writing 
desks; the furniture 
and fittings should 
l>e so arranged as to 
meet any special re- 
quirements of the 
management, or as 
some special exi- 
gency peculiarly 

adapted to the locality may dictate. Conveniently lo- 
cated to the public banking room, should lie the con- 
sultation room, where such private business and other 
matters requiring the special consideration of the 
officers in charge may take place. The directors' 
room, immediately back of the consultation room, is 
ordinarily used by the president as his private office, but 
is primarily intended for the convenience of holding 
board meetings. This room should be conveniently ac- 
cessible from the general banking room; it may some- 
times be found desirable to separate this room from all 
other apartments by glass partitions only, admitting of 
ready surveillance of all other departments. 

The vault may properly be considered the most im- 
portant part of the institution, since it is impossible to 
conduct a banking business with reasonable safety and 
economy without an efficient stronghold as a depository 
of valuables. These vaults are usually constructed 




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\ VILLAGE BANK. 



of heavy masonry, surrounding a shell lining of steel. 
The most modern vault, however, is constructed of 
armor steel plates, such as are used on our war vessels. 
including the top and bottom, and have all corners dove- 
tailed together. The vault door is made proportionately 
Strong and secure, and supported on adjustable anti- 
friction hangers, and provided with an approved time- 
locking device. The interior should be arranged into 
steel subdivisions especially designed for keeping the 
banking books, records, moneys, valuable papers, and 
sometimes jewelry. 

The entire banking room should be flooded with a 
soft light penetrating the building through a skylight 
panel properly set and supported by cross-beam con- 
struction. 

The windows of the banking room proper should serve 
chiefly as a means of ventilating and providing fresh 
breezes to the working department, and should not 
be required for the purpose of securing additional 
light. 

Proper means 
must be provided 
for convenient access 
t<> the basement, 
both for the purpose 
of attending to the 
heating apparatus, 
and as a means of 
access to so m e 
Storage departments 
which may properly 
be provided within 
the foundation 
walls. 

Provision should 
also be made for 
the clerks' coats and 
hats, by means of 
separate lockers con- 
veniently situated to 
the toilet room ; the 
latter may properly 
be so located as to 
serve for both public 
and private use. 
It is quite essential that additional space should be 
provided for the filing away of old disused books and 
records; the space afforded by the foundation of the 
vault, properly lined, ventilated, and provided with metal 
doors, will readily fulfil this requirement. 

A certain portion of the basement should also be set 
aside as a store room for the safe-keeping of silverware 
and other valuable articles, which may be conveniently 
stored there during temporary absence of any of the 
townspeople. 

The entire building should properly be of fire-proof 
construction, and contain a modern combination heating 
and ventilating apparatus. 

Referring again to the banking room proper, the 
genera] arrangement of the teller's and clerks' department 
is largely a matter of individual preference, since local 
conditions and personal requirement on the part of the 
management must govern these points. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



229 



The "Village Inn" Series. 1 I. 

BY WILLIAM A. BATES. 

ABOUT twenty miles from Philadelphia there is a 
small, attractive town, which, during the past few 
years, has attained a remarkable growth, not only in a 
substantial way, but with a decided tendency towards the 
aesthetic as well, all of which reflects great credit upon 
the men of temerity who have founded their pretty 
homes for their families, which are easily accessible from 
the city, and which have the well-known suburban advan- 
tages of abundant air, shade trees, extensive lawns, and 
healthy surroundings. A feature of the town, not least in 
attractiveness, is the public square, which, although 
architecturally heterogeneous, is still very quaint and 



effective, more from the point of view of the artist, per- 
haps, than from that of the architect. 

The square is not square exactly (and is, I think, 
more picturesque on that account), and has surrounding 
it on three sides a group of buildings consisting of some 
shops, a modern town hall, decidedly Parisian in style, a 
parish church in English Perpendicular Gothic, and a very 
dignified old mansion of the Jeffersonian period. On the 
opposite side of the square, from the church and town 
hall, is a piece of property with a frontage of 300 ft. on 
the square, and extending back in an irregular shape 
some 800 ft. to the river. Now this property has been 
for many years used as farm land by the owner, a gentle- 
man of English birth, whose parents acquired it for a 
mere trifle, and who lived in the old mansion on the 
square. With the lapse of time and the growth of the 




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A VILLAGE INN. 



1 PROGRAM. 

The problem is a village inn to be located in a section of 
beautiful country some twenty miles out of Philadelphia. 
This inn is supposed to be for the accommodation of 
coaching and sleighing parties, bicyclists, and the best 
class of pleasure-seekers generally, and of a limited num- 
ber of permanent guests, who will use it as a kind of 
summer resort. The lot of land faces on a village square 
with a frontage of 300 ft., and reaches back in a rather 
steep slope to a small river available for boating and 
fishing. The land is supposed to have been formerly an 
ancient estate, and contains many large trees, an orchard, 
and shrubbery. The view across the river is supposed 
to be particularly attractive. The square is surrounded 
by various buildings,— a modern town hall, decidedly 
Parisian in style, a parish church in English Perpendicu- 
lar Gothic, an old mansion of the Jeffersonian period, 
and two blocks of low shops. 

In architectural style the inn should do its best to 
harmonize with its somewhat heterogeneous surround- 
ings, the material to be of brick and terra-cotta. The 
accommodations of the inn should be dependent on the 
purposes for which it is intended, entire liberty being 
left in the matter of size and nature of the rooms. The 
scheme should also involve the necessary stables and the 
accessory buildings. 



town, this piece of land has become valuable, and the 
owner, being a man of much common sense, has consulted 
with his architect as to ways and means for improving it 
and making it a source of revenue instead of sowing it with 
gold in taxes and reaping nothing; and the architect's 
views and ideas are set forth herewith in the form of 
plans and sketches, bearing in mind, of course, that the 
owner is a man of rare discretion, and whatever merit 
there may be in the scheme is due largely to his shrewd 
criticism and suggestions. 

The conclusion was reached without much delay that 
a typical " Village Inn " would be the right thing in the 
right place, as the town has no hotel and but few board- 
ing houses, and its nearness to the city together with the 
good macadam roads make it a popular Mecca for coach- 
ing and automobile parties, bicyclists, sleighing parties 
in winter, and the best class of pleasure-seekers generally, 
while a good place for permanent guests would surely 
prove remunerative. 

One of the owner's first and most urgent requests was 
that the building should follow the style of the English 
Renaissance, and he produced a photograph of a building 
in Huntingdonshire, with which he had become familiar 
in childhood, which he requested the architect to take as 
his motif. Fortunately, the style was not inappropriate, 
in fact, lends itself well in regard to plan to just such .111 



23° 



THE RRk'KR U ILDE R 




A VILLAGE INN. 



enterprise; and another of his requests <>r conditions, 
more urgent indeed than the first, was that the building 
should be built of brick and terra-cotta, for he had had 
some experience in building transactions, and had wisely 
concluded that in every way these materials were all that 
could be desired, either from the standpoint of economy, 
durability, or effectiveness. In connection with the 
planning of the building, the architect was also requested 
to suggest a scheme for developing the grounds and mak- 
ing them as attractive as possible for the guests. 

What attracted the architect to this estimable gentle- 
man, more than his genial personality or any other 



persona] qualification, was the fact that he did not set 

any limit to the cost of the building, although he had 

pretty definite ideas as to the number and size of rooms 
required; and the architect, on his part, refused, with 
many a gnawing pang, the temptation — which no archi- 
tect can be blamed for having — to affix to the building all 
the "architecture" which he knew or could trace. 
Therefore, together they evolved the building which is 
here illustrated, and which, although more pretentious 
perhaps than the average village inn, must be considered 
and criticized from the point of view of the l'hiladel- 
phians who are to use it. 





xcow rioou fikti- 



A VILLAGE INN. 



The general grouping of the buildings was deter- 
mined by their convenience and accessibility, and it will 
be seen that it would require but very few minutes to 
drive up to the front door, and then have horses and 
vehicles left in the adjacent stable yard until needed. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



231 



The main entrance is through a tiled porch which is 
on the axis of the street approaching- the square, on the 
opposite corners of which stand the church and town hall 
before mentioned. The feature of the ground floor is 
the large hall with wainscot and paneled beam ceiling of 
black oak in Elizabethan style. At the left of the 
entrance, separated from the hall by an arch, is the office, 




A VILLAGE INN. 

beyond which the massive staircase with perforated oak 
balustrade is plainly seen. There are two entrances 
from the hall to the tiled terraces, one being for the exclu- 
sive use of ladies, and in direct connection with their 
parlor and coat room. Occupying the southwest corner 
is the pool room, which commands a fine view of the 
grounds and of the tennis-court. The opposite angle 
contains the dining room, which, facing the south and 
opening upon the uncovered terrace, would always be 
cheerful and attractive. The kitchen department is 
completely isolated, and the servants' bedrooms are 
directly over it so that in perspective it will be seen that 
the kitchen wing is somewhat detached and subordinated 
from the main building. There is a separate drive for 
the use of supplies to the kitchen, and the stable yard 
and main driveway are reserved exclusively for the use 
of guests. The upper floors contain twenty-four large 
well-lighted bed rooms for guests, with abundant closets, 
toilet facilities, etc. ; in fact, it is the wish of the owner 
to spare no expense to make this building as comfortable 
and luxurious as possible. 



"The Brickbuilder" Competition IV. 

A CREMATORY. 

CRITICISM AM) AWARD I'.Y JOHN \V. CASE. 

THE program for crematory competition does not 
seem to have appealed to designers, possibly be- 
cause it is not a picturesque subject. The program is an 
academic one, classic in character, and possibly academic 
designers prefer to express themselves in plan and eleva- 
tion rather than in perspective. Picturesque subjects 
are much more apt to be interesting in perspective than 
academic ones. 

There is but one design, " Lombardy," submitted in 
the crematory competition that is fit for publication, and 
that one has, in elevation, very much the character of a 
monastery. 

In plan, however, it is unmistakably a crematory, as 
shown by the ambulatory arranged as a columbarium. 

The plan is academic, and shows the good results of 
academic training; it is simple and direct, arranged on 
axes, with easy access and no cramped relations between 
the parts. 

It is doubtful if the circling ambulatory adds any 








FIRST PRIZE DESIGN. 
Calvin Kiessling, Boston. 



-.1- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



note of beauty to the design as seen in near perspective 
from the back, unless the ground falls away sufficiently 
to give an imposing height. It enriches and adds to the 
interest of the plan, which otherwise might be somewhat 
meager 

It seems as though this circling ambulatory should 
lead to something of importance, and there is a distinct 
feeling of disappointment 
after walking about this 
semicircle and not meeting 
with anything of especial 
interest, which, perhaps, 
one would expect to find 
opposite the center axis of 
the chapel. 

T he d e s i g n e r 1 1 f 
" Lombard v " may, how- 
ever, have considered the 
rear view of the chapel 
and apse, with the statu- 
ary in the court, to be of 
sufficient beauty to en- 
gross the entire attention, 
and wished to subdue the 
interest of the circling 
ambulatory to that of the 
apse. 

The campanile is un- 
fortunately placed in re- 
gard to its perspective 
relations with the chapel, 
as, indeed, most Italian 
campaniles are. The top 
story of the campanile is 
a misfit. 

The arrangement of 
driveway by which the 
hearse enters the enclosed 
court, thus shutting out 
the genera] public, shows 
refinement and good plan- 
nine;. Otherwise, it might 
seem better, so far as per- 
spective relations are con- 
cerned, to place t h e 
campanile and entrance 
to the incinerating pre- 
cincts in the circling ambulatory on the axis of the 
chapel; for although it is not absolutely necessary, prac- 
tically, that the chimney be in close connection with the 
incinerating process, vet the two are so closely connected 
in thought that they seem best closely connected in plan. 

The chapel is well placed in the rectangular ambula- 
tory, and has points of interest marked on its center 
axes, the lack of which is felt in the circling ambulatory. 

The plan of "Lombardy" is symmetrical, academic, 
classic in character, while the elevation is picturesque 
not only in the arrangement of accessories, but also in 
the character of the style of architecture. 

The chapel is similar in plan to. and might have the 
breadth of effect and dignity of, Santa Maria delle Gracie 
at Milan. 

The central octagon tower is not (nor are its historical 




SECOND PRIZE DESIGN. 

II. S. Head, Reading, Pa. 



predecessors) very well accounted for in plan, although 
its pendentives shoulder an appearance in elevation. 
The eight (8) monotonously identical faces of the octagon 
tower might be varied by a roof treatment similar to the 
tower of the cathedral at Salamanca, Spain. 

The treatment of the gable facade of the chapel is 
unfortunate, and the pilaster treatment unhappy, al- 
though the designer has 
felt the necessity of break- 
ing up this large flat wall 
surface and of relieving 
the heavy slope of the 
roof. 

The arrangement of 
the waiting rooms, trus- 
tees, etc., has been neatly 
tucked into the plan, al- 
though it is evident that 
the practical requirements 
of the plan have been 
made entirely secondary 
to its monumental char- 
acter. 

The variation in the 
usage of the similar rect- 
angles, om; on each side 
of the chapel, adds in- 
terest to the plan, but is 
not indicated in elevation. 
The small gables over 
the side entrances in front 
elevation are weak in 
interest. 

In general, the charac- 
ter of the design expresses 
the usage of the building, 

anil is of a monumental 
effect. The plan, un- 
doubtedly, is superior to 

the elevation in character. 
The design, marked 
•• Norseman," is just the 
opposite in character t<> 
•• Lombardy." It is a 
plain, matter - of- fact, 
cverv-day arrangement of 
the problem. It is as 
hard and angular as the rocky way which leads to its 
door. There is nothing here to relieve the grimness of 
death; in fact, its uncompromising character is accented. 
The design lacks grace and beauty; it lacks poetry 
and imagination. The designer has felt this and tried 
to alleviate it by choosing a picturesque point of view for 
his perspective. 

The chapel seems very long for its width, longer than 
the English cathedrals even. 

The space in the balcony would be inadequate for the 
columbarium, the monumental character of which does 
not seem to have appealed t<> " Norseman." 

The general scheme of "Omega" (12) is similar to 
•• Lombardy," but not so well worked out. It fails princi- 
pally because of a lack of life and feeling. The opportu- 
nity to gain richness of design and interest is lost by the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2.33 



tiresome repetition of the same motive. Added interest 
and depth of thought would be gained by varying the 
detail and parts of similar masses. This fault is seen not 
only in the corner pavilions, but also in the towers. 

It is not sufficient to get the general idea of a good 
scheme and then stop thinking, and repeat something 
without meaning over and over again. We must go 
farther; study how to vary the character of similar parts 
of the scheme, and try all 
promising arrangements of 
these parts. 

The position of the 
chapel in regard to the 
rectangular columbarium is 
not well arranged. They 
have no definite relation. 
The columbarium might 
come at one half or one 
quarter the length of the 
chapel just as well as where 
it is placed, and from the 
chapel the entrance to the 
columbarium is not well 
marked. 

If there were transepts 
on the chapel, the colum- 
barium might well be 
brought to them, a fixed 
place from which to start. 

The repetition of the 
two large towers shows 
lack of thought. Why are 
two large towers needed ? 
If we must have a tower on 
the facade, why not place 
it on the center axis of the 
chapel. The designer of 
"Omega" seems to have 
felt the insignificance of 
the chapel in elevation, 
and tried to compensate 
for it by repeating the 
massive tower, and having 
enlarged the rectangular 
columbarium too far, the 
design seemed scattered ; 
hence, must have two 
towers, a large mass, to 
compensate for the mis- 
take. 

"Omega" has been un- 
fortunate all the way 

through for having chosen a bird's-eye perspective; the 
paucity of the plan is all the more clearly revealed. The 
angle that the perspective makes with the edge of the 
paper is very awkward, and the gigantic pines and black- 
robed cypress trees do not suffice to fill out the awkward 
space. 

The levels of the different parts of the scheme are 
confused. The pharmacy and viewing rooms are badly 
placed in basement without sunlight. 

The administration offices are difficult of access. The 
keeper's rooms are well isolated. The designer has cor- 



rectly felt that they should not be placed in the chapel 

building nor near the incinerating process. 

The composition by " Bona Fide " lacks balance. The 

columbarium would not show from the opposite point of 

view. It is not sufficiently connected to the chapel. 

They do not seem to belong necessarily to the same 

composition ; either could apparently do without the 

other. 

By repeating a colum- 
barium, with variation of 
treatment, on the opposite 
side of the chapel and on 
the same axis, and con- 
necting the group closely, 
balance and unity would be 
gained. 

The masses are too tall 
in proportion to their width 
for the style of architec- 
ture. Classic architecture 
is a horizontal system, and 




THIRD PRIZE DESIGN. 

John Stafford White, St. Louis, Mo. 

the excessive height of the buildings in relation to their 
width makes the design uneasy. It lacks repose lor this 
reason. 

There is a struggle between the horizontal and ver- 
tical lines, and neither is supreme. 

If the chimney must be so strictly utilitarian and lack- 
ing in interest, why not suppress it entirely and use a 
forced draught? 

In plan, the wings are long for the central octagon; 
they straggle, and would interfere with the perspective 
of the dome. 



234 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

Fire-proofing, 




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MENTION. 
Willford A. Gagnon, Montreal, Can. 

The catafalque is not well placed in the midst of the 
seating, as there would be a tendency of those seated in 
front of it to turn about. 

The trustees' and reception rooms are well placed. 
The living rooms are too near the incinerating process, 
and would be better isolated. 



THE FIRE-PROOFING OF THE GOVERNMENT 
PRINTING OFFICE, AT WASHINGTON, I). C. 

ABOUT February i, there appeared in several of 
the technical journals an advertisment, soliciting 
proposals and designs for the construction of fire-proof 

floors and steel protection for the new Government 
Printing Office, at Washington, I). C., which afterwards 
developed into what was probably one of the most inter- 
esting competitions ever conducted in this country in 
relation to fire-proofing. 

The construction of the building (an idea as to the 
size of which may be formed from the fact that the floors 
alone cover an area of 400,000 sq. ft. after allowing for 
openings, etc.) was placed under the supervision of the 
engineer of the United States Army, with John Stephen 
Sewell, First Lieutenant, Corps of Engineers, in direct 
charge. 

The structural steel drawings were designed, showing 
scries of dee]) girders running transversely through the 
building at an average distance of 12 ft. on centers, 
between which were shown floor beams spaced about 
6 '_• ft. apart; but the specifications were such that the 
floor beams might be re-spaced to suit any particular 
construction, or they could be entirely omitted (with the 
exception of beams opposite columns), and a proposition 
submitted for a construction spanning from girder to 
girder, with the understanding that the price of all 
additional steel work, necessitated by any change from 
the drawings, was to be included in the submitted price 
for the floor construction. 

The specifications required in general a construction 
to support safely a 400-lb. per sq. ft. superimposed 
load, and to withstand a drop test of 500 lbs., in the 
form of a barrel of sand of the above weight, falling from 
a height of <s ft. in the clear, without showing any injury 
to the floor, and it was specifically stated that 110 con- 
crete, composed of cinders, would be accepted. This, as 
can be seen, necessitated a construction somewhat out of 
the ordinary; but, nevertheless, there were in all ten 
proposals submitted, comprising- both long and short 
spans in concrete and steel and terra-cotta construction. 

The specifications for the girder and column covering 
were also tar beyond the ordinary, since it was necessary 
in the case of the girders to attach electrical junction 
boxes, by means of bolts, to either the sides or bottoms 
of the covering; and since these boxes are liable to be 
moved any number of times, the covering would have to 
be of a nature to permit of drilling, until it was practi- 
cally honeycombed, without showing any defects; and as 
to the column covering, this was required to withstand 
the same drilling as above, in the same manner. The 
test prescribed for the girder covering was 400 lbs. per 
lineal ft., hung on expansion bolts. 

After all estimates and designs had been carefully 
examined by the engineer in charge, Lieut. John Stephen 
Sewell, it was announced that the proposition of the 
Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Company, Limi- 
ted, of Philadelphia, had been accepted, and that their 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 35 



proposition had been recommended for acceptance to the 
Chief of Engineers U. S. A., Gen. John M. Wilson, and 
had also been published in the Engineering Neivs. 




SKETCHES SHOWING FLOOR CONSTRUCTION AND MKTHol) OF 

FIRE-PROOFING GIRDERS AS DESIGNED KY 

THE U. S. GOVERNMENT. 

Because of objections raised by some of the com- 
petitors, it was announced that all designs and esti- 
mates would be rejected, and that the Government 
would make their own designs and re-advertise for 
proposals. 

In the second case, after going 
over the several designs submitted, 
which included all the prominent 
constructions, the chief engineer in 
charge designed a system of floor 
construction as well as steel protec- 
tion, which were composed almost 
wholly of terra-cotta. 

The specifications accompanying 
the designs of the Government stipu- 
lated that all materials must be of a 
highly porous nature, samples of 
which must accompany the proposals, 
and it was stated that special atten- 
tion would be paid to the character 
of the material and the degree of 
heat at which it was burned, it being 
the purpose of the Government to 
procure as highly a refractory mate- 
rial as was possible, within the 
means prescribed. 

After examining the proposals and samples sub- 
mitted, it was announced that the Fawcett Ventilated 
Fire-proof Building Company, Limited, were again the 
successful bidders, and they eventually received the 
contract for the work. 

We present, herewith, the designs submitted by the 
Fawcett Company, as well as those executed by the 
Government (which could not consistently use a patented 
construction), and upon which the second propositions 
were based. 

The brick and skew-backs forming the floor arches 
are made with a porosity of about 40 per cent, from a 
buff clay, which burns at a temperature of about 3000 
deg. Fahr., and when set form a floor which is as nearly 
proof against the passage of fire as it is possible to pro- 
duce; the fact of the brick being made porous not only 
reduces their weight very considerably, but imparts to 
them the faculty of resisting the passage of heat for a 
much longer period than if they had been made of dense 
material, and, as has been proven by tests, will resist the 




DESIGN FOR COLUMN COVKK1M 
BOTH CASES. 



combined action of fire and water without any apparent 
deterioration. 

The covering of the girders is made of the same 
material; the shoes covering the flanges are 2}4 ins. in 
thickness, and of the same porosity as the brick ; in 
addition, the sides and bottoms of said shoes are heavily 
grooved so as to allow the cement covering, which acts 
in conjunction with a mesh wire to form a key; after the 
shoes have been covered with the wire and the cement is 
set, they will permit of any number of holes being drilled 
in them (the material itself being very tough and 
fibrous), and will sustain a considerable weight with 
safety, the wire and cement securely holding the same 
together in the event of any tendency to spread or crack, 
which is hardly probable. 

The same points, generally speaking, pertain to the 
column covering also ; the brick, being of the same 
material and laid in 2^ -in. courses, and after being 
backed up with rich Portland cement and concrete, will 
constitute what is probably one of the best pieces of 
column protection yet attempted, will carry great weight 
of itself, and can be honeycombed 
without seriously imparing i t s 
strength. 

It will be seen from the two de- 
signs, shown herewith, that the con- 
struction of the column and girder 
covering is the same, and that the 
floor has been changed from the 
Fawcett (Patented) Construction to 
the one shown. 

We feel it may be stated safely 
that when completed the Government 
Printing Office, at Washington, D. C, 
will be one of the most securely fire- 
proof buildings of its class in the 
country; and further, it cannot be 
contradicted that a terra-cotta con- 
struction, properly designed to suit 
each particular ease, composed of clay 
made porous, which burns at not less 
than 2500 clegs. Fahr., has no supe- 
rior at the present time. 
The designs which were first recommended for accept- 
ance by the government engineer were prepared by 
Mr. M. I. O'Meara, of the Fawcett Company, and were 

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SKETCHES SHOWING FLOOR CONSTRUCTION AND METHOD OF 
FIRE-PROOFING GIRDERS AS SUBMITTED BY 

THE 1 \\\ CE 1 I COMPANY. 

closely followed by the Government when making its 
own designs for the work. 



136 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Selected Miscellany. 



NOTES FROM NEW YORK. 

Nothing disturbs business in this country so much as 
the turbulence and excitement just preceding our presi- 
dential elections, and we arc all glad that it is settled. 
Probably no class of men would have suffered more than 




ST. I'M LS ( III R( II, 1 HICAGO. H. I. SCH LACKS, ARCHITECT. 

General View looking from Communion Rail toward Organ Gallery. 

A feature o£ this part of the church is the "sounding board" splay 
arch over the organ. This arch is .il s. . in common brick and will be dec- 
orated in color. 

the architects, if the result had been different; for to my 
personal knowledge several large buildings, for which 
plans were prepared months ago, were not started until 
there was a surety of the continuance of present conditions. 

The architects of New York formed a conspicuous 
element of the great sound money parade. They were 
led by Mr. Bruce Price, who made a dignified and able 
general. 

A few weeks ago a terrific explosion shook the entire 
lower portion of New York. It was caused by a lire in 
the building of Tarrant & Co., a five-story warehouse 
designed some yearsagoby Mr. Henry Rutgers Marshall. 
A peculiar feature was that for ten minutes after the 
explosion pieces of wood and tin roofing (some sheets 
2 ft. sq.) came sailing down apparently from the clouds, 
and landed, in some cases, on buildings and in the 
street almost a mile away. 



An article recently published in an architectural 
magazine calls attention to a characteristic of New York 
domestic architecture, which is continually becoming 
more noticeable. It is becoming very common for the 
houses of well-to-do people, not merely on Fifth Avenue, 
but on the side streets, to be rebuilt according to an in- 
dividual and often meritorious design. This will have a 
pleasing result in gradually doing away with the monoto- 
nous rows of brown stone houses, and occasionally sand- 
wiching in here and there something upon which the eve 
can rest with a sense of relief. 



ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, CHICAGO. 

''T^IIE strangeT in Chicago or the resident who fancies 
JL that the southwestern part of the city is wholly 
given over to manufacturing will be astonished by the 
new St. Paul's Roman Catholic Church. "West 22c] Place 
and Hoyne Avenue, Henry J. Schlacks. architect. It is 
constructed exclusively of vitrified claw Even the win- 
dow frames are of this material. The decorative sculp- 
tures are white terra-COtta. The altars, communion rail, 
pulpit, and front of the organ loft are of terra-cotta. 
Window washes and water drips are of brick, specially 

designed. 

All the material is non-absorbent and. therefore, self- 
cleaning. The entire ceiling is of brick and tile vaulting. 
The keystones arc terra-cotta, the ribs of the arches and 
groins of molded brick. Not only is there not an inch of 
timber in the structure, there is not even a nail. 

The prevailing color is buff, exterior and interior, run- 
ning up t<> a lighter tone within and down, where re- 
quired by symphony, into a dee]) brown. 



SOCIETY A XD CLUB NEWS. 

At a meeting held Oct. 19, 1900, the Memphis 
Architectural Club was fully organized, and the follow- 
ing officers elected to serve the ensuing 1 vcar: Cvrus 




ST. PAUL 



View 1 if ribs of transept from top oi scaffold after centering had beer 
removed. Note the splay arch in back which forms triumphal arch of 
sanctuary. This arch has resting upon its haunches the two brick 
towers which Hank the sanctuary. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 37 




ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, CHICAGO, ILL. HENRY J. SCHLACKS, ARCHITECT 



2 3 8 



T H E BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
C. B. Keferstein, Architect. 

Johnson, president; W. J. Hanker, first vice-president; 
II. J. MacKenzie, second vice-president; M. H. Fur- 
bringer, secretary; Walk C. Jones, treasurer. 

The Annual Architectural Exhibition of the 'I" Square 
Club, of Philadelphia, will be held in the galleries of the 
Art Club, nt' Philadelphia, beginning Jan. 5, 1901 t<> lan- 
nary K). Entries must be received not later than Nov. 
21, 1900. Exhibits must be received not later than Dec. 
5, 1900. Jury of Selection meets Dee. 15, 1900. Press 
view, Saturday. Jan. 5. 1901. 1 to 6 p. M. Opening re- 
ception, Saturday, Jan. 5, 1901, 8 to 1 1 p. M. Public exhi- 
bition from Sunday, January 6, to Saturday, Jan. 19, 1901, 
inclusive, 10 \. m. to 6 p. m., s to 10 p. \i. Sundays, 10 
a. m. to (1 p. \i. Exhibition closed all day and evening 
January X, 12, and 14. Admission by ticket from any 




member of the T Square Clubor of the Art Club. Exhib- 
its discharged Monday, Jan. 21, 1901, when they will 
be returned to the owners, or will be forwarded to New 
York or Toronto (subject to selection by committees rep- 
resenting these exhibitions), as may be directed on the 
entry slip. 

The following-named gentlemen constitute the fury 
of Selection and Hanging Committee: Adin B. Lacev, 
Herbert C. Wise. Charles X. Klauder, William ('. Hays, 
John Galen Howard. New York; George Bispham Page, 
Gilbert P. Hindermeyer, Lawrence Visscher Boyd, Phila- 
delphia; J. Randolph Coolidge, Jr., Boston; and Cass 
Gilbert, New York and St. Paul. 

The Chicago Architectural Club has established an 
annual scholarship prize of $250. The fund so provided 
is to assist the winner in defraying the expenses of a 
European trip devoted to architectural study. 




oil) GATEWAY, CHARLESTON, S. C. 



m IUSE, « \SHIM. I ON, 11. C 
Harvey Page, Architect. 

The prize will be awarded annually to the winner of a 
series of monthly competitions. 

The subject of the competition for the current club 
vear will be the residence of an American minister in an 
important foreign city, and the problem will be sub- 
divided into five parts or stages, each constituting a 
monthly problem in design. 

The Thirty-fourth Annual Convention of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects will be held in Washington, 
I) C, Dec. 12, 13, 14, and 15, 1900. 

In addition to the reports of the standing and special 
committees, papers prepared by the following-named 
members will be read: W. L. B. Jenncy, C. Howard 
Walker, Edgar V. Seeler, IP K. Bush-Brown, Frederick 
Paw Olmsted, Jr., Walter Cook, R. Clipston Sturgis, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 39 



John Galen Howard, A. D. F. Hamlin, K. Honda, and 
Joseph C. Hornblower. The headquarters of the con- 
vention will be at the Arlington Hotel. 

At the monthly meeting of the Executive Board of 
the Architectural League of America, held November 6, 
the members of the committees on " Ethics and Competi- 
tion Code" and "Current Club Work" were appointed, 
thus completing the standing committees of the league. 

The members of the standing committees and the 
organizations to which they belong are as follows: 
"Ethics and Competition Code." The Architectural 




ST. MICHAELS CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
EDWIN H. DURANG, ARCHITECT. 

Faced with " Ironclay " fire flashed mottled brick, made by The 
Columbus Face Brick Company and supplied by O. W. Ketcham, Phila- 
delphia Agent. 

League of New York: Chairman, Walter T. Owen, 
Julius F. Harder, Percy Griffin. "Current Club Work.' 
The St. Louis Architectural Club: Chairman E. J. Rus- 
sell, E. G. Garden, W. B. Ittner. " Exhibition Circuit." 
The Cleveland Architectural Club: Chairman, Victor E. 
Rondel, Charles S. Schneider, Wilbur M. Hall. " Foreign 
Exhibit." The T Square Club of Philadelphia: Chair- 
man, Lawrence V. Boyd, Louis Calvert, Gilbert L. 




STABLES, BELLE ISLE PARK, DETROIT, MICH. 
MASON & RICE, ARCHITECTS. 

Roofed with Ludowici Roofing Tile. 

Hindermeyer. "Education." Chairman, John Watrous 
Case, Detroit Architectural Chili; Albert Kelsey, T 
Square Club, Philadelphia; Prof. J. M. White, The 
Architects' Club, Universitv of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 




ENTRANCE, Hoist. AT HAMILTON, MASS. 

" Publicity and Promotion." The Chicago Architectural 
Club: Chairman, Henry K. Ilolsman, William K. Fel- 
lows, Walter B. Griffin. 

The members of the special committee on " Municipal 
Improvement " are the following: Chairman, II. EC. Bush- 
Brown, Architectural League of New York; [oha M. 



II. Mil 





TERRA-COTTA ARCHES, ENTRANC1 01 POST-OFFICE 

\\ \SIII\OTON, |). C. 
Work executed by the Central Fire-proofing Company. 



240 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Carrere, Beaux Arts 

Society, New York ; 
F. \V. Striebinger, 
CI e vela nd , Ohio; 
Dwight H. Perkins, 
Chicago, 111. : Edgar 
V. Seeler, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; Charles M. 
Robinson, Rochester, 
X. V.: Mr. 11.. we, 
I! ci s t o 11, Mass. ; 
George Cary, Buf- 
falo, X. V.; Edwin 
Henri Oliver, New 
( Orleans, La. 

Mr. Victor E. 
Rondel, chairman of 
the committee <>n 
• • Exhibition C ir- 
cuit " reported that 
an exhibition circular 
had been sent to all 
the club who were to 
receive the circuit 
drawings, and that 
the dates of exhibi- 
tion had been sched- 
uled as folio w s : 
Philadelphia, J an - 
nary 5 - 21 ; Cleve- 
land, January 28 — 
February 9; New 
York, February 16 

March 9; Wash- 
ington, March 15 
21 ; Chicago, March 
28 — April 15; Qr- 
bana, April 20 27; 
St. Louis, May 6 20; 

Cincinnati, May 27 -June 7: Pittsburgh, June 
Toronto, June 15 — July 1. 




LORRAINE, FIFTH AVENUE AND 45'1'H STREET 
JEREM1 Ml O'ROURKE, ARCHI1 EC 1 . 

Built of cream white- bricks, mack' by Sayre & Fisher Company 



CHURCHES 
RANGEMENTS, 



NEW POOLS. 
AND CHAPELS; 
CONSTRUCTION, 



THEIR AR 
AX I) EQUIP 



Tli is work is 
much in line with 
the books on Build- 
ing Construction by 
the same author, 
and devotes a large 
amount of space to 
constructive fea- 
tures, although it 
does not neglect de- 
sign, but gives over 
fifty plates of plans, 
elevations, and per- 
spective views of 
m o dern churches, 
which have been 
erected by himself 
and other prominent 
church architects. 

F U RNITURE 
DESIGNING AND 
DRAUGHTING. 

By Alvan Crocker 
Nye, Ph. 15. Wm. T. 
Comstock, New 

York, X. Y. One 
octavo vol. Cloth, 
S J . 00. 

Any one who has 
made an attempt at 
furniture designing 
realizes how difficult 
it is to obtain the 

data necessary for 

beginning work, un- 
less there is a fur- 
niture shop close at 
hand. Many ques- 
tions of dimensions, the relation of the various parts to 
each other, as well as the limitations due to construc- 
tion, present themselves at once. To answer these re- 
quires considerable time and study. If the book that 
now appears under the title given above is at hand, how- 
much of this time may be saved. 

To the architect who occasionally must give some con- 



M-.W Vokk CITY. 




CARTOUCHE AND FESTOONS BY CLINTON a RUSSELL, 

ARC1II I F.c I S. 

Perth Atnboy Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

MEXT. — By F. E. Kidder. Wm. T. Comstock, New 
York. 1 vol., oblong; 8vo. Cloth. 83-00. 




DETAIL BY CLINTON ft RUSSELL, ARCHITECTS. 
New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

sideration to furniture, the tables of dimensions, if not 
the entire work, will be a great aid. In fact, this is a 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



241 






*F 




^ f^r/' 4 

m0^ 



» 



DETAIL BY J. E. R. CARPENTER, ARCHITECT. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

serviceable book for every one who has to do with draw- 
ings for furniture. 

THEATERS: their safety from kire and panic, 

THEIR COMFORT AND HEALTHFULNESS. — By William Paul 

Gerhard, C. E. Bates & Guild Company, Boston, Mass. 
Cloth, $1.00. 

The author takes up in detail the question of safety, 
and shows means by which present unsatisfactory condi- 




DETAIL. 

Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

tions may be remedied, and discusses the following 
topics: Means of escape; measures tending to prevent 
fire and for quickly detecting and signaling one which 
may occur - protection of the audience and stage person- 
nel from fire and smoke ; localizing and restricting fire; 
means for saving life, fighting fire, and guarding against 
panic. Under comfort and sanitation the following 
topics are treated in like manner: The unsanitary condi- 
tion of theaters; ventilation, heating, and lighting; floors, 
floor coverings, walls, ceilings, and furniture; dressing 



-'^~ 




rooms ; drainage, plumbing, and water supply; removal of 
refuse; cleaning, dusting, and sweeping; and periodical 

sanitary inspection. 



THE "Year Book" of the .School of Architecture of 
the University of Pennsylvania appeals to us in a 
most pleasant manner. There is no city in the country 



S il U^M ' ft^ 




PANEL KY J. T. W . JENNINGS, \l<< III II < 1. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, makers. 

that is any more keenly alive to the possibilities of archi- 
tecture as a fine art than Philadelphia; and the recent 
remarkable development in appreciative art which the 
city has experienced has been so closely allied with the 
growth of the School of Architecture in the University 
of Pennsylvania that the two can fairly claim a relation- 
ship. The illustrations in the " Annual " are made up of 
photographic reproductions of the work of the students, 
and show a very high grade of class work. We appreci- 
ate that the designs shown are undoubtedly picked from 




CAPITAL. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

the whole work of the college, but an architectural de- 
partment which can show such fine pickings speaks for 
itself. 



PANEL BY GEORGE B. ROGERS, ARCHITECT. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 



MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. 
The architectural faience for the interiors and ex- 
teriors of all the elevated stations in Boston is being 
furnished by the Grueby Faience Company. 

The Hartford Faience Company is at present en- 



2 4 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



gaged in turning out a number of large orders for their 
terra-vitrae tiles for wall work. 

Celadon Roofing Tile are being supplied by Charles 
Bacon, Boston agent, <>n the following new contracts in 
Boston: Trinity Church, Shepley, Rutan «.V- Coolidge, 
architects; chapel of Immaculate Conception, J. A. 




DETAIL BY BARNEY & CHAPMAN, VRCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

McGinty, architect; residence for Mrs. fohn L. Gardner, 

\V. T. Sears, architect. 

Sayre & Fisher Company's brick are being supplied by 
Charles Bacon, Boston agent, on the following new eon- 
tracts: Residence. Boston, J. T. k'cllev, architect; pump- 
ing station, Lincoln, Mass., and hank building, Boston, 
George F. Newton, architect: armory, Medford, Mass., 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects. 

Charles Bacon has been appointed Boston representa- 
tive of Sears, Humbert & Co., who are sole agents for 
the La Faree and Whitehall Portland cements. 





IHIIA & 


If r JIU 


• 



OLD i, A ! EM AY, ( II \ RLES rON, S. C. 

The First Universalist Church, of Buffalo, Green & 

Wicks, architects, which is illustrated in the Plate Form 
of this issue, is built of a light-colored I'ompcian brick 
laid up in Akron cement, manufactured by the Union 
Akron Cement Company, Buffalo. There is no oxide of 
iron Hi- manganese in this cement, and it will not color 
the whitest marble. It is also very Strong, and suitable 
for any class of stone, marble, or brickwork. 

The Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company report 
an unusually good business for this time of the year. 



Anion"; the con- 
tracts on which 
their brick will 
be furnished are: 
Lynchburg Na- 
tional H:ink 
Building, Lynch- 
burg, Va.. E. G. 
Fry, architect; 
Hoys' Industrial 
School, Lancas- 
ter, Ohio, Rich- 
ards, MeCarty & 
Bulford, archi- 
tect s ; office 




Mm in. MAIN CORNICE, 

S. Mil IS. \K( 111 I 1 i I . 



CROWN 
i.l o. 
Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

building, Detroit, Mich., Donaldson & Meier, architects; 
Pillsbury's Home for Girls, Minneapolis, Minn.. C. R. 
Aldrich, architect; hotel, Jackson, Ohio, Yost & Packard, 
architects: chapel, Parkersburg, W. Ya., H. R. Warne, 
architect; the Connecticut Mutual Insurance Building, 
Hartford, Conn. ; office building for Senator Clark at 
Butte, Mont. ; and a church at Norfolk, Ya. 

The Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, of 
Columbus, Ohio, has just issued a catalogue, which has 
artistic as well as practical merit that is sure to recom- 
mend it to the attention of architects and builders alike. 
Work by D. H. Burnham & Co., Henry Ives Cobb, Yost 
& Packard, R. H. Robertson. Jennev & Mundie, Long & 
Kees, Richards, MeCarty & Bulford, and several other 
well-known linns is illustrated, in addition to drawings 
of more than two hundred shape and ornamental bricks. 
Additional value is given the illustrations of buildings 
by a statement of the kind and color of the bricks used 
in each operation. Such publications as this are not 
mere advertisements: they are works of value because 
they contain reliable information which does not nat- 
urally find its way into other channels. 

The accompanying illustration shows a section of wall 
constructed of the new Roman shape, red-face brick 
that Messrs. Fiskc & Co.. Boston, are now placing upon 
the market. This brick is made by the " mud " or 
plastic process and is, we believe, the first Roman shape 
red brick, made in this manner, ever put upon sale. In 
texture it re- 
sembles some- 
what the " Har- 
vard " brick, 
h a v i n g a 
slightly rough 
appearance, 
producing i n 
the wall a soft, 
beautiful tone. 
We have re- 
ceived a num- 
ber of inquiries 
from architects 
from all sec- 
tions of the country for a brick of this nature, and we are 
pleased to announce that Messrs. Fiske & Co. have met 
the demand. Further information will be given by apply- 
ing to Fiske & Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 




THE BRICKBUILDER, 

DECEMBER, 
1900. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1S92. 

COPYRIGHT, iSo}. BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada #5.00 per year 

Single numbers .......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ....... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : — 

page 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Koofing Tile IV 



PAGE 
Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE habit of casting one's eye ahead and trying to 
measure the possibilities of the future is one which 
we should be sorry to alter. The perennial hope which 
makes us see the brightness of coming days makes life 
happier and longer. Certainly, every one interested in 
architecture and building can now look ahead with the 
utmost confidence, for it is many years since the prospect 
was on the whole so encouraging as it is to-day. In our 
editorial capacity we are neither Democrat nor Republi- 
can, and we, consequently, do not undertake to ascribe 
all the woes of the country to one part}- and all the pros- 
perity to another, but we do know, however, that the 
election is safely passed, the country is free to attend to 
business for a time at least, without the disturbance of 
politics, and we can hope for all sorts of good things in 
store from the generous hand of 1901. Reports from all 
over the country indicate a very substantial activity in 
all the building lines, nor is this activity of the kind 
which keeps people busy merely earning expenses. 
Never before, apparently, were there so many large 
opportunities and great expectations nearing realization. 
Architecturally, we believe the country is entering upon 
an era of great building enterprises, in which both the 
architect and the builder will have opportunities in extent 
and in quality sufficient to satisfy all our desires. 
People with means to invest are now more willing to 
spend money than they were a decade ago. The com- 
mercial value of mere beauty is more thoroughly appre- 



ciated, and the buildings which are now being erected or 
planned show how greatly the architectural possibilities 
of this country have developed since what might be 
termed their first awakening in 1876. And with all the 
prospects of work and money there comes a deeper, more 
self-respecting professional feeling among architects and 
builders, of which we have seen some indubitable mani- 
festation in the last convention of the American Institute 
of Architects. Life is real and earnest with the Ameri- 
can art of the present day, and the future has nothing 
but hope to show. We have passed the constructive 
stage, that is to say, we no longer need to be taught 
elemental lessons of construction, stability, or the proper 
use of mere material. We are even in a measure "row- 
ing out of the necessity for learning our fundamental 
lessons in composition and design, and equipped for 
practice and theory, for design and business manage- 
ment as never before, the coming year ought to wit- 
ness a most satisfactory and healthy manifestation of 
American architecture. 



THE address of Mr. Robert S. Peabody, as president, 
before the recent convention of the American 
Institute of Architects, is of a kind which ought to make 
every member of the organization feel proud to be in 
such good company. It strikes the right kind of note to 
bring- out the best feeling between the Institute as a 
whole and its members, and to show the truest and 
most helpful side of the profession. The address has 
been cpiite fully reported, but we cannot forbear a few 
quotations: "One of the greatest charms of our pro- 
fession is the joyous atmosphere of youth and buoyancy 
and hope in which we work. The art itself is young 
with us." "We are all looking forward and not back." 
"We work together in the full belief that even if the 
future of architecture does not lie with us, yet, at least, 
it is to have a great future here. Everywhere the pace 
set is that of youth, and the rapidity of our building 
operations makes our work so arduous and full of strain 
that the strong and vigorous only survive. There are no 
old architects among us. If an architect last at all, he 
lasts young." 

That a man who occupies the position Mr. Peabody 
does, with the large business interests constantly passing 
under his immediate direction, can express sentiments of 
this kind is the most eloquent testimony to the high 
standard which the best of our architects have set for 
themselves. 

r ~pHE BRICKBUILDER has, from time to time, in- 

1 Stituted among its readers competitions in design 
lor various small problems. These competitions have 



2 4 4 



T II E 15 KICK T, U I LI) E K 



been undertaken not merely to encourage our younger 
readers by offering stimulating prizes, but with a view of 
deliberately adding in the developing and extension of 
good architecture in materials in burnt clay. Our prob- 
lems have not been chosen at random, but have been 
such as we have felt eould be readily adapted to the mate- 
rials named. Appreciating, however, that the idea of 
a competition is not always attractive to a man in the 
busy course of his profession, we have asked a number 
of our leading architects to prepare contributions to our 
pages, showing their own ideas on some of the problems 
which were selected. The first series, " A Village 
Bank," anil the second series, "A Village Inn," both 
chosen for this year, are extremely practical, and are 
typical of a large class of structures, which ate springing 
up in astonishing numbers all over this country, and to 
which the architectural profession is yearly applying a 
larger measure of study and intelligent design. The 
past half century has been characterized by an enormous 
growth <>f our large cities and a corresponding develop- 
ment of the suburbs. It is precisely in these suburbs 
that we must look for the multiplying of such structures 
as these series are intended to eall out. We feel that 
tlie thought which these contributions will represent will 
go a longways towards making possible the realization 
of a straightforward, artistic treatment of those minor 
problems which ought to he so fascinating, but which, 
unfortunately, are but too frequently neerlected. 



••Till-: BRICKBUILDER" COMPETITION. VI. 

AX ENTRANCE To AX ART MUSEUM. 

PROGRAM. 

THE design is to provide for the entrance porch of a 
large metropolitan art museum, of the nature of 
the South Kensington Museum, London. The entrance 
will be in the center of a perfectly blank wall, permitting 
of an individual treatment without reference to the de- 
sign of the building as a whole. The entrance should be 

•>sed 10 ft., and should allow for four doors each 3 ft. 
wide, besides such transoms or side lights as are inci- 
dental to the character of the design. The entrance 
leads to the first tloor, which is supposed to be at an ele- 
vation of 8 ft. above the street, a flight of steps leading 
thereto projecting from the line of the building. Any 
treatment of columns, pilasters, or buttresses is to pro- 
ject from the building line. The height of the first story 
is to be 20 ft. in the clear. The design is to be such as 
is adapted to working out in burnt-clay products. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED: An elevation drawn to 
thescaleof '- in. to the foot, tOgetherwith a section taken 
at right angles to the front, and a sketch plan at a scale 
not exceeding 'h in. to the foot; these drawings to be in 
black ink, with no wash work, on one sheet measuring 
20 ins. wide by 12 ins. high. The drawing is to be signed 
by a iioiii f /( plume, or device, and accompanying the 
same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on 
the exterior, and containing the true name and address 
of the contestant. 

Drawings are to be delivered, flat, at the office of 
Tin-: Brii KBl ILDER, 85 Water Street. Boston, on or before 
Feb. 1, 1901. for the three designs placed first. Tin. 



Brickbuilder offers prizes of twenty-five, fifteen, and 
ten dollars, respectively. All premiated drawings are to 
become the property of The Brickbuilder, and the right 
is reserved to publish any and all drawings submitted. 

The competition will be judged by Mr. Edward Robin- 
son, Curator of Classical Antiquities, Museum of Pine 
Arts, Boston. 

THE SEVEN CHURCHES OF SAX STEFANO AT 
BOLOGNA. 

IX the Piazza della Mercanzia at Bologna is one of the 
most curious groups of brick buildings in north Italy. 
A collection of seven churches, or shrines, built at 
periods as far apart as the fourth and sixteenth centuries. 
crowding and overlapping one upon another, without 
striking towers or facades, it presents a most interesting 
and historical picture of the progress of brick construc- 
tion through the space of twelve centuries. 'I'he various 
buildings, which cover an area of only 250 ft. from east 
to west and 175 ft. from north to south, are grouped 
around a central court, or cloister, called the Corte or 
Atriode PilatO. This courtyard, shown in the illustration, 
is a good example of early brick construction, and is 
said to date from the eleventh century. The font in the 
center bears an inscription consecrating it to the Lom- 
bard kings Luitprand and Hildebrand, the former of 
whom died in 744. The walls of the church of S. Sepolcro, 
which closes the west end of the court, are decorated with 
a very successfully restored ornamentation of colored 
brick laid in patterns, and the cornices are interest! 
and simple. 

This church, or baptistery, of S. Sepolcro is a singular 
structure of the eleventh century, octagonal without and 
twelve-sided within, containing the tomb of St. Petronius. 
The roof is supported partly by large round piers and 
partly by slender columns, and the roof of the ambula- 
tory is alternately divided into square and triangular 
compartments. from the opposite or eastern end of the 
court opens the church of S. Trinita, the cast portion of 
which is the oldest part of the group, dating perhaps 
from the fourth century, when the temple of I sis gave 
way to the shrine of the new faith. South of the 
S. Trinita is an interesting cloister of two stories — that 
of the suppressed Celestine monastery. Adjoining the 
cloisters arc two more churches, Della Confessione and 
S. Giovanni, of the eleventh and sixteenth centuries, 
respectively, the first being below the genera] level and 
serving as a sort of crypt to the second. Then there is 
the present main church of S. Giovanni di Crocefisso with 
a curious circular brick pulpit upon its facade, and finally 
to the north there is the seventh church of SS. Pietro 
e Paolo, an ancient basilica of the eleventh century. 
Several times rebuilt and lately restored. 

'fhe entire group, huddled together, overlapping and 
projecting into one another, forms one of those curious 
vagaries of ecclesiastical architecture which are not un- 
common in Italy, and which, while having no real merit 
as an architectural composition, serves to present a strik- 
ing parallel of early detail in brickwork, which the student 
is likely to find fully as attractive as many of the larger 
monuments. It is a pleasure to know that the buildings 
are being carefully preserved and that a very skilful work 
of restoration is groin? on. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER 



HS 



The "Village Inn" Series. II. 

BY WILSON EYRE, JR. 

ALL the world over the "Village Inn" has been a 
source of pleasure and comfort to the traveler, 
and there is nothing that encourages travel so much, 
especially of the unconventional sort, as the number 
and quality of these inns. 

In this country there are a few old taverns, but most 
of them have run to seed, and a good meal can seldom be 
obtained, and never one al fresco. 

The impossibility of obtaining food in the open air in 
America is something which usually surprises foreigners. 
All of our summer hotels are equipped with miles of 
"piazzas" for sitting and promenading, but when the 
dinner bell rings, no 
m a 1 1 e r how sultry 
the weather, or how 
magnificent the 
view, the " inmates " 
of these caravansa- 
ries are driven into 
the dining room to 
feast their stomachs 
on the massive in- 
gredients of a Yankee 
"course dinner," 
their lungs on t h e 
vitiated atmosphere 
of the crowded room, 
and their eyes on ex- 
panses of plaster wall 
surface and gas fix- 
tures draped in fly 
muslin. W h y the 
eating of one's dinner 
in comfort in the free 
open air should be 
prohibited is another 
one of the mysteries 
which surround the 
life of the American 
people. 

Alt hot! gh o u r 
summers are long 
and the heat intense, 
s o m e arrangement 
for eating out-of- 
doors, as they do in 
the continental towns 
and villages, would 
be a nmch desired 
result. 

L e t one try to 
plan a summer day's 
trip into the country, 
and the difficulty of 
finding a comfortable 
place to spend the 
noonday siesta b e - 
comes appalling. In 
an American village 
inn, after having 




PLAN, A VILLAGE INN. 



eaten the dinner in the stuffy dining room, one lias the 
choice of a seat on the dusty and glaring veranda, or a 
haircloth "easy chair" in the dismal hotel parlor; and 
while the drowsy moments of the summer noontide pass 
by, one can let his thoughts revert to the little green 
garden of a French aziberge, with the grape-vine growing 
along the gallery, and the dainty ticja'tiicr spread in the 
shade of the terrasse. It is, perhaps, neither possible 
nor desirable that the continental inns should be exactly 
reproduced in America, nor would the writer claim 
that all foreign inns are the delightful havens pictured 
in the foregoing remarks. He has abundant recol- 
lections of hostelries that were the opposite in every 
way — taverns like that described by Dickens: "Never 
were such labyrinths of uncarpeted passages, such clus- 
ters of moldy, badly 
lighted rooms, such 
h u g e numbers of 
small dens for eating 
and sleeping in, be- 
neath any one roof 
as are collected to- 
gether between the 
f o u r walls of the 
' < ireat White Horse ' 
at Ipswich." T h e 
point he desires to 
m a k e is that in 
America the bulk of 
the village inns are 
deficient in beauty, 
comfort, and cuisine, 
— the three essen- 
tials of a satisfactory 
lodging-place. It is 
probable that the first 
and last of t h e s e 
qualifications will be 
found in most con- 
tinent al inns; the 
second cannot be so 
readily vouched for. 
That the art of dain- 
tily cooking and serv- 
ing food has not yet 
been highly devel- 
oped in our country 
is somet h i 11 g for 
which the architect 
may escape blame; 
t h c reformation of 
our public houses 
from an artistic point 
of view is an object 
to which lie may well 
devote his energies. 

i hi the rivers, on 
the pikes, there are 
endless opportunities 
lor such village inns 
in these days of bicy- 
cles, trolleys, auto- 
im ibiles, rowing, etc. 



246 



T HE BRICKBUILDER 



What delightful trips could be made if such conveniences 
were to be found at available distances, and how many 
people would take their holiday in this way, staying a few 
hours or days at each of these stopping-places either for 
the mere pleasure of traveling- or on a sketching, driving, 
rowing, or walking trip! There are small books pub- 
lished in New England giving a great number <>( 
pleasant excursions on the various trolley lines in that 
part of the country. How much the attraction of such 
trips would be added to if one could stop in pretty 
parts of the country, be picturesquely and comfortably 
lodged, be able to dine out-of-doors, spend a cool night 
and have attractive views from your bedroom windows, 
instead of being obliged to make for the nearest town 
without fail and there lodge at the traveling drummer's 
hotel, which is hot and uninteresting, probably facing a 
dusty street, with poor meals and poorer service, and the 
bar room in full view and the chief feature of the place; 
and speaking of this, the apartment dedicated to the 
American bar is another feature which in our ideal inn 
is to undergo a transformation. The twentieth-cen- 
tury tourist will be willing to exchange the delights of the 
garish room, equipped with its cuspidors and red-hot 
stoves, with its long bar supporting the elbows of a 
dozen village loafers, for such a tap room as the author 
of "Pickwick Papers" describes, where in the open 
grate burns "a substantial matter-of-fact roaring fire, 
composed of something short of a bushel of coals and wood 
enough to make half a dozen decent gooseberry bushes, 
piled half-way up the chimney, and roaring and crack- 
ling with a sound that of itself would have warmed the 
heart of any reasonable man." . . . "A charming 
prospect of the bar . . . with delightful rows of green 
bottles and gold labels, together with jars of pickles and 
preserves, and cheeses and cold hams, and rounds of 
beef arranged on shelves in the most tempting and deli- 
cious array." In this tap room of our fancy we can 
ensconce ourselves in front of the lire and linger in peace 
over our hot punch after a tingling sleigh-ride, while the 
drummers and yokels can look elsewhere for the " stand 
up" potations to which they are accustomed. 

As to the requirements of a village inn. it should 
first of all be unpretending; it should be low and ram- 
bling in character, for if it exceeds a certain limit of size, 
height, and accommodation it becomes a summer hotel. 

It should have the very best stabling accommodations 
and service, the use of the stable being one of the principal 
features of an inn; it should have an old-fashioned flower 
garden and a good-sized kitchen garden; if the grounds 
adjoin a river or bay there should be a boat landing. 

In my rendering of the problem I have placed the 
inn at a sufficient distance from the road to avoid the 
dust and traffic of the highway, and sufficiently near to 
this road to be plainly seen by passers-by. 

I have arranged three entrances, the central drive- 
way, over which is a swinging sign, leads directly to the 
main entrance of the house and turns in a fore-court. 

At the extreme right is the tradesmen's entrance, the 
drive leading to the kitchen department anil having a 
separate turn hidden by trees. 

The stable entrance is to the extreme left, and leads 
to the stable as well as the fore-court by a connecting 
driveway. The kitchen and stable drives should be- 



wailed or hedged, as it is not desirable to have this traffic- 
in full view. The plan of the house itself has a central 
hall, to the right of which are the tap rooms, the public 
and private dining rooms, and the billiard room, service 
rooms, kitchen, etc. To the left of office are parlor, li- 
brary, and writing rooms. 

A porch and an Open terrace looking south towards 
the river and opening from the dining room, as well as 
from other parts of the house, serve as a place for dining 
on summer evenings. A path leads from this terrace 
through the orchard to the garden gate: this garden is 
also entered from the library, the windows of which will 
be to the tloor. 

The second story, or bedroom Boor, will have a mod- 
erate number of bedrooms, not enough, again, to place it 
in the class of a summer hotel, and ample servants' 
accommodation over the kitchen wing. ( >ver the ground- 
floor porch there will be a second-floor porch for the use 
of the bedrooms. 

There is enough room on the grounds for games, such 
as tennis and even golf, although this could hardly be ex- 
pected at all stopping-places of this character, many of 
which would of necessity be much more limited in their 
surroundings; part of the basement could be used for a 
bowling alley and shuffle-board. 

The material I would use in the construction of this 
inn is brick and rough cast; any expensive material, it 
seems to me, should be avoided, and cut-stone, elaborate 
detail or carving should not be used. These inns should 
not, to my mind, be playthings, for under this guise 
they would soon pass out of existence, as fads invariably 
do. They should be started on a good working basis 
with no frills, places that all classes of people can use. 
with moderate prices but good service, and though they 
should be cheaply and simply built, they open a field for 
picturesque treatment, which is almost unlimited. 

As a matter of fact, the rotating wheel of time is fast 
bringing the American village inn into prominence once 
more. before the days of railways, the stage taverns 
were the centers oi the traveler's life, and many a quiet 
and grass-grown New England village, now inaccessible 
by steam train, was a center of activity in the '20's and 
'30's when the turnpikes were the nation's chief thor- 
oughfares. The steam railroads drained these villages of 
their traffic, and for two or three generations they slum- 
bered undisturbed, until with the advent of the bicycle, 
precursor of the trolley car and the automobile, the traffic 
of the city came out once more into the winding high- 
ways. Several inns of the one ideal class are now in ex- 
istence in the vicinity of Boston, the proprietors of some 
of them having utilized ancient and picturesque or his- 
toric houses, shaded by great elms, and endowed with 
graceful dignity given by a century of usefulness. The 
growing fondness of our people for out-of-door excur- 
sions, as well as the passion which American femininity 
possesses for trolley-car riding, is bound to increase the 
demand for houses of this class, both for winter and 
summer resort. An historic as well as naturally beauti- 
ful location is worth seeking in order to attract the very 
desirable class who feel an interest in the early history of 
our country, and who would visit the spot for this, if for 
no other reason, and who would be glad incidentally of a 
quaint and attractive lodging-place. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



247 




2 4 8 



T II E B RICK IU T I ID E R 



Hospital Construction from a Medical 
Standpoint. 

BY HENRI \l. HURD, M. D. 
Superintendent, The Johns Hoplrins Hospital, Ualltniore. 

THE pioneer era in hospital construction when build- 
ers were satisfied to secure a maximum of accom- 
modation for a minimum of expenditure has passed 
away. Stability of construction, convenience of arrange- 
ment, beauty of form, and a special adaptation of every 
portion of the hospital buildings to the best care of the 
sick are now considered essential for a good home for 
the modern hospital. The experience of the past quarter 
century renders it possible to make the following dog- 
matic assertions: — 

I. General hospitals should be built upon the pavilion 
plan to secure the best arrangement of buildings, a free 
exposure to sun and air, the best form for subsequent 
addition and development, and, in short, the most favor- 
able conditions for the evolution of the perfect hospital. 

II. The material used for construction, other things 
being equal, should be brick with stone or terra-cotta 

trimmings or ornaments, as offering less expensive con- 
struction, larger openings for sunlight and air, increased 
protection against fire, drier and, consequently, more 
hygienic apartments, better opportunities to secure walls 
with air-spaces and room for heating and ventilating 
lines, and a higher standard of general construction than 
is possible bv the use of any other material. 

III. Stone is the most expensive building material 
for a hospital, because to secure fireproof construction or 
flues for ventilation or heating, the interior must be 
lined with brick. Walls constructed of stone are nec- 
essarily thick, and openings for light and air are thus 
diminished in size. 

IV. Wood is wholly unfitted for the construction of 
a large hospital building or buildings, because such 
structures are frail, insecure, temporary, liable to de- 
struction by fire, prone to become a breeding place and a 
refuge for vermin, and a nidus for germs of disease. 
Such buildings cannot be kept in a sanitary condition 
without great labor; they are expensive to keep in re- 
pair, and are liable to constant damage and deterioration 
from daily wear and tear; and, above all, they are always 
certain to be destroyed by fire. 

V. Cage construction with steel and staff is unnec- 
essarily expensive, and does not offer any advantages 
corresponding with the increase in expense. 

Stone as a building material is undoubtedly capable of 
such handling as to furnish structures of higher forms 
of beauty, which may possibly be more fitting monuments 
to the memory of departed benefactors, but its expense 
renders it out of the question to build every part of a 
hospital of such high-priced material. Hence, whenever 
stone is used there is a tendency to build the exposed 
portions of a memorial chapel or of an administration 
building of stone, and to piece out less conspicuous por- 
tions with brick, as a cheaper and equally durable mate- 
rial. The remaining buildings are generally built of 



brick. From the standpoint of consistent, uniform, and 
appropriate construction, it is preferable to have all build- 
ings of the same material, as more pleasing and permitting 

upon the whole a higher standard of construction. Hence, 
a hospital built wholly of brick is preferable to one built 
partly of brick and partly of stone. 

The experience of the past quarter century has equally 
demonstrated that the hopes engendered bv the Civil War. 
that an era of cheap because temporary hospital construc- 
tion had been attained, could not be realized. It was 
found in reality that so-called temporary structures had 
a perennial life, and became permanent not because they 
were good and well-fitted for their uses, but from a mis- 
taken notion that when the time had come for their de- 
struction the}- were too good to throw away. They were 
too valuable to destroy, and too worthless to repair, and, 

like half-worn garments, they proved sources of embar- 
rassment to their occupants, and invariably became di- 
lapidated, insanitary, and unsightly. It is apparent that 
a hospital building will be permanent whether well-built 
or not, and it is consequently of prime importance that it 
should never, except in the ease of field hospitals or a 
cottage hospital, be constructed of wood. In some of 
the older hospitals, the mistake has often been made to 
patch up old and obsolete buildings, or to construct new 
and improved buildings, for the accommodation of a por- 
tion of a hospital, which in other portions may be un- 
sightly and ill-adapted to hospital uses. Wherever prac- 
ticable the plan of a hospital should be perfected in every 
detail before the work of construction is begun. Such a 
course will insure a proper balance of accommodation 
of all departments and an artistic treatment of details 
unattainable where buildings have been erected, one by 
one, in successive architectural eras to meet pressing 
necessities. 

Arrangement oj Buildings.— In a hospital built on the 
pavilion plan, the wards should not be above two stories 
in height, in addition to a good basement, and the ar- 
rangement in order should be as follows: i. A sur- 
gical building for men, designed to accommodate cases 
of acute and abdominal surgery upon the first floor, and 
less acute cases and infected cases upon the upper floor. 
2. A medical building for men, with beds for .acute and 
less acute cases upon the first and second floors, re- 
spectively. ,?. Two similar medical and surgical build- 
ings for women. 4. A building for obstetrical and 
gynaecological cases. 5. A building for patients of 
either sex who suffer from severe infectious and con- 
tagious diseases, or who are delirious or otherwise un- 
pleasant, or sources ot peril to their fellow-patients. 
(1. If the site of the hospital is an appropriate one. a 
detention building for the insane should also form part 
ol the general plan. 7. < >pcrating-room pavilions, con- 
taining all necessary rooms for surgical and gynaeco- 
logical operations. These should possess examination, 
preparation, and etherizing rooms, rooms for photog- 
raphy, for the sterilization of dressings, and operating 
rooms. Special provision for medical teaching should be 
made in connection with each operating-room block. At 
this age of the world, and in the present complexity of 
medical instruction, each general hospital in its construc- 
tion should bear in mind the needs of the medical stu- 
dent for medical and surgical instruction. .X. Outpatient 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



M9 



departments, arranged for at least ten divisions of service 
and five recitation or operating rooms for medical and 
surgical teaching. These latter rooms should be large 
and airy, and should be arranged with separate entrances 
for students. 9. A convalescent home, situated in the 
country in a desirable location for the reception of 
patients convalescing from serious surgical operations, or 
from exhausting and long-continued diseases. These 
buildings may be less expensive and more home-like 
structures than those of the hospital proper. 

Coming to the details of the hospital wards, it may be 
said that each ward should furnish beds and accessory 
room for at least thirty patients. The greater portion of 
this accommodation ought to be in a large ward so sepa- 
rated from other buildings as to furnish light and air 
upon three sides. The long axis of the ward should have 
one end toward the south unobstructed by any other build- 
ings. In addition to the long wards two smaller wards for 
acute diseases, accident cases, or delirious patients should 
be provided. The lavatory and water-closet should be in 
a projection of the building, if possible with an open-air 
cut-off between the latter and the ward, and the two 
rooms to avoid confusion should be entirely separate. 
The bath room should be adjacent to the lavatory. 
There should also be a slop room, containing sinks for 
emptying and washing utensils, a separate lavatory and 
water-closet for the use of nurses, a linen room and a store 
room for patients' articles. There should also be pro- 
vided a small room in the male wards to be used as a 
coat room and dressing room by the orderlies or male 
servants. Each ward should be provided with a dining 
room for convalescents, and a tea-kitchen adjoining for 
the preparation of food and for emergency cooking. In 
addition there should be provided a room for a perma- 
nent bath, and a room for clinical and microscopical 
work in the medical wards, or for surgical dressings in a 
surgical ward. 

Healing and Ventilation. — The heating should be 
with indirect hot-water radiators, or with indirect low 
steam, and never with direct steam. Heating, in fact, 
should never be possible without ventilation, efficient 
ventilation not being practicable with direct steam. The 
heating apparatus should be in the basement, and the 
currents of air should be conveyed from the coils through 
flues in the walls, lined with galvanized iron to render 
them as frictionless as possible. These flues, if the walls 
are thick enough to permit it, should be round, but if this 
is not practicable, the flues may be square or oblong. It 
makes little difference whether they are 8 by 8 ins. or 4 by 
16 ins., provided they are properly situated and connect 
the heating coils directly with the room they are designed 
to heat. The apparatus for ventilation should be so ar- 
ranged that it will be made effective by thermic currents, 
and not dependent upon mechanical means. Hence, the 
ventilating flues should by preference terminate in aspi- 
rating chimneys heated by steam coils, and the foul air 
should thus be aspirated from the rooms. Mechanical 
devices for ventilation by means of fans and blowers are 
in need of constant attention, and thus become a source 
of expense. for these reasons, they should be avoided 
as far as possible. Mechanical ventilation, however, is 
required in kitchens, laundries, autopsy rooms, and oper- 
ating rooms, where the heated or impure air cannot be 



removed quickly enough by natural atmospheric forces. 
In some instances hospitals, under special atmospheric or 
climatic conditions, require to be heated and ventilated by 
blower fans, which distribute the warmed air from a heat- 
ing chamber in the basement. This has the objection of 
much loss of heat from friction against the sides of the 
flues in the long distances which the heated air must 
traverse before reaching the more distant wards. There 
is also danger of an inequality of heating between the 
nearer and more distant apartments. In climates, how- 
ever, where in the winter the prevailing winds produce 
much back pressure, this method of forcing heated air 
into wards, although expensive, works well. Two open 
fireplaces should be built in each long ward, and one at 
least should be given to each small ward or single room. 
These add cheerfulness to the ward, and are a source of 
comfort in mild weather before more elaborate means of 
heating are required, or in severe winter weather to 
supplement ordinary methods of heating. As far as is 
consistent with the hygienic condition of the hospital 
wards, such fireplaces should be attractive, if not highly 
ornamental. They may also be planned to supplement 
the system of ventilation. In rooms occupied by patients 
su tiering from offensive or infectious diseases, they are 
found a great assistance to ventilation. The air which 
has been warmed by hot-water coils or low steam should 
be introduced into the wards at the height of 6 ft. from 
the floor by means of flues in the outer walls. Openings 
for the aspiration of foul air, on the other hand, should 
be in the floor or in interior walls, with supplementary 
openings in the ceiling or at the level of the ceiling. By 
this arrangement a constant supply of fresh air may be 
obtained, and a positive interchange of